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Including an account of the Cities, Towns and 
Villages of the County 




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After more than half a century of growth since its organization 
as a county, it seemed fitting that an historical account of its set- 
tlement, development, its people and institutions should l)e made 
at this time and preserved ; its primary importance is the placing 
in book form and for all time the earlier historical incidents sur- 
rounding the settlements of the various towns, cities and villages, 
and that the time was almost too late and the work too long neg- 
lected became very apparent to the editors when the search for 
material began, for with the passing of the early settlers, com- 
paratively few of them still live in different parts of the county, 
have gone forever the opportunity to get early facts in some 

To properly and adetiuately Avrite the History of ]\Louroe 
County has been a task encompassed with tremendous difficulties ; 
it has been accomplished after laborious research and the co-opera- 
tion of many of its oldest citizens, whose aid the editors acknowledge 
most gratefully, for without it some parts of this work would have 
been impossible. 

Despite its difficulties its preparation has been fraught with 
mucli interest, which grew as the work progressed; INEonroe 
County from its humble beginning having been, through the 
untiring energy and perseverance of its pioneers, brought to be 
one of the finest counties in the State of AVisconsin, holds indeed 
a wonderful story of progress ; its two cities, built to stay, whose 
schools, churches and institutions are equal to any in the state, 
whose people are progressive and possess a fine sense of civic 
pride are alone w^orthy of the efforts of the historian ; in addition 
to that its beautiful little villages, its rich agricultural resources 
and dairying interests place it in the front rank in many respects. 

In preparing the account of the Indian tribes the editor wishes 
to acknowledge the valuable material secured from Lawson's 
'* History of Winnebago County"; the uniform courtesy and help- 
fulness of the various newspaper editors of the county has been 
of immense value. 

In gathering the great mass of material necessary for this 



4 liJSTUliV (}[• MONKOK (01 XTY 

important work the editors have liad to jii-range, sort out and 
select such as was of historical interest wliicli couhl be regarded 
as correct; tluit there are omissions ou some subjects, there 
can l)e no doubt l)ut the instances of this arc almost Avholly 
brought about by tlie neglect of parties called upon, and in whose 
possession facts alone were, have caused such omissions, l)ut the 
editors believe that nothing of important historical value has been 
left out and have endeavored to cover every representative sul)- 
ject and the stoi-y of every interest has Iteen related impartially. 

1912. Editor-in-Chief. 


All the biographical sketches published in this history were 
submitted to their respective subjects, or to the subscribers from 
whom the facts were primarily obtained, for their approval or 
correction before going to press, and a reasonable time was al- 
lowed in each case for the return of the typewritten copies. 
Most of them were returned to us within the time allotted, or 
before the work was printed, after being corrected or revised, 
and these therefore may be regarded as reasonably accurate. 

A few, however, were not returned to us, and, as we have no 
means of knowing whether they contain errors or not, we cannot 
vouch for their accuracy. In justice to oiTr readers, and to render 
this work valuable for reference purposes, we have indicated 
these uncorrected sketches by a small asterisk (*) placed imme- 
diately after the name of the subject. 







































The Menomonee Tribe 9 

The Winnebago Tribe 12 

The Winnebago Chiefs 33 

The Black Hawk AVar 45 

Early Settlement 63 

Making a County 66 

The Legend of Castle Rock 79 

Railroads 82 

West Wisconsin Railroad 87 

Monroe County Newspapers 91 

]\Ionroe County in the Civil War 99 

Enlisted Men in Rebellion 116 

Commissioned Officers 132 

Died in the Service 139 

Henry W. Cressy Post, G. A. R 147 

John W. Lynn Post, G. A. R 162 

The Soldiers' Monument 171 

Government Military Reservation 175 

Circuit Judges 188 

Agriculture and Dairying 204 

Apple Industry 209 

The County Seat AVar 214 

The Country Schools 227 

The Insane Asylum and Poor Farm 240 

The City of Sparta 244 

Sparta Schools 287 

Banks of Sparta 301 

Lodges and Societies of Sparta 306 

Sparta Free Library 312 

Sparta Fair Association 316 

Manufactures and Business Enterprises of Sparta 319 

Churches of Sparta 325 

Tomah, Menomonee Chief 333 

City of Tomah 339 

Tomah Schools 363 











XLI [I. 






, XLIX. 









Churches and Lodges, Tomah 372 

Helping Hand Society, Tomah 377 

Toniah Library 379 

Civic Improvement Chib, Tomah 381 

^lanufactnring Interests, Tomah 386 

Banks of Tomah 389 

Tomah Indian School 392 

State Public School 395 

Villages 398 

Berry Culture 411 

The Spanish- American War 414 

The Military Companies 429 

The Legal Profession 440 

The County Court 473 

The Medical Fraternity 482 

Township History 503 

Women's Christian Temperance Union 539 

German Lutheran Churches 543 

Norwegian Churches 579 

Biography 582 

History of Monroe County 



Perhaps not as closely identified with the earlier days in this 
section of the state as the AVinnebago Indians, still the Menomi- 
nee tribe played its part in the history of the territory in which 
Monroe county is situated, especially as members of the tribe 
in large numbers crossed the state from the eastern side fre- 
quently to trade and from this tribe came the noted chief, Tomah, 
whose name the city of Tomah now bears. 

The "Winnebago and Fox tribes were the first Indian nations 
in this section of the country and as they gradually withdrew 
before the advance of civilization, the Menominee tribe followed 
them; by the treaty of 1836 this tribe came to the territory 
around Neenah and occupied Winnebago county for a long 
number of years. They were there when the first settlers came 
and left numerous traces of their occupancy in that county; 
they were of great assistance to Marquette, the explorer on his 
visit to the AVestern Territory and were not as warlike a tribe 
as the AVinnebago, but were said to have been good-natured but 
selfish and avaricious ; although they did not steal or lie and the 
men made brave warriors. 

Their Avar parties traveled far and aided the French in the 
battle of Detroit against the Fox and other tribes, they assisted 
in the ambush in Monongahela. They were with Langlade 
fighting under the banner of the French, when IMontealm fell on 
the plains of Abraham; they fought under Burgoyne at his 
invasion from the North and at Bennington, so that their exploits 
for a long series of years had made them a tribe to be reckoned 
with. After the A^^ar of 1812 the Americans maintained an Army 
Post at Prairie du Chien where the Menominees often camped 
and frequently wintered in the Mississippi valley. The first 



missionary ainoiif; them was a Frenchman ])y the name of Allouez 
in 1«)<;!> and since that time they liave been under the teachings 
of many good priests, among whom liave been Andre and Mar- 
<|iictte, and they now liave their churches, schools and missions 
at Keshena. but to them cling some of their weird songs and 
customs and they still propitiate the Manitou of the red man with 
offerings of tobacco and jn-esents and make provision for the 
journey of the dead to the "IIapj)y Hunting Ground.'" 

In 1848 the Menominee tribe had to cede all their lands in 
AVisconsin ;ii llic treaty of Poygan and they were removed to 
Minnesota, but the district assigned them, not being found suit- 
able to their wants, they were, with the consent of the AViseonsin 
Legislature, allowed to remain in this state. 

In 1H')2 they were removed to their reservation on the Wolfe 
river, nine miles north of Shawano, containing 27f),480 acres of 
timber lands. This removal caused them much distress and the 
next year, Oshkosh, the renowned chief of this tribe, represented 
to the Government that his tribe had never been so poor and 
destitute of provisions. 

Perhaps the most celebrated of the chiefs was ''Old King," 
who died in ]821 at tlie age of 100 years. This old fellow had a 
varied career. His village was situated north of Green Bay and 
he resisted all attempts of the Government to move him west of 
the Mis.sissippi. and in 1852 led most of the tribe up the AVolfe 
river to their present reservation within a few miles of their 
ancient home. His grandson was Chief Oshkosh, after Avhom 
the city of Oshkosh was named. The Americans had a small 
garrison in the old fort at Mackinac Island at the outbreak of 
the AVar of 1812. Col. Kobert Dixon organized a band of 
AVi.sconsin Indians, including the ^Nlenominees under their then 
chief, Tomah: with Oshkosh in the party they proceeded by 
boats and canoes fi-om Green Bay and there captured the 
stockade without any loss on either side. During the war the 
Americans could not rei) the fort. Colonel Dixon with the 
Fox river Indians, including the Menominee tribe under Tomah, 
defended the f(.rt in a hard luittle with the Americans to capture 
the stronghold in 1814. 

Major Holmes was kiih-d an<l a chief named AVee-kah, of the 
Ar.Miominec tribe was killed neai- the same spot. In 1813 
Oshkosh went on the warpath with Tecumseh against Fort Meigs 
and later under Proctor and Dixon attacked Fort Sandusky; this 
chief was no doid)t with the .Menominee war parties which fre- 
quently went out against the Chippewa Indians in the northern 


aiul western portions of the State. He died at Kesliema Aug'ust 
20, 1858, and a few days before his death liis picture was painted 
hy the artist Brooks, and it now han<>s in the room of tlie his- 
torical society at ^Madison. Succeeding Chief Oshkosh came 
Neopope Oshkosh and Old Carron, the latter being said to be a 
son of a French trader ; he was a fierce old warrior and served 
in" all of the French wai's and was with Montcalm on the plains 
of Abraham. Then came Glade or Connote, the son of Old 
Carron ; he was said to be an orator and a fine speaker who 
made sensible remarks and to the point. 

Tomah was the most noted son of Old Carron, born in 1752 
in Old King's Village opposite Green Bay; his life and character 
are given in a subsequent chapter in this work and will not be 
extended here. lometah, the main war chief, was a brother of 
Tomah and a son of Old Carron, was born in 1772. He was an 
honest, quiet Indian who died at Kenosha in 1861. These are 
the names of some of the old chiefs of the tribe and it would, 
indeed, be an extensive chapter to attempt to follow out the 
succession down to the present time. It is sufficient to say that 
this tribe has followed the usual course of Indian tribes, degener- 
ated somewhat from the tine physique of the earlier Indians and 
cursed Avith the usual appetite of the Indians for the "fire- 
water," as they term it. Some of the children have been sent 
to the schools at Carlyle, Pennsylvania, made good progress and 
the average number of them became good citizens; gradually 
the tribe is undergoing that change which will bring them from 
their partial state of ignorance into that of education and 



Closely connected with llic events surrounding the earliest 
settlement of westeiii Wisconsin is tlie history of the AViniiebago 
and ^lenoininee tribes, who roamed all this section of the country 
as early as 1632. Archeologists have concluded that the Winne- 
liago was the first tri])e of Indians wlio came to AVisconsin, as 
they made their lirst home on Doty island, and were there visited 
by Nicolet, the first white man to come to Wisconsin, and this 
war-loving tribe of savages Avere so prominent in pioneer days 
they became the most important tribe in the state. Recent 
investigations have led many students of Indian history to sup- 
pose that the AVinnebago were builders of the mounds. They 
have been phonetically assigned to the Siouan family of Indians. 
a family Avhich oi-iginated on the Atlantic coast. 

The Siouan tril)es occupied a vast region. TO.OOd s(|uare miles 
in extent, along the eastern foothills of the southern Alleghanies, 
from the Potomac on the north to the Santee river on the south, 
including all central Virginia, oi- one -hall' Ihe area of the state, 
and two-thirds of North Carolina, and all the iiorlheastern jx)!'- 
tion of South Carolina, with an Atlantic coast line of 200 miles 
in the Carolinas. The Carawba and other cognate tribes of the 
Siouan stock related by archeologists through a study of scraps 
of tlicir language occupied parts of these regions down to a very 
late dale. This region is regarded as the "original honu^ of the 
Siouan race.'" That the nngi-ation of the tribes of the plains 
was from the East is evident fi-om "the older dialetic forms to 
be met with in the lOast. aiul llic concuri'ciil tcslimony of tlu' 
Siouan liihcs 1 iH-iusclves. " The language of the East was older 
in its forms tluin llir cognate dialects of the AVcst. The move- 
ment was doubt less by ti-ibcs and slow, constantly fighting their 
way along the pathway to their futui-e honu\ After crossing the 
mountains they passed down the New and Big Sandy rivers to 
the Ohio, down which they slowly ]iasse(l. I'emaining a long tinn^ 



at the falls of the Ohio, now Louisville. As early as 1701, Gravier 
said, the Ohio was known to the Illinois and ]\Iiaini as the ''river 
of tlie Arkansa."' The name of the tribe is now Kansa or 
Quapaw of the AVinnebago branch of the Siouan stock, living 
then on the lower Arkansas river. Traditions of tli(> Osage, 
]\Iandan and almost all the tribes confirm this. Two of the 
plains tribes, the Kansa, cherish sacred shells which they assert 
were brought with them "from the great river of the sunrise.'' 
It is possible that the Winnebagos also brought the sea shells 
with them. They have been found in large numbers in Wiscon- 
sin. ]\Ir. Clarence Olen, of Oshkosh, has several picked up in 
Winnebago County. When the migration took place is not known. 
Doubtless it was of gradual progress during several centuries. 
When De Soto looked over the broad Mississippi from the Chaska 
mounds at ^Memphis in 1541 he found these "Capaha," or Kwapa, 
the southern branch of the AVinnebago, already established on the 
western bank, though still a considerable distance north of their 
later location "down the river," the converse of Omaha, which 
means "up the river." In their slow march towards the setting 
sun the Kwapa prol)ably brought up the rear, as their name 
lingered longest in the traditions of the Ohio tribes, and they 
were still near that stream when encountered by DeSoto. 

The principle reason of this movement from Virginia was the 
presence, both North and South of powerful and hostile tribes 
leaving them only one way of retreat across the mountains. As 
late as 1728, as mentioned by Byrd, the Iroquois had "an implac- 
able hatred'' for "the Siouan tribes of the Soutli," who still 
clung to their ancestral domain. From the mouth of the Ohio 
the Winnebago worked their w^ay up the Mississippi. As they 
are first known from Champlain's map (1632) as located on Lake 
Winnebago it is supposed they made the journey by the Wiscon- 
sin river to the Portage into the Fox river, where they descended 
to the spot on the Doty island, under wide branching oaks and 
elms, which they occupied so many years. There is evidence in 
their traditional wars with the Illinois, the Alenominees, the 
Potawatomi, Sauk and Foxes, that the maintenances of this 
Siouan wedge in the beautiful region of lake, forest and prairie, 
occupied very soon for hundreds of miles in all directions by 
Algoncjuin tribes, was attended by constant and bloody warfare. 

The oldest map of the region, now known as Lake Winnebago 
and the Fox river, is Champlain's map of 1632, on which he 
names the "Nation des Puans'' on a lake named "Lac des 
Puans, " which discharges itself through a long river to Lake 

U IlISToin' OF :\I()XKOK (OrXTY 

Superior. 'J'luit tlu' ma[) \v;is intended to rv'present Lake AVinne- 
l)ago and the Fox rivci- is now aceepted and seems tiie correct 
interpretation from th<' laltcr known habitat of ihc Winnebago. 
Tlie map is said to !)«' made up from information furnished by 
AVestcrn Indians visiting; <^u<'b('c. h fuiiiislies the evidence that 
both Lake Wimicbago and Ihc Fox river were the earliest names 
of all the i)hysi('al ol)jeets in Wisconsin, and the lake has ever 
since retained the name «riven it by ('hamj)lain. two years before 
any white man had been within several hundred miles of the 

]t was two years after the date of this map that Nicolet 
visited "Wisconsin in 1()34, ''delegated to make a journey to the 
nation called 'Gens de mer, ' People of the Sea. and arranged 
peace between them and the Hurons, from Avhom they are distant 
about three hundred leagues westward.'' The account of 
Nicolet 's journey was not published until 1()43. nearly ten years 
after his visit, and then only mentioned as an incident in Avestern 
travel, giving sucli vague description of places and topograpliy 
that it Avas not until over two hundred years afterward that 
John G. Shea discovered, in 1(S.')2. that "Gens de mer." the 
People of the Sea. referred 1o the Winnebago, and lhat Nicolet 
visited Wisconsin; and the year (1634) of his coming Avas not 
settled until ]87*). In 1()43 Jean Boisoeau's map Avas published, 
in Avhich he folloAved the main topography features of Cham- 
])lain"s nui{). ])lacing "La Nation des Puans" on "La des Puans" 
and named the river from Avhieh it discharged "H des Puans.'' 

C'hai-levoix, Avho visited tlie tribe in 1720. names them "tlie 
Otchagras, Avho are commonly called Puans.'' Father Hennepin 
in his map 1()97 has this same name spelled Ocitigan placed 
against Lake AVinnebago. The name by wliicli ihe AVinnebago 
are best known 1o all the old French Avi-iters is "Puans" or 
"Puants." This is said 1o liave been an en-oneous retranslation 
by the Fi-eiich of the AlgoiKjuin name for the tiibe. Avhich Avas 
Ovenibigoutz. It is from the English spelling, and the French 
Oui being ])ronounced as "Ave."' and the free pronunciation of 
the Algoufpiin name, handed doAvn in the .lesuit Kelations, that 
the modei-n name is derived; and the Bureau of American 
Ethnology have determined that the plural of AVinnebago shall 
be the same as the singular. 

Alost Avriters have amused themselves by giving the reason 
Avliy tlie AVinnebago Avere. called Puans. The French Avord for 
Ouenibigoutz of their Indian neighboi-s, the meaning of Avhich 
Avas feted or putrid or foul-smelling as variously given. It has 


been noticed that as early as 1632 and 1613 tlie ti'il)c and Lake 
AVinnebago, where they lived, and the Fox river had all been 
named Puans. No one knows why their neighbors gave them 
this name. As long as 1720 Charlevoix had said they were called 
"Puans, for what reason I do not know." Yet he did try an 
explanation: "They seated themselves on the border of a kind 
of lake (Winnebago), and I judge it was there that living on fish 
which they got in the lake in great plenty they were given the 
name of Puans, beqause all along the shore where their cabins 
were built one saw nothing but stinking fish, Avhich infected the 
air. It appears at least that this is the origin of the name which 
the other savages had given them before us, and which has com- 
municated itself to the Bay." John G. Shea says their name 
Ouenibigoutz given them by the Algonquins, means "feted," 
therefore the French translated it by the "Puants. " 

The name of Puans was frequently more roughly translated 
"stinkards," as used by Augustin Grignon as late as 1857. In 
1816 Mr. Biddle mentions, "the Winnebago, a bold and warlike 
tribe, who lived at Lake Au Paimt or Stinking Lake, now Lake 
AVinnebago"; and the eccentric student of English, Radisson, 
wrote of them in 1659, as at "the great lake of the Stinkings"; 
while Allouez, before his visit to them, mentions their lake of 
"the Stinkards" in 1666, so that this "ill smelling" name has 
clung to the tribe through all the centuries down to the present 

The explanation of their name is simple when relieved from 
the numerous explanations that have been given, for the most 
l)art erroneous. Dr. Dorsey, a student of the Siouan language, 
says the Siouan root Changa or Hanga signified first, foremost, 
original, ancestral. Thus the W^innebago call themselves 
Hochanga-ra, "the people speaking the original language." 
The student of dialect can easily trace in the various spelling 
quoted above the attempt to reduce the gutteral sounds of the 
AVinnebago name to a written language, though their explana- 
tion and definitions have often gone far afield. Their name as 
known to the whites, however, is not so easy to understand. The 
migrating Algonquin tribes despised the AVinnebago, as they 
were of a different stock, speaking a different language, and tried 
at once to drive them out ; but these savages were no match for 
the Winnebago, who had the power by numbers or prowess to 
maintain their place in their new home. If the name by which 
they were called by these Algonquin neighbors, Ouenibigoutz. 
liad been translated at Quebec when first heard by the French, 


as iiU'aii. base or vik' in ])lac(' of riiaiis. il would Jiave more 
correctly expressed as intended the extreme disfavor of their 
neighbors, .nid ihis is the rational explanation of the name which 
has come down to us as AVinnebago. 

Perrol. as rclatetl hy La Polhcric as Ihe eai-liest traditions 
of the tribe, gives the circumstances of their fall as their dis- 
regard of others' i-ights. lie says the nation was poj)ulous, very 
I'cdoubtable. s|)ared no one and \iolated all the laws of nature, 
as they wei-c Sodomites, and c\<-\\ had intercourse Avith heasts. 
If any stranger came among tiiem he was cooked in their kettles. 
They declared war on all the other nations, though they had 
only stone hatchets and knives. When the Ottawa sent envoys 
to Ihi'iii Ihey \V('re eaten; and then the n;itions formed an alliance 
against them, which occasioned ciNil war among themselves. 
They finally united all their forces in one village of five thousand 
men; but an epidemic occurred which reduced them to one thou- 
sand five Inmdred. "Despite all these misfortunes they sent a 
party of five hundred wai-i-iors against the Foxes, Avho dwelt on 
the other shorc^ of the lake, but they perished in a tempest." It 
is supposed this was on Litlle i^ake Butte des Morts. as it had 
been stated the Puans resided on an island whidi it is supposed 
was Doty island, where they had lived from the earliest times; 
and the Fox tribes resided on the op])osite side of tiie lake from 
very early lime. Ixeduced to despair and famine the other nations 
took pity on tlieiii. ceased to make war, and the Illinois sent five 
hundred men. including "fifty of the most prominent persons in 
their nation." to carry them a su]iply of pi-ovisions. "Those 
man eaters i-ecei\('d them with the utmost gratitude."" but at 
the same time meditated sacriticing the Illinois to the shades of 
their dead. A large cabin was erected to lodgi' their guests, but 
while the Illinois Avere dancing their lutw sti-ings were cut and 
the "Winnebago "threw themselves on the Illinois and massacred 
them, not sparing one man, and made a general feast of their 
llesh."" In a few years the Illinois assembled a large army, com- 
posed of all the nations, and came to avenge their dead. 
"Having reached the island (Doly island) over the iee they 
found oidy cabins — the AVinnebago had gone to their hunt — 
traveling in a body — that they might not be surprised by the 
Illinois." The hostile army followed the hunters in the dead 
of winter, coming up to them on the sixth day. and laid siege to 
theii- camp. "So vigorous was tlieii- attack that they killed. 
wounded or made i)risoners all the Puans except a few who 
escaped, and who reached the Menominee village, but severely 


wounded by arrows. ' ' He again refers to these traditional events 
as those of "the ancestors" of the tribe as he knew them, and 
which refers to "ancestors of" the Puans of possibly 1660. 
There is no record to say how many years before, though it 
is doubtless several score, for fifty years before La Potherie was 
published Rev. Jean Claude Allouez had told this same story 
of the massacre of the AYinnebago by the Illinois as "about 
thirty years ago, ' ' which would be in the year 1640 ; "all the 
people of the nation were killed or taken captive by the Illinois, 
with the exception of a single man, who escaped, shot through 
the body with an arrow," and adds that when the captives were 
permitted to return to their homes this one was made a chief as 
having never been a slave. John G. Shea, commenting on this 
disastrous defeat of the AYinnebago, says, if this strange event 
took place at all Ave must ascribe it to an earlier date than 1634, 
when visited by Nicolet, who found them prosperous, and we can 
hardly suppose a tribe almost annihilated and then restored to 
its former numbers in thirty years. 


Jean Nicolet was the first white man to visit the AVinnebago. 
He was sent over these ^^nknown lakes and rivers by Governor 
Champlain to make a treaty of peace between the AA^innebago 
and the Hurons of Canada. He visited them with seven Huron 
savages in the summer of 1634, returning home the next year. 
As he approached their village, word was sent in advance to 
announce his mission, and the AViunebago sent out envoys to 
meet him, who gave him a Avarm welcome and carried his bag- 
gage. AA^ord was sent out to the surrounding savages, and a 
great council was held with five thousand men, who indulged 
themselves in a barbaric banquet, in which the choicest dish was 
six score beaver tails. This was the first council held Avith the 
Indians in the region erected into the State of AA^isconsin. There 
is no contemporary narrati^'e inspired by Nicolet which gives 
a hint of the place at Avhich this council was held, or the location 
of the AA'innebago village, Avhich was the objective point of 
Nicolet 's voyage. The habitat of the AVinnebago during this 
period must therefore be sought from other narratives and maps, 
and these clearly show the AA^innebago village of 1634, and for 
two hundred years thereafter, to have been at the foot of Lake 
AYinnebago, and from the later accounts, which give a more exact 
locus in cpio, on Doty island, on what is now the cities of Menasha 

18 HISTORY OF :moxroe county 

and Nec^'iiali, ou tlie Fox river, yet on I lie shore of Lake 

It lias been therefore stated that Cliaiiiplain "s map of 1632, 
made two years before Nicolet's visit named the "Nation des 
Piians, " on "Lae des Piians.*' Also the map of Jean Boisseau's 
of ]t)43 Avliich is found in Jjciinox lji])rary in New York, and 
published in "Jesuit Relations," has "La Nation des Puans, " 
on "Las des Puans, '' wliieh discharges through "R. des Puans. " 
The next map to mention the tribe is that of Marquette. His 
.iournal of the famous voyage through tli<^ river valley was pu))- 
lislied in Paris by Thevenot in 1681. Avitli his real map of the 
voyage. It ])laees tlu^ "Puans" village at the foot of Lake 
AVinnebago. The master of this voyage was Joliet, and his map 
also places the "Puans" village at the foot of Lake of the AVinne- 
bago. Father Hennepin also places the word "Ocitagan"' against 
Lake AVinnebago on his map, dated ]698. He also was a traveler 
among them and this is his attem])t to spell their own name, 
rendered by the Nicolet century while those of the next century, 
which show the village, all place it at the foot of the lake, which 
always bore tlieir name. 

There is no historic reference narrative of travel or maps 
Avhich i)laces the AVinnebago at any location other than Lake 
AVinnebago during the century in wliich Nicolet visited the re- 
gion, nor until 1760 when they seem to have divided into three 
villages with their head village still on Lake AVinnebago. 

Perrot visited the Fox river region for a number of years, and 
took some of the AVinnebago Avith the otlun* tri])es to the great 
council at Sault Ste. Alarie Avhen Sr. Lusson took formal posses- 
sion of the AVest, in the name of the French king. In 1690, while 
in this valley, the Fox tribes who resided on the west shore of 
tile Little l^ake l^utte des Alorts, contemplated treachery to 
Perrot, and he was informed of their intentions by the "chief of 
the Puans," who acted as his messenger and remained his stead- 
fast friend. He advised and helped to prevent the Foxes making 
an alliance with the Iroiiuois of New A'ork. which they contem- 
plated, and Pen-ol was detcrmiiUMl to pi'cxciit. 


Later in the long Fox war they formed a thii-d party in an 
alliance between the Foxes and Sauk, and were ever present with 
the Foxes in that long battl(» which they raged against the 
French throughout the Fox river valley and the prairie of the 


Illinois. This was the war to save the region of the golden fleece 
to the fur trade of France, in which the war whoop of the Foxes 
was heard around the world; "a dreary half century of spas- 
modic conflict, which absorbed the attention and helped to drain 
the treasury of New France, contributing not a little to her 
downfall''; meanwhile, as Bancroft remarks, the ''Foxes were 
a nation, passionate and untamable, springing up into new life 
from every defeat, and though reduced in the number of their 
warriors, yet present everywhere by their ferocious enterprise 
and savage daring." Throughout those long years of frontier 
warfare the AVinnebago were everywhere the silent allies, 
wearing the livery of the forest and committing the terror of 
their name to strike dismay to the border post. And though the 
Foxes are mostly mentioned the French were aware of close 
friendship to their allies, the AVinnebago. As early as 1714 
Ramezay had reported the Winnebago as friendly to the Foxes, 
which date the colonial office at Paris had determined on the 
extermination of the Fox tribe. At this time Father Marest 
writes the governor that "the Puans were sixty brave men, all 
boatmen. ' ' 

The long enmity between the AVinnebago and the Illinois was 
a part of the French war, and a relic of ancient days when the 
AVinnebago had been almost destroyed by the Illinois. The AVin- 
nebago were with the Foxes in their raids against this tribe in 
1723. Captain DeLignery was sent up the river in 1724, and 
called a council of the tribes at the old French fort at Green 
Bay. Those present were the AVinnebago, Foxes, and Sauk. The 
council to induce the tribes to cease their war on the Illinois was 
fruitless, as the AVinnebago declared the Illinois retained some 
of their tri])e prisoners^ and an exchange must be efi^ected before 
a treaty. However, the difference seemed to have been compro- 
mised, as at a council held by the same officer June 7, 1726, with 
the AVinnebago, Foxes, and Sauk, a treaty was settled by which 
these tribes consented not to fight the Illinois again. Very soon 
after this, however, war broke out afresh and the frontier rang 
with the savage war cry. 

The French had sent an army against the Fox palisade or 
Fort village on the west shore of Little Lake Butte des Morts, 
under cle Louvigny, in 1716, opposite the AVinnebago village on 
the eastern shore. The three days' battle and siege had resulted 
in a treaty of peace, but in which the French had no confidence. 
They determined to establish a post in the border of the Sioux 
country to prevent an alliance with the Foxes and that powerful 


tribe of the plains, 'i'liis (,-(jiii])iu(nt witii soldiei-s and j^oods for 
trado made llicir way over Fox river towards the head of Lake 
Pepin, to ('sta))lisli tliis post. The journal of the voyage was made 
l>y Father Guignes. As tliey passed the Fox ri\('i- lie says of the 
visit to the "Winnebago, August 14. ]727: "The chief im-l him 
there three leagues from their village Avitli peace calumets and 
refresliments of l)ears' meat, and escorted them into their village 
mid dischai'ge of musketry and great demonstrations of joy, 
requesting Ihem to remain some tinu'. There were sixty to eighty 
num in the village. Both men and women are tall and well built. 
They are located on the borders of a pretty lake at thirty-five 
miles from LaBaye and eight leagues from the Foxes." The 
Foxes seem to have been on the uppci' Fox river at this season. 

AVhen Captain DeLignery arrived at LaBaye with liis 
expedition against the Foxes, composed of four hundred fifty 
Frenchmen and one thousand two hundred savages, in the month 
of August. 1728, he captured three AVinnebago Avhom he handed 
over to the tribes. They put them to death with slow torture 
and ate them. He then pushed on up the Fox river to the village 
of the "\Vinnel)ago on the Doty island, which had been abandoned 
several days hefore, and burned the wigwams ami fort, and 
ravaged their fields of Indian corn, which is tlieir principal article 
of food. 

In pursuance of their policy to combine all the tribes against 
the Foxes, the French in some manner bought over the Winne- 
bago, the lifelong friends of the Foxes and Sauk. So we read 
that in the autumn of 1729 Avord was l)rought to (Quebec by 
information given by the Indians, of an attack by llic Winne- 
bago, Ottawa and Menominee on a Fox village, in which thera 
were killed one hundred Fox warriors and seventy women and 
children. Among the killed of the assaulting party were four 
of the AVinnebago. The Winnebago having Itroken up their 
neighbors and friends, the Foxes, by the treacherous and un- 
provoked slaughter, were now in tei-ror fi>i- the conseciuences of 
their misei-able acts. Further attempts against the Fox tribe were 
projected from (Quebec and by the fall of 1725) Sieur Captain 
]\Iarin appeai-ed at the old Freucli foi-t at Green Bay and repaired 
its fallen roofs, lie had with him ten Frenclunen. On Septem- 
ber 10 the AVinnebago returned from their hunt aiul went to 
]\rarin to assure him that they still renuiined faithful to the 
French, presenting him Avith three slaves. They were rewarded 
by powder, bullets, hatchets, guns and knives. Some days after, 
having ascertained that the Foxes were not in llie country, the 


Winnebago took their families and camped on Dendo island, 
where "their former fort stood." But very soon the Foxes and 
Sauk surprised some AVinnebago fisherman, and then began a 
long siege of the Winnebago, by erecting on the Doty island water 
side two forts to command the water in all directions. The siege 
lasted two months ; but was finally abandoned after IMarin came 
with the Menominee to aid the Winnebago. 

Before 1739, after being at enmity with the Foxes for ten 
years, the old friendship was revived, and at a council in Quebec, 
held that year with the Avestern savages, the W^innebago chief 
spoke for mercy for the Foxes, some representatives of whom 
were present. The following year, at a council held in Montreal, 
the Winnebago chief again spoke for the good will of the French 
for "their kinsman, the Foxes and Sauk." The next year they 
appeared in Montreal again and reported they had returned to 
their home on Doty island. AVhile at a council at Quebec the next 
year the Mayoba, chief of the Alascoutins, whispered to Beau- 
harnois that the AA^innebago sought refuge in their village the 
year before, as they feared the Foxes. At this council the 
Winnebago said half of their village had returned to its old home 
and half was at Rock river. The Rock river band were notified 
to join the Fox river band and form one village. Serotchon and 
Chelanois were AVinnebago chiefs present and promised medals 
by Beauharnois ; but he had none then to bestow, they must wait 
until next year. Sieur de Clignaucoiirt had sole right in 1747 
to trade at Green Bay with the AA^innebago. 


By some very ancient maps in possession of Mr. Hames B. 
Albrigt, of Milwaukee, which bear dates of 1755, 1756, 1757, the 
"Otchagras" village is marked against Lake Winnebago. About 
this time the De Langlades had settled in AVisconsin as the first 
pioneers, and in a few years the great M^ar between France and 
England has its influence on this farthest frontier, where the bold 
warrior. Captain Charles de Langlade, was appointed to command 
the western tribes. With his motley throng of savages there 
were about one hundred AA^innebago, and midst the din of Brad- 
doek's defeat was "mingled the blood curdling screech of the 
Winnebago." They were at the council, with Montcalm, on the 
banks of Lake George ; and at the massacre of Fort AVilliam 
Henry, and at the fall of Quebec. 

After the Fleur de Lis was hauled down from Quebec and 


Kiiy:laiul took all ('aiiada undt'i' her autliorily, coiuiiiantlaiit.s and 
soldiers were seiil west to assume eoiniiiaiid of the aneient border 
posts, wliieli had been iiiub'r the irenllc sway of Franee since the 
first white iiicii ciniic. liy 17()2 Liciit. .lames (Joi'i'cll was in com- 
iiiand III ihc ii'iiin.inis of tin- old l-'iviidi t'oii al Green Bay, and 
licid ;\ coiiiicil with ilic \\'iiin"l>a^<» chief, who |)i-omis('(l to send 
the bell hr lia<i received to the otht-r 1 wo chiefs of his nation, 
lie reports soon after that ''a chic^f belon^ino: to a second Puans 
town arrived." In Aujiusl Ihe WinnebajLro chief fi-om the third 
town came and declared he had Jiever foujilit ajrainst Ihe Fnfrlisli. 
They all i-ecjuc^sted a gunsmith, a trader and I'um. The following 
summer (17H8). Avhen Captain Etherington, after the massacre 
at Old ^Mackinaw, sent woi-d 1o Gorrell to go to him willi the 
gai-i'ison, the Winnebago were among the four Indian tril)es 
which formed his escort. 

In his Journal Lieut. James Gorrell reports of the "Indian 
warriors. l)esides Avomen and children dei)ending on the i)ost at 
Green Bay," there were "Puans, loO al the end of Puan's lake 
(AVinnebago) and over against Louistonant." It was in 17(i() 
that the celebrated Capt. Jonathan Carver mad" his voyage up 
the historic Fox river and pased four days enjoying the hos- 
pitality of the Winnebago village on Doty island, then presided 
Dver l)y their ((ueen, Glory of the ^loi-niug. or Ilopokoekau. who 
had married Kebrevoir De Carrie, an officer of the b'l-cnch ai'uiy, 
Avlu) after ]'esigning in 172!) Ix'canu' the first trader among the 
AVinnebago. Three sons and one daughter Avei-e boi'u to the 
iniion. He reentered the army and died for his flag before Que- 
bec, April 28, 1760. Captain Carver called the village "the great 
town of AVinuebago," and said it contained fifty houses which 
were strongly built Avith i^alisades. 

During the war of the l\e\()lution there was iu)t a friend of 
the colonists in all Wisconsin, and Capt. Charles de Langlade, 
now in the red uniform of a British officer, recruited his dusky 
troops from among the Winnebago to join Burgoyne's invasion. 
bnt all had abandoned the English geiu'i-al befoi-e his surrender. 
The Winnebau'o recei\-ed a wai- belt from De Peystei-. in command 
at Old .Mackinaw, and liad notice to be ready to go to Hamilton's 
aid, at Vincennes. in the autumn of 1778. In the ]>arty of savages 
who went down the ^Mississippi in the spring to aid Hamilton, l)ut 
I'ejni'iu'd on receiving woi'd ol iiis sui'i-ender to (reorge Roger 
Clark, tliei'e were Winnebago. On theii' return to old Mackinaw 
witii (Joutier the Winnebago were at once sent (in .Inne. 177!^ 
south thi'ongh ^lichigan to commit depredations and "bring in 


some prisoners." The AVinnebago repaired to Montreal with 
other western savages under De Langlade, and returned on news 
of the operations of George Roger Clark in Illinois. When Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Sinelair sent the army of savages under Captain 
de Langlade to the massacre of St. Louis, there Avas a band of 
AVinnebago, as usual, in his party. The assault on the embank- 
ment at the stone warehouse was made by the AVinnebago, Avho 
left one chief and three warriors dead on the parapet, Avhile four 
others were badly wounded, the only casualty of the expedition. 
Governor Sinclair reports in July, 1780, sending sixty AVinnebago 
and a party of other Indians south to the Ohio and AVabash 
rivers to intercept convoys of provisions intended tor Americans 
in the Illinois region. 

After the close of the Revolutionary war the British fur 
trader had no intention of giving up the rich fur bearing region 
of AVisconsin, and began at once to keep the savages in good 
feeling, by a liberal distribution of presents, an annual favor 
which was accorded llic AVinnebago and others for many vears 
and until after the close of the last war in 1815. At the instance 
of the merchants of Alontreal in 1787, after the cession of the 
region now AVisconsin, the British sent ]Mr. Ainsee up the Fox 
river to the Alississippi with a "canoe loaded with thirteen bales 
of goods" for presents to AVisconsin savages. At the Portage he 
"assembled all the Puants to give them a speech and made them 
presents of goods, rum and tobacco." In the same report Ainsee 
gives the number of Puants as 310 men in "the village of the 
Puants altogether." 

The principal or head village of the AVinnebago was still on 
Lake Winnebago, as it had been since long prior to the coming of 
Nicolet in 1634. The first record of any other village was the 
reference given from Gorrell in 1762. During the Revolution, 
when Goutier took to the woods on snowshoes to rouse the clans 
for the spring campaign in 1778, he mentions "the great village 
of the Puants of the lake. Avhich was the strongest one." 

Antoine LeClaire, a trader who settled in Alilwaukee in 1800, 
mentions sending out "engages" to trade Avith the Indians, "on 
AVinnebago lake to the AVinnebago." The merchants of ^Montreal 
reported to the agents of the croAvn, in 1786, that the AVinnebago 
numbered six hundred men, and had their first Anllage only 
twelve leagues (thirty miles) fi'om "LaBaye," and being on the 
road to the Mississippi, they are frecpiently troublesome to the 
traders passing. This system of claiming to own the river and 
exacting presents for the right to pass had been practiced for 


many years by the tril)e, and had been a frequent cause of strife 
between the "Winnebago on Doty island and the numerous traders 
obliged to stem the tides of the Fox river to reach their posts 
along the ^Mississippi river. 

The frontier discpiict of the Indians, inspired by l^ritisli 
agents, finally resulted in sending ^Nlad Anthony AVayne into the 
border huuls of Ohio, where he fought several successful battles 
■with the savages, the most desperate and successful one being 
that near Maumee City, in Ohio, on ilie ;Wth day of August. 17i)4. 
The Winne])ago hud been liil into these border troubles and were 
among the savages defeated in tli;i1 disastrous battle. Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Snelling relates that he remembers a AVinnebago at the 
AVisconsin portage who met travelers Avith a human hand 
dangling on his breast, which he had taken from a Yankee soldier 
at Tip})ecanoe, and says sixty AVinnebago were killed in that 
battle. The last war with England was declared on June 19. 
1812, by the President's proclamation. Before it was possible to 
reinforce the small garrison at Fort IMackinaAv, on the island of 
that name, it Avas surprised and captured and held during the 
Avar as a rally outpost of the British, from Avhich the saA'ages of 
AVisconsin Avere constantly recruited to add to the frontier hor- 
rors of that Avar. It is said that after the capture of Proctor's 
camp in the battle of the Thames, bales of scalps Avere discovered 
on Avhich had been paid a bounty by the British agents. The 
"Winnebago took part in many of the important movements of the 
British on the Avestern border. AVhen Col. Robert Dickson, the 
"Red Head," gathered the tribes for the English in 1812. he ran 
into (}i-eeii Bay Avilli 100 Sioux, and enlisted Tomah and the 
Grizzly Bear Avith 100 Alenominee, and a large body of "Winne- 
bago led by Teal. One-eyed Decorah and other chiefs. They 
A'oyaged over to ^NFackinac island and captured the fort from the 
Americans, July 17, 1812, Avithout a bloAv, after Avhich the AVinne- 
bago and Sioux returned home. Jn the spring of 1813, Avhen 
Colonel Dickson rallied the clans again for the AA'ar. there sailed 
out of tlie Fox river on his train, beside the Sioux and IMenom- 
inee, a considerable band of AYinncbago under their chiefs. Old 
Decorah, Carrymaunee. AYinnocheek, Pesheu. or the AYild Cat, 
Sausamaunee, Black AYolf, Sarcel, or the Teal, and Neokautah, 
or Four Legs. Avith AFichael Brisbois as their interpreter. Arriving 
at Fort Meigs too late for the action, they retired to Detroit, 
from AA-hence they sailed under Proctor and Dickson to Sandusky 
and attacked the fort so gallantly defended by the young Afaj. 
George Croghan, Avhere they Avere defeated. In June, 1813, 


Colonel Dickson emerged at ^Mackinac from a lon^ sojourn among 
the Wisconsin tribes, bringing with him 600 savages and their 
families, to be sent to General Proctor as a part of his force. 
There were 130 Winnebago in the party. After eating nearly all 
of Proctor's available provisions and committing wanton depreda- 
tions on the settlers' live stock tlie AYisconsin Indians returned 
home. During the winter of 1813-14 a delegation of AVisconsin 
savages visited Quebec, where they were warmly welcomed by 
Sir George Prevost. The AVinnebago were represented by 

The expedition under the British Col. AVilliam AtcKay, which 
surprised and captured the American fort Shelby at Prairie Du 
Chien, July 17, 1814, had with them a band of 100 AVinnebago 
under their chiefs, Pesheu or AVild Cat, Sarcel or Teal, Carry- 
maunee, AVinnocheek, Sar-ra-chau, Neokautah or Four Legs, and 
Black Wolf. As McKay's fleet of barges and canoes floated down 
the Wisconsin, a AVinnebago was in the party of scouts, who 
went under cover of night into the to-\vn and captured a citizen, 
whom they carried away to get information. In deploying before 
the fort the AYinnel)ago took post above the fort. Two of the 
AVinnebago, discovering some hams in a house, mounted to the 
roof and began to tear off the shingles to gain an entrance and 
were both shot in the thigh. On the second day of tlie siege 
Colonel AIcKay assembled the Indian chiefs and requested their 
consent to an assault, but the AVinnebago chief, Sarcel or the 
Teal, demurred, saying he and his people remembered taking part 
with the English in assaulting an American fort, when they were 
beaten back with terrible slaughter. Sarcel proposed to dig a 
trench in the sand and blow up the fort, to which Colonel McKay 
agreed; but after 'a few hours' labor the Indians tired of the 
Avork and refused to go ahead. After the surrender, and just 
before the time appointed for the Americans to give up their 
arms, a AVinnebago cut off the finger of a soldier whose hand 
was thrust through a port hole in friendly greeting. In his 
reports Colonel McKay mentions the AVinnebago as in the Indian 
contingent, and says of them that they were ''perfectly useless 
to him," and severely criticises them. They would not receive 
officers' orders unless he "held a blanket in one hand and a piece 
of pork in another." 

Col. Robert Dickson on his way to the British garrison at 
Prairie Du Chien in the fall of 1814, caught by the freezing of 
Lake AVinnebago at Doty Island and forced to remain the winter, 
writes in the spring: "I shall move from this as soon as I can. 


;is the Puaiits an' lic^iiiniim !(• draw aritiiiid inc. and one liad as 
well l)(' in lu'll as with tlirm."' Al'tt'i- llic peace the Hritish lield 
a council June .'5. isi.'t. at .Mailxinaw, helween Sau-sa-niau-nee, 
Black Wolf, Xeokautaii or Four iiC^s. and ioi-ly waj-riors. Sau- 
sa-niau-nee was tlie orator foi- liis people and liis s|)eecli is 
recorded. .Jud,u:e LocUwood rc|)(»i'1s their number in liSlG as i)()() 
warriors, from estimates of tlie traders best ac(iuain1eil with 
them. The treaty made with a portion ol the Fox tril)es Novem- 
bei' ;}, 1804. whiih caused so much dissatisfaction amon^ members 
of that tribe, was confirmed a1 a council h^ld at SI. Louis. May 
18. 181(1. at which those Wiiiiicba'-o present, residents of Wis- 
consin, coniirmetl tliat part of the ti-eaty wliich was sui)posed to 
tri'ant their rights in the lands of the b'ad reuion. 


The AVinneliago were involved in the iiiimigration of the New 
York Indians by the range of their hunting gi-ounds. Tiie Winne- 
bago and JVIenominee, August IS. 1S21, tii'aiited to tlie Xew ^'oil< 
tribes a ribl)on of land diagonal! \' across the state five miles wide, 
the strij) crossing the Fox river at Little ('hut(\ At this tinu' 
the jMenominee claimed all Green Bay and the shore of Lake 
^lichigan to tlu^ mouth of the ]Milwauk(M> lixcr and west to the 
.Mississippi imnct in a northwest direction. The Winnebago 
claimed all the balance of the state north and west of the Fox 
river and Lake Winnebago. The following summer the Xew 
York Iiulians returned to urge a larger grant : but on coming 
into a council the AVinnebago refused to concede any further 
grants and left in a body to go on their hunt. Before leaving, 
however, they were induced to favoi' the visitor with an exhibi- 
tion of their war dance, pipe dance and begging dance, which 
are grai)hically described by (Jeneral Willis, who adds: "The 
AViuTiebago exhibited the largest, most perfectly formed men aiul 
women ever seen anywhere. The display of action and muside 
in the dances stru(dv the Ixdiolder with admiration and terror. 
The ring around the dancers of several thousand, all singing in 
chorus to the chief drunnner. the voices of the AVinnebago women 
pi-evailing in clarion tone above the whole." August 11, 1827. 
was a treaty concluded at tlie Little P.ntte des Morts. "the Hill 
of the Dead," on the west bank of the lake of that name, now 
in the town of Alenasha. betAvecMi the AVinnebago. .Menominee 
aiul Xew A'ork Indians, by which the above lrii)es ceiled their 
lanils in the Fox vallev to the I'nited States. Lewis Cass and 


Thos. L. ^Mc'Kinney were the commissioners. This council was 
lickl during- the Winnebago war, so called. It was attended by 
live thousand savages. Colonel AVhistler, while on his journey 
up the Fox river from Fort IIoAvard to join General Atkinson at 
Portage, remained with his regiment at the Little Butte des Morts 
as the Governor's guard until the close of the council, when he 
resumed his journey uji stream. During the council the Winne- 
bago were notified that they must give up the murderers. It is 
said to have been due to this council that brought the surrender 
at Portage the next month on the arrival of Colonel Whistler. 
There is a painting of the Little Butte des jMorts council made by 
Lewis, "painted on the spot," in his rare portfolio of frontier 

Tlie AVinnel)ago war took place in 1827. It was not a war, 
but only a widespread scare to the few pioneers who had come 
to settle in the far aAvay lands of the Avest. Those who mention 
the events of that day generally agree that the energetic move- 
ments of Governor Lewis Cass, and the promptness of the militia 
under Gen. Henry Dodge, and the dispatch of General Atkinson 
witli the United States army into the field, inspired the AVin- 
nebago with such respect for the poAver of the United States that 
the incipient disturbance was quelled before it was barely com- 
menced. As there were at that time nearly nine thousand Winne- 
bago, they could have set the torch to the whole frontier before 
being conquered. At that period there was a small settlement of 
whites at Green Bay, another at Prairie du Chien. and possibly 
seven hundred people in the lead region south of the Wisconsin 
river. Fort Winnebago was then erected at Portage as a protec- 
tion to the frontier from any Winnebago treachery. 


I>y this time the trilie had very nuich increased in numbers, 
and were scattered all along the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. Mrs. 
John Kinzie reports in ''Wau Bun," in 1880, two divisions of 
Winnebago Indians, "one paid l)y the agent at Portage and the 
other at Prairie du Chien." "The Portage division numbered be- 
tween four and five thousand." At the Winnebago annuity pay- 
ment in 1884, jNIr. Henry ]\lerrill says there asseml)led at Portage 
upwards of three thousand men. women and children. Mr. Mc- 
Call reports in 1830, "Four thousand Winnebago in the nation." 

The smallpox scourge broke out in the tribe in 1834 and raged 
a fearful epidemic, from Avhich nearly half the tribe died. The 


inodiciiic men a])aiul()iir(l ilicii' ftitilc attciiipts to stay its I'avages, 
ami 1li(' post sw('])t through the \illajr('s, and sur\i\'()rs fleeing 
before i1. Icaxin^' tlicii' dead uiiliiii-icd. 

The delegates wlio visited Washington in 1837 to make a treaty 
liad no anthority to eonelude a treaty, and so declared. That was 
the treaty (Nov. 1, 1887.) by whieh all the lands of tiie Winne- 
bago east of the ^Mississippi were eeded to the Ignited States. 
It Avas loudly jiroelaimed by the tribe to be a fraud. Chief Yel- 
low Thunder, whose village was near Eureka, in AVinnebago 
county, and two others were of this party, and all declared they 
had no right to make a treaty. The first allrnipl to remove the 
tribe was begun in 1840. when a considerable band wei-c induced 
to remove to the Turkey river in Iowa. In 1837 the AVinnebago, 
headed ])y One-eyed Dekaury, Ijittle Dekaury, AVinnosheek, 
AVaukon Dekaury, and six other chiefs, went to AVashington and 
ceded all the land still claimed by them east of the Alississippi 
river, reserving the privilege of occupying until 18-40. That year 
the troops came to Portage to remove them. Yellow Tlninder 
and Black AVolf 's son were invited to Portage to get provisions, 
l)ut as soon as they arrived at Portage they were put in the 
guardhouse Avith l)all and chain on their ankles, which Inirt their 
feelings, as 1lie\- luid done no harm. The Genei'al liad understood 
they were going to revolt, and i-efused to emigrate; but as soon 
as Governor Dodge came to Portage they were released. They 
all promised faithfully to be in Portage in three days, ready for 
removal, and they Avere all there. Two large boats Avere pro- 
vided to take doAvn the Indians Avho had no canoes. At the head 
of Kickapoo creek they came to some AvigAvams, Avhere Iavo old 
Avomen, sisters of Black AA^olf, fell on their knees, crying and be- 
seeching Captain Summer to kill them : Ilie\' wei'e old and would 
rather die and l)e l)uried Avith their fathers and mothers and 
children than he taken aAvay. The Captain let them remain, and 
left three young men to hunt for them. Further doAvn they came 
to the camp of Ke-ji-que-Ave-ka ; the people Avere told to ]>ut tlunr 
things in the wagon and go along. Depositing their l)elongings 
they started south from Avhere they Avere Avhen the Captain sent 
to ask Avhere they Avere going. They said they Avere going to bid 
good-bye to their fathers, mothers and children. The interpreter 
folloAved lliem and found them on Hieii' knees, kissing the ground 
and crying very loud Avhere their relations Avere buried. This 
touched the Captain, Avho exclaimed: "Good God, Avhat harm 
can these poor Indians do among the rocks." 

After being removed at difftM-ent times to locations in loAva, 


Minnesota and Dakota, they Avere finally located on one hundred 
twenty-eight thousand acres of the northern part of the Omaha 
reservation in eastern Nebraska, containing some of the best 
timbered lands, by May, 1866. There still reside in the pine bar- 
rens of Jackson and Adams county stragglers who have returned, 
reported in 1887 to number one thousand six hundred. Most of 
these have homesteads, where they live by picking berries, fishing 
and hunting, with ever increasing families. Large families are 
the rule among the Winnebago. Green Grass, son of Kayrah- 
maunee, came to the payment at Black River Falls to draw for 
fifteen children; but could not count or name them. Major Hal- 
leck, the agent, had him bring them in and stand them in a row. 
''The AVinnebago as a tribe has due them $883,249.58 under 
their treaties of 1837 and the act of July 15, 1870, which has not 
been capitalized and placed in the treasury as a trust fund. Con- 
gress annually appropriates 5 per cent interest on the principal, 
amounting to $1:4,1 62.47. The AA^isconsin band received $18,- 
026.13 of that amount, whicli is paid them in cash. They also 
receive $7,000 each year from that amount to ecpialize their pay- 
ments with the Nebraska branch under the act of 1881. Under 
that act they have reecived $147,000 and $73,969.91 is yet due 
them in yearly installments of $7,000. The Nebraska branch re- 
ceives yearly $10,000 cash for per capita payments, and after this 
and the amounts due to the AVisconsin branch are deducted the 
remainder is subject to expenditure for supplies for the Nebraska 
branch. Eventually the Wisconsin branch will receive their share 
of the principal after it has been capitalized and segregated." 


There are at this writing 1,180 AVinnebago listed in Wisconsin 
and 2,613 in Nebraska, making a total of 3,793 or about 4,000 
Winnebago now living. This shows an increase in 200 years of 
700 per cent, due to enforced peace ; and notwithstanding the 
natural decimation due to smallpox, famine, habits and whisky. 

Rev. Cutting Marsh crossed Doty island in 1832, and found 
still there a small village of AVinnebago. This was the remnant 
of Four Leg's tribe. He was dead two years before. Three years 
later the Alenomonee mission was established at Neenah, before 
which time, it is presumed, the last of those who had made this 
ancient village famous in border annals had moved up the river 
and away. 

The totems of the AA^innebago were the lynx, catamount, wild- 

30 HISTORY OF :moxroe county 

fat and stajr. 'J'lu'v drosscd in the earlier days much as tlie 
]ii-iniitiv(' tribes, in the tanned skins and lurs of the wild animals, 
as also in woven cloth. The special manner of doin^ their hair 
was to shave llie sides of the head and do tlie liaii- in two square 
cushions on tlie t)ack of the head. The artist in ihe Nieolet 
landfall, i-eceiilly hiin»i in the i-ooms of the State Historical 
Society, has taken llieii- nakedness too literallv ami made a eari- 
cature of their nudeness. There is no authority for such literal 
nak(>dness. They were an industrious and thrifty people, having 
at all theii" villa^res wide fields of corn and ve<?etal)les. Some of 
these fields were several hundred acres in extent. They trathered 
wild rice for food also. Sat. Clark told Dr. Lapham that General 
Atkinson purchased 6,000 l)ushels of corn from the AVinnebago ; 
and in 1848 he had (lii\('n over half a mile of old Indian corn- 
fields in Columbia county, Avhich a pioneer had told him the 
AVinnebago had cultivated. Their villages contained Avell con- 
structed, warm cabins or Avigwams, and they appeared to enjoy 
])rosperity, notwithstanding their history contains so much war. 
pestilence and whisky. 

AVhatever may have l)een tlu' truth of the mattci-. they seem 
to have the universal hatred or disfavor of all their neighbors 
aud the whites. The whites write them down invariably filthy. 
It is such a general charge that one might be incdined to suppose 
it to be repeated by suggestion. AVhether any one took the 
trouble to inquire if this was a domestic infirmity or only came 
from the supposed derivation of their nann^ we cannot learn. One 
hundred years ago Capt. Thomas A. Anderson Avintered on Kock 
river, at tlu^ foot of a precipice, ;W0 feet above the river, trading 
with the AVinnebago. and long afterward said. "They are the 
nu)st tilthy, most obstinate and bravest people of any Indian 
tribe." As an instance of their independence, Hon. Alorgan L. 
Martin relates of the guide he i)rocured at Taycheedah, who, 
after leading tlieiii into llie prairie, lay down and refused to ju-o- 
ceed. saying ''he had never yet been the slave of a white man and 
never would be." 

The nunu'rous missionaries who had gone among the AVis- 
consin savages seein to hMV(> made little progress Mith the 
Winnebago. The first to devote himself specially to one of tlie 
bantls was Kev. Father Ma/zuchelli, who, April Iti. 1 >■!:!. visited 
the AVinnebago at the old Decorah village, eight miles up the 
AVisconsin river tVoiii Portage. Two hundred converts were 
made, and he translated Father Harago's Catechism from Ottawa 
to AVinnebago, going 7(10 miles to Detroit to get it printed, ami 


returned. Pietre Paquette assisted liim in talking to the savages. 
The Catechism when returned had eighteen pages. The intluence 
of the missionary was such that on ^Mrs. Kinzie's offering wine 
to one of the Indian women she pointed to the cross about her 
neck and refused to drink. 


From the earliest settlement hands of AVinnebagoes had, at 
different times, established their villages temporarily in several 
parts of the county; no permanent location w^as made until right 
after the Avar of the rebellion, when a considerable number, under 
the chief, Ah-oo-cho-ka oi' "Blue AVing, " settled near Water Mill, 
a few miles north of Tomah. 

"Blue AVing" Avas the head of this branch of the tribe and 
was its chief spokesman in the councils of the tribe held at the 
original settlement near Winnebago Lake. He was a quiet, peace- 
ful man, who ruled his tribe Avith justice, whose good qualities 
made him many friends among his Avhite neighbors and the busi- 
ness and professional men in Tomah Avith Avhom he had dealings ; 
he lived to the age of 103 years, and at his death he Avas held in 
such esteem that a public funeral Avas held in the Methodist 
church at Tomah, largely attended by the town people and his 
neighbors; a striking illustration, indeed, of the transition from 
saA^agery to civilization, a modern funeral serA'ice held over the 
remains of a savage attended by his own people. After the death 
of "Blue Wing" there Avas no succession as chief as the band had 
gradually taken up land and Avere, and are, getting away from 
the tribal relations. They in common Avith other members of 
the tribe Avere moved to Nebraska at the time mentioned in this 
chapter, but this band of about 200 came back and settled again 
at AVater Alill, Avdiere they among them oAvned quite a tract of 
land. They enlisted the services of Harry Lea, of Tomah, Avho 
had traded A^dth them for j^ears, and he diA'ided the land into 
ten-acre pieces, assigning one or more to the head of each family 
so that they became land OAvners and could not then be taken back 
to Nebraska. 

In this band Avere tAvo Indians avIio Avere in the army during 
the rebellion, an old felloAV familiarly knoAvn in later years as 
"Sherman," because he served in the Third AVisconsin and Avas 
under General Sherman, and also a son of Chief "Blue AVing, " 
known as "Thunder Chief." 

Among them exists a secret religious organization Avhich has 


IxH'ii ill existence no one knows liow long. It lias an otter skin 
lia<l<re, to lose which is said to invoke a death penalty; they 
indulge in strange and fantastic rites and ceremonies, and no 
Avhite man has ever been able to discover any of their secrets. 
The squaws of different branches of the tril)e in general are 
known by the kind of work they turn out. This particular branch 
was noted for the beautiful bead work turned out by its women, 
everything from moccasins and hair liands to entire suits of buck- 
skin, beautifully decorated in most elaborate patterns. Some of 
the children are sent to the Government Indian School at Tomah, 
although it seems to be the case that only a small percentage 
take advantage of the education thus acquired, but go back to 
the indolent tribal life. 



The Sachems of the great Winnebago, who have become inti- 
mately associated with the beginning of the history of Wisconsin, 
were either residents of Winnebago county or were sired by its 
ancient lords. The mother and grandmother of that noble line of 
Decorah chiefs, who met the pioneers of the state, was the beauti- 
ful queen of the Winnebago, "Glory of the Morning," sister of 
the head chief of the Winnebago tribe on Doty island, now in 
Menasha and Neenali, on the Fox river, at the foot of Lake 
Winnebago. Her Indian name was Hopokoekau, also spelled by 
LaRonde, AVahopoekau. Her birth was not of record. She mar- 
ried Sebrevior De Carrie, who was an officer in the French army 
in 1699 under De Boisbraint. He resigned his commission in 1729 
and became the first trader in Indian goods in the county, living 
and trading with the Winnebago on Doty Island. During the 
French and Indian war De Carrie reentered the French army 
and was mortally wounded before Quebec, April 28, 1760. In 
some of the almost daily assaults made by Wolfe upon some part 
of the long defenses on the bluffs of the St. Lawrence, and being 
taken to Montreal, died there in the hospital, and two weeks later 
France lost Canada forever. Three sons and two daughters were 
born to this union. Glory of the Morning refused to go to Mon- 
treal with her husband, and remained on her island home with 
her family ; but De Carrie took with him one daughter, who mar- 
ried there Sieur Laurent Fily, a merchant of Quebec, who subse- 
quently removed to Green Bay, where they have descendants still 
living in the valley. Capt. Jonathan Carver, who visited the 
queen in 1766 on Doty island, mentions the pleasure his atten- 
tions to the queen gave her attendants as well as herself. She 
received him graciously and sumptuously entertained him during 
the four days he remained in her village. He writes of the town 
that it "contained fifty houses." "The land," he says, "was 
very fertile ; grapes, plums and other fruit grew in abundance. 
The Indians raised large quantities of Indian corn, beans, pump- 
kins, squash, watermelons and some tobacco." Mrs. Kinzie gives 


34 TiisToKV (W MosPxin: corxTV 

a long clKiraclcr sketch of the ancient queeii in August, 1831. 
"No one could tell iici- age: Iml .ill agreed sin' imist have been 
upwards of 100. llcr diiiimed eyes, ahnost Avhite with age; her 
face dai-ki'ii('(| ;iii(l wil licrcd. like a hakcd appli': \\r\- voice 
tremulous and Icihlt'. exce]»t when raised in I'ury — she usually 
went on all fours, iiol having strength to stand upi-ight. On the 
day of the payment she received liei' nu)ney and ciawled to the 
agency door to count it." ^Ir. lleni-y Merrill, wi-iting in the year 
IS.'S-l, says that she ""was pointed out to uie several years after 
(1884), and I was told she iiiusi lie 1].'! yeai's old. She was then 
ahle to walk si.\ oi- eight unles to Poi'tage. She lived several 
years after, and was linall\' hui-ned to death hy the huruing of 
'uer Avigwain. "' 

As she then lived in the \illage of her late grandson. Old 
Gray Headed Decoi'ali, eight niiles hclow P(uiage. on tln^ west 
side of the AVisconsin i-i\'er. she was prohahly huried there. She 
is said hy some Avriteis to have l)een a daughter of the head chief. 
It has been said of liei- descendants, the Deeorah chiefs, that 
"they were generally good Indians, and frequently urged their 
claim to the friendship of the whites hy saying they were them- 
selves half white." They ai-e said to have been " ' iutiuent iai men 
in the nation."" and Augustin Grignon says, in 1801, the "Deco- 
ralis are among the most infiueiitial of the AVinnebago.'' Of this 
marriage there were two sons, wiH)se names hav(> Ixh'U reported. 
The oldest was Chou Ke Ka. oi- Spoon Deeorah or Ladle; the 
other was Chah])ost Kaw Kaw. or the Buzzard, who settled with 
his l)and at LaCrosse about 1787. 

Chou Ke Ka. also spelled ('hau Ka Ka. called S])oon Deeorah or 
Ladle, Mas the eldest SOU of Seltrevior l)e ('aiTie. says LaHonde. 
Augustin Grignon I'endeis the name ( 'hongai'ali. .Vs he knew 
the chief in the wint<'r of 1801-2. he reports him then as head 
chief of the Winnehago. and ""he was then a very old man and 
died at Portage in 1808. IJy his i-iMjuest he was buried in a sitting 
posture in a coffin, jtlaeed nw the sui'face of the ground, with a 
low cabin alio\e it. surrounded with a feiu-e."' His death 
occurred in 1810, according to LaRonde. when he was "quite 
aged." It also appears that Chan Ka Ka signed the treaty of St. 
Louis, Alay 18, 181(). and therefore could not have died until 
after that. 

Old Gray-IIeaded Decoi-ah. or Old Deeorah. or Gray-IIeaded 
Deeorah, or AVhite AVar Eagle, whose coimiion Indian luune was 
Schachip Ka Ka and Avhose AViiniebago name was AVarrahwi- 
koogah, or Bird Sj)irit. was a son of the Ladle and a gi-andson of 


Glory of the ^Morning. He died at Petenwell, t!u' lii<^li rock on 
the Wisconsin river, April 20. ISi^H. said to have been ninety 
years old. He fought under the British General Proctor at San- 
dusky, twenty-one years of age, gallantly held the frontier fort 
Avith l)ut one cannon. The AVar Eagle also fought with Proctor 
and Teciimseh at the battle of the Thames, where the British 
army was mostly slai^i or captured and Tecumseh shot, October 
5; 1813, by the Americans under AYilliam Henry Harrison. The 
War Eagle was held as a hostage at Prairie du Chien in 1827 for 
the good behavior of the AVinnebago during the so-called AVinne- 
bago war. and for the delivery of Red Bird to justice. It was 
Avhile Alaj. Zachary Taylor was located at Prairie du Chien that 
he received from Old Gray-Headed Decorah his "peace pipe," 
and during the AVinnebago war it was he who gave assurance to 
General Atkinson at Portage of the peaceable intentions of the 
AVinnebago. Soon after Laurent Barth purchased the right from 
the AVinnebago over the Portage, 1793, Old Gray-Headed Decorah 
moved from Apuckawa lake, on Fox river, in Green Lake county, 
and formed a village with his tribe on the AVisconsin river, about 
two miles above Portage. JjaHonde says: "Schachipkaka De 
Kawry died April 26, 1836, aged ninety, at his village, the locality 
in 1876 known as the Caffrey place in the town of California, 
AVinnebago county, at the foot of the bluft", between the Wiscon- 
sin and Baraboo rivers. Schoolhouse district No. 5 occupies the 
spot where the old chief died. This town contained over 100 
lodges. He was a Catholic and was buried in their cemetery, near 
the site of the present courthouse in Portage City." He signed 
the treaties of 1828, 1829, 1832. Airs. Kinzie described him as 
"the most noble, dignified and venerable of his own or, indeed, 
of any other tribe. His fine Roman countenance, rendered still 
more noble by his bald head, with one solitary tuft of long, silvery 
hair neatly tied falling back on his shoulders." Old Gray Headed 
Decorah came over to Portage from his village during the famine 
in 1831 and reported his people as starving. He was oflfered 
enough food for his own family. "No," he said, "if my people 
could not be relieved my family and I wnll starve with them." 

Chah Post Kaw Kaw, or the Buzzard Decorah, was a son of 
Glory of the Morning and Sebrevior De Carrie, so One-Eyed 
Decorah told Judge Gale. He settled at LaCrosse in 1787 with a 
band of AVinnebago, and was soon after killed by his own son in 
a drunken row. 

One-Eyed Decorah, whose Indian name was AVadge-hut-ta-kaw, 
or Big Canoe, was a son of the Buzzard. He died at Channel 



(near the Tumicll), ]\Ionroe County. Wis., in August. 1864. at an 
advanced age, as Grignon says, of iiinet>-t\v(). Ills village in 
1832 and later was at the nioulli of the Bla<-k livcr. or some say 
near tlie village of SaltMii. on LaOosse river, in Onalaska town- 
ship, LaCrosse county. Also said by Rev. T^runson to be at 
Prairie LaCrosse in 1832. In 1(S2() he was said by Gen. 11. L. Dots- 
nuin to have his village on lilack i'i\<M-. Thomas P. Burnett, in 
1832, when he went up the river lu keei» the Winnebago eanoes 
from Black Hawk, says he "found One-Eyed Decorah and Little 
Thunder at the lower mouth of the Black river." One-Eyed 
Decorah was born about 1772, and was fifteen years of age when 
his father settled at LaCrosse. He aided in the capture of Mack- 
inac (July 17, 1812), and was out with the British in the attack 
on Fort Stephenson, August 2, 1813, and was with IMcKay in tlu' 
capture of Prairie Du Chien; and signed the treaty of 1825. The 
act for which he became celebrated was the capture of Black 
Hawk and the Prophet in 1832. The daring warrior, his band 
and followers, broken, slain and scattered by the murdered, the 
picturesque and rugged valley of the Lemonweir river, and then 
toward the LaCrosse river, where Big Canoe was hunting near 
Bangor, l)elow Sparta, and found Black Hawk, who consented 
to go with him to Prairie Du Chien, where he delivered the cap- 

A brother of One-Eyed Deeoi-ah Avas AVa Kon Han Kaw. or 
Wa kon Decorah, or Snake Skin, commonly called Washington 
Decorah, the orator of the AVinuebago. The name is also rendered 
AYau kon caughaga. His likeness was painted by J. 0. Lewis in 
1825. AYhen Mr. Burnett steamed up the Alississippi river on the 
"Enterprise" to secure the AYinnebago eanoes from Black Hawk, 
July 25, 1832, at sixty miles up the river from Prairie du Chien, 
he found AYashington Decorah with thr pi-iiieipal part of the 
1)and from the AYisconsin and Kickapoo rivers. The AVaukon 
had a village on the headwaters of DeSota creek, below LaCrosse. 
He died at the Black Earth agency about 18(54. Anu)ng those who 
bear the name and boast descent from this famous line of AYinne- 
l)ago chieftains there is one who is destined to become famous 
in the white man's finest art. She is Angel De Cora (this is the 
official spelling), of the reservation in Nebraska, but practicing 
her art in Ne\v York city. She studied art in the art department 
of Smith college at Northampton, Alass., and under the famous 
artist, Howard Pyle, who has interested himself in her success. 
She has been since 1906 an art instructor in Carlisle Indian 


Four Legs, or Neokautah, had his village at the outlet of Lake 
Winnebago, on Doty island, now Menasha and Neenah. This 
has been the ancient home of the Winnebago since first known 
to the whites in 1632. He was known as Neokautah by the 
Menominee; but his Winnebago name was 'Hootschope, pro- 
nounced Hooshoo. Hon. ]\Iorgan L. Martin made a journey up the 
Fox river with Judge Doty from Green Bay to Prairie Du Chien 
to the trial of Red Bird in 1828, and describes this village: "On 
Doty island, very near the mouth, on the west channel, was the 
village of Hootschope, or Four Legs, the w^ell-known Winnebago 
chieftain. There were from 150 to 200 lodges covered with bark 
or mats."' Augustin Grignon also mentions this village ''on Doty 
island, at the mouth of Winnebago lake." On August ]6, 1830, 
Mr. McCall, one of the commissioners to arrange the differences 
between the New York Indian and the AVinnebago, met in council 
Four Legs and ten other chiefs, at Four Legs' lodge on Doty 
island, and mentions "that the head chief was seated on his mat, 
cross-legged, in all the majesty of an Asiatic prince," describing 
Four Legs "as about forty years of age, of middle stature, a 
most interesting man in appearance and deportment, speaks his 
own tongue fluently. In short, he is a great man." Mrs. Kinzie 
mentions Four Legs as the "great chief of the AVinnebago, whose 
village was on Doty island,'' in 1830, and says: "It was at the 
entrance of Lake AVinnebago. a picturesque cluster of huts spread 
around on a pretty green glade and shaded by fine, lofty trees," 
and she furnishes an illustration of the village. She says in 
another place: "It was a cluster of neat bark wigwams." Four 
Legs died in 1830, but his village was still occupied in 1832, 
reported by Cutting Alarsh as "occupied by a small band 
of the AVinnebago tribe." This was the last mentioned of 
this village. Its name is preserved in the word Menasha, 
the city which, with the city of Neenah, occupy its site. 
Menasha was the name of this most ancient Indian 
village on the American continent. The name was by both Curtis 
Reed and Gov. J. D. Doty, the founders of the modern town, said 
to mean the name of the village on the island, and in Dakatah 
would be Alini ha ha, or Laughing AVater, a possible reference to 
the double rapids which ran around their village. At the council 
held in Green Bay, August 24, 1830, Four Legs was head chief. 
Duck was head orator. There was also present Shounk Schunk 
Siap, or Black AVolf ; AVheauk Kaw, or Big Duck, and Alonk Kaw 
Kaw. For entertainment to amuse their visitors Four Legs was 
active. At night a band of AVinnebago appeared "painted all 


colors, naki'd cxccpl hrcrcli cloiit."" Ix'I'orc tlic liousc where 
]\lcC;ill Iionnlcd : ciicoiirM'rcd liy drink. Ili(>- held a \\ai- dance 
until 1<I o'clock '■\vitli disfiuiiicd and distorted countenances," 
The head chief, Four Lc^s, displayetl jj:reat activity. The report 
of the commissioners of llic council of Is:?!) at Green Bay recites 
llial Foui- Letrs and Black Wolf were llic (inly s]>eakei's, and that 
they had siirned the treaty of 1S22 with tlic Xi'w York Indians. 
f--choolcrall mentions that Four Lciis lc\icl li'ihute from trav- 
elers inuuediately after the war of 1812. lie assuuu'd to he the 
keeper of the Fox ri\ci- valley. Col. T. L. Kinney alludes to this 
custom of exactiim ti-ihulc. and relates that General Leaxenwoi-th, 
going up stream with his command in ISKi, was accosted hy Fimii- 
Legs and nolitied that the lake was locked. The General rose 
Avith his gun restin.g on his arm and asked tht^ i7itei'pri4(M' to 
inform the chief that he had the key to unlock it. Four Legs 
replied, ■"Lei him i)ass." This incident mai'ks the last challenge 
of the AViiniehago, and it is said that it took place beneath the 
Treaty Elm that for nuiny years stood a conspicuous landnuirk in 
the county. The "Treaty Ehn,"" or "Council Tree," beneath 
whose Avidespi'cad branches the chiefs of the neighboi-ing tribes 
ai'c said to have been wont 1o gather in council, A\'as located on 
Kiverside pai-k i)()int at the mouth of the Neenah (diannel of the 
Fox river in the city of Neenah. It was of immense size and 
girth, tnwering al)o\e all the surrounding forest, and could be 
seen from poiids eight miles distant. Such was its prominence 
as a landmark that it Avas for many years used as a guide by 
sailors and steam ])il()ts on the lake. It was di'stroyed by a 
charge of dynamite -lunc 12. 1SS7. by the employees of the gov- 
ernment in cutting away the point to widen the channel to 
increase the How of water in tlood times. 

As Foui- Legs was supposed to be foi'ty years of age in 1830, 
the yeai- he died, and he must have been born about 1790, he 
eoidd have taken part in the wai' of 1S12. where he is fi-e(puMitly 
found on the side of the Uritish. .Mrs. Kin/ie mentions the death 
of Four Legs by driidving too much suthr whisky when waiting 
at Foi't Winnebago with the assend)|ed Winnebago for the 
ai-rival of the silvei- from the go\-eriunent for the paymeid of 
t heir a luiuil ies. 

''His body was wra|)ped in a blanket and ]»laced in a mule 
coffin along with his guns, lonudiawk, pipes and a (pundity of 
tobacco. " lie was buried on the most ele\ated point of the hill 
opposite the fort, in the presence of "an immense ])rocessiou of 
his peo])le." A slake was placed at the head of his grave "on 


which was painted in vermilion a series of hieroglyphics descrip- 
tive of deeds and events of his life," and a small white iiag also 
waved over the grave. His wife, who survived him, was a Fox 
woman, but spoke the Chippewa language, which brought hei- 
services into use as an interpreter, as that was the court or uni- 
V(^rsal language among all the tribes. He is said to have been a 
big chief and ' ' a great and mighty warrior. ' ' In 1887 there were 
two descendants living — one was Good Cloud, a woman residing 
at Tomah. Slie has a sou whose name was Good Year. One 
descendant was AVill Dandy, a boy who was at school in AVitten- 
berg mission. He had two cousins also living at Wittenberg. 

Sau-sa-mau-nee was a younger brother of Four Legs and 
fought with him under the British flag in the war of 1812. 

Wild Cat, or Pe-Sheu, had his village on Garlic Island, noAV 
Island park, a small island on the west margin of Lake Winne- 
bago, seven miles south of Alenasha and the same distance north 
of Oshkosh. The village was also located across the solent on the 
mainland. The corn hills are still visible both on the island and 
mainland. Just when this village was established here cannot be 
ascertained, yet it is highly probable that Pe-Sheu liimself was 
its founder and. that he and his tribesmen came from the })rin- 
cipal Winnebago village on Doty's island. One of the earliest 
descriptions of this village is that of 3Irs. (Governor) James D. 
Doty, who records in her journal under the date of August, 1823, 
of a canoe .iourney which she made with her Inisband, who was 
on the way up the i'i\er to hold court at Prairie Du Chien: ''AYe 
coasted along the west shore of Lake AVinnebago to Garlic island, 
on the opposite point to wliieh is a AVinnebago village of tine per- 
manent lodges and fine cornfields." The late Judge Morgan L. 
^Martin made the same journey in birch-bark canoes with Judge 
Doty and others in 1828 on their way to try Red Bird, the AVin- 
nebago, for murder. "Garlic island was the next stopping place. 
There was a AVinnebago village there of about the same size as 
that over which Four Legs (Doty island) presided (150 to 200 
lodges covered with bark mats). The lodges, however, were 
longer and neater. AYe purchased supplies of vegetables of the 
island villagers." From these descriptions it Avould appear that 
the village occupied both the island and mainland, that the wig- 
wams were well constructed, the fields of Indian maize of con- 
siderable extent, and the population at that time one of 1,000 or 
more persons. Chief AA^ild Cat was a large and bulky savage 
with a hasty and ferocious temper which often got him into diffi- 
culties. He was probably born at Doty island at some time 


previous to the Revolution. Tlie earliest knowledge we have of 
this chieftain is from a remark he once made when he and Sarcel, 
a AViunebago chief, had a dispute in regard to their relative 
bravery. On this occasion AVild Cat is said to have exclaimed, 
"Don't you remember the time we aided the Shawanoes (English) 
in attacking the fort that you ran ofT so fast that you lost your 
breech clout?'' This remark had reference to the Indian war of 
1793, when the British liad incited the western Indians to fre- 
quent depredations against the straggling white settlers in Ohio 
and IMichigan. There is a possibility also that he may have served 
with Charles de Langlade under the British flag in the War of the 
Revolution. Certain it is that in 1797 he was considered of suf- 
ficient importance to receive from the royal otficers the medal of 
their king. This bronze medal, given as a memento of distin- 
guished favor by King George III to his savage ally in his wild- 
■\vood home on the shore of Lake AVinncbago, now reposes in the 
museum of Lawrence University at Applcton. It Avas deposited 
there about the year 1875 by Mr. D. C. Church, of Vinland, who 
obtained it from Louis B. Porlier, of Butte des Morts, a trader 
and son of Judge Porlier. 

Mrs. Kinzie says the AVild Cat was ''our Indian Falstatf in 
all save cowardice and falsehood." Being made drunk, he was 
unable to get to Fort Armstrong at Rock Island in time to object 
to the treaty of 1831, and when he found it granted the lands on 
which stood his village he Avept. It is said that he was found 
dead against an oak tree in the center of the Avoods. Avliere Osli- 
kosh now stands. He was at the payments in Portage in 1830- 
1831, and is said to have died soon after the Black Hawk AVar, 
which Avould make the date of his death about 1833. He is 
reported to have gone under the partisan British leader of the 
AVisconsin savages. Col. Robert Dickson, early in 1812, to the cap- 
ture of Alackinae. The following spring he fought with Tecum- 
seh at Fort ^leigs. and after his defeat Avas beaten oflf at Fort 
Stephenson or Sandusky. He Avas also a part of the AVinnebago 
contingent under ^IcKay in the i-apture of Prairie du Chien. In 
the Avinter of 1814 Dickson, Avith his convoy of supplies, Avas ice 
bound until January on Garlic island at Pesheu's village. 

Black AVolf. or Shouuktshunksiap. Avas a celebrated character 
in the border days of a century past. Airs. Kinzie has left a racy 
sketch of this bold Avarrier, Black AVolf. "Avhose loAvering, surly 
face Avell described his name. The fierce expression of coun- 
tenance Avas greatly heightened by the masses of heavy black 
hair, contrarv to the usual custom of the AA^innebago. AA'ho for the 


most part cut away a portion of the hair, drawing the remainder 
back of the head, clubbed and ornamented with beads, ribbons, 
cocks' feathers, or if entitled, an eagle feather for every scalp 
taken from an enemy." 

On a point of land known as Black AVolf point, in tiie town of 
Black AVolf, AYinnebago county, jutting out into Lake AVinne- 
bago, at a distance of seven miles south of the city of Oshkosh, 
there was formerly located Black AVolf 's AVinnebago Indian vil- 
lage. It is said to have numbered not more than forty huts. The 
date of its establishment here is not exactly known, but it is sup- 
posed to have been about the year 1800 or slightly before. Mrs. 
G. A. Randall, who formerly resided at Randall's point, remem- 
bers to have seen the Indian tepees and camp fires along the shore 
of Black AA'olf point as late as the year 1846. Chief Black AVolf 
was a character of some importance. He was a large man and 
much respected by his people, and was called a war chief. In the 
attacks on Mackinac in the AVar of 1812 he fought under the lead- 
ership of Col. Robert Dickson. After the war the British, still 
seeking to hold the AVinnebago in their interest for purposes of 
trade, called them to Mackinac to a couueil or treaty with C'ol. 
Robert McDonald, a British connnissioner. Black AVolf was one 
of those in attendance at this gathering. He also participated 
with the British and their allies in the capture of Prairie du 
Chien in the year 181-1. He was one of the signers of the land 
grant negotiated by Eleazer AVilliams in 1821 with Four Legs, 
the AVinnebago head chief, and others, by which the New York 
Indians were to receive a strip of land five miles in width along 
the lower Fox, "from Grand Kachalin rapids to AVinnebago rap- 
ids," in AA^innebago county. He also participated in the councils 
held at Green Bay and Doty Island for a similar purpose in 1830 
He is said to have died at Portage in the year 1847. During the 
Black Hawk AVar, Black AVolf camped Avith the AVinnebago as- 
sembled at the site of Portage, on both sides of the AVisconsin 
river. The principal chiefs in these camps were Black AVolf, his 
son Dandy, AA^hite Eagle, AVhite Crow and Broken Arm. 

Dandy, the Bean Brummel of the AVinnebago, was a son of 
Black Wolf and a cousin of Four Legs. "He wore fancy dress 
shirts of the brightest color, ornaments v/ith rows of silver 
brooches, and displayed two pairs of arm bands. His leggins and 
moccasins were of the most elaborate embroidery in ribbons and 
porcupine quills. Numerous ornaments were dangling from his 
club of black hair. A feather fan was in one hand and a mirror 
in the other. His face was brilliantly colored and daubed.'* 


La Koiulf says Dandy, son of lilack Wolf, was also known as 
J^itlle Soldier. His village is j-rpoi-lcd by .Mi'. W. If. Canfiold 
as being in 18M9 on the Baraboo rivci-. five or six miles above tbe 
present city <d' Uaiaboo. Old Dandy was one of those Paqnette 
went al'trr. tlicM scxcnly years old, wIid was a small. Iliin man, 
and till' only \\'innfi)a<ro avIio. at'lcr the l»iTaking of tril)al rela- 
tions in lS4iS, was generally I'especled as eliief of Ihe li'ibe. He 
went to Washington in ]82(S with War Eagle and others to see 
tile President. His camp was then near the Dalles, lie said he 
would not go to Long I'rairic and was allowed to i-eniain. Jn 
1834 Captain Sununer was sent hack lo Portage to hunt for 
Dandy. He was found at the head of l>aral»oo river and made to 
ride horseba(d\ with his legs chained undei- the animal \vith an 
ox-ehain. He d(>manded to he taken to Governor Dodge at .Min- 
eral Point. Dodge asked him what was wanted. Dandy took a 
l)ihle from his ])osom and asked the governor if it was a good 
book. He answered it was a good hook— he could never have a 
better in his band. '"Then." said Dandy, "if a man Avould do all 
that Avas in that book could any moi-e be required of him?" He 
answered. "No."" "AVell."" said Dandy, "look that hook all 
through, and if you lind in it that Dandy ought to he reuu)ved by 
the government to Turkey i-ivei-. then [ will go right olt' : hut if 
you do not find it 1 will never go there to stay."' The governor 
informed him his tri(d\ would not work. He was then replaced 
on the horse, his feet chained up again and taken to Pi-aii-ie du 
Chien. The chain blistered his feet and legs so he Avas unable to 
walk for thi'ee W(>eks. He Avas then ])ut in charge of a coi'poral, 
Avho Avas obliged to carry l)and\' on liis haid^; to a buggy to be 
taken to Turkey rivei'. Dandy claindng he Avas unable to Avalk. 
The buggy Avas at the fort gate and the eorjioral. supposing 
Dandy unable to walk, lelt him \'nv a moment to reenter the fort. 
Dandy .)um|>ed from the buggy and ran into the forest, where 
the eorpoi'al c(»uld not find him. IFe remained in Wisconsin an<l 
died on the Peten Well blutV. an isolated rocky |)eak on tlu' Wis- 
consin rix'er. in -Inne. 1870. aged seventy-seven years. 

The ^'ellow Thunder "was a line looking Indian, tall, straight 
and stately."" His old encampment was about five miles beloAV 
Kerlin. on the Fox river, at the Yellow baidss. This Avould locate 
Ills village in section •'!!. neai- lOureka. in Winnebago county. In 
1832 at the of the Plaek Hawk War Col. Charles Whittlesey 
Avith four othei-s made a saddle joui'uey o\ei" the TomahaAvk 
trail along the left Itank of tiie lowei- Fox and right bank or east 
side of the u|i|>er l'"ox rivei'. Before arriving at Fort Wiiuiebago 

tup: avixxebago chiefs 43 

he passed two '\Viiinel)ag'o villages, one ot whieh was that ot Yel- 
low Thunder. He mentions crossing the Fox river in a tlat-boat 
and landing near the spot where the father of "Grizzly Bear/' a 
Menominee, is said to have lived. Here, he says, commenced a 
rolling prairie that eontinned for fifty miles (since known as 
Democrat prairie.) ""The trail passed two AVinnebago villages, 
one of which Avas called Yellow Thunder from its chief." The 
villagers, much to their annoyance, folloAved the party out of 
their village on horseback. Hon. INIorgan L. Alartin mentions 
passing a "AVinnebago village on Green Lake prairie" in 1829, 
Avhich may have been the village of Yellow Thunder. In 1828 
Yellow Thunder and his squaw, a daughter of AVhite Crow, made 
a journey to AVashington to interview the President, and there- 
after his squaw was known as AVashington AVoman. Yellow 
Thunder was a convert to the Catholic church and became zealous 
in its offices and was called the head war chief of his tribe. B.y 
false pretenses he was induced witli others to visit AVashington 
in 1837 and signed a false treaty, which granted the government 
all their lands east of the Alississippi river, under Avhich. three 
years after, he was one of the tirst to sulfer by being forcibly put 
in irons at Portage and removed to Yellow rivin*. Iowa. Yellow 
Thunder soon returned and requested LaRonde to go with him to 
^Mineral Point to enter a forty of land on the west bank of the 
AA^isconsin river. In reply to an inquiry if Indians could enter 
lands, '"Yes, the government has given no orders to the con- 
trary." So Yellow Thunder, the head war chief of the AVinne- 
bago, entered, lived and died on his forty of land. He was again 
forcibly removed to Iowa with Black AVolf, but was allowed to 
return, as he was a land owner. Yellow Thunder owned the 
southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 36, on the 
AVisconsin river, town of Delton, Sauk county, two log huts hav- 
ing been constructed for his own use and that of families who 
lived with him. About five acres of land was cultivated, raising* 
corn, beans and potatoes. During big feasts as many as 1,500 
Indians gathered in the vicinity. Shortly before his death he sold 
his land to Mr. John Bennett. It is related that when he paid his 
taxes he placed a kernel of corn in a leather pouch for each dollar 
of taxes paid, and when he sold the land he demanded as numy 
dollars as there were kernels of corn in the old pouch. His sum- 
mer village was sixteen miles up the I'ive]' fi-om Portage, in 1840, 
where Dandy and Little Duck also camped. YelloAv Thunder died 
in 1874; said to have been childless, and was l)uried on a sandy 
knoll. X^ear by are the graves of AA^ashington AVoman and several 


other Indians. She was Iniried hitting up, facing the east. A 
painting of Yellow Thunder hangs in the rooms of the "Wisconsin 
Historical Society, and an unpublished manuscript giving ''per- 
sonal reminiscences," by ]\Irs. A. C. Flanders, is deposited in tlie 
public library at Portage. 



(Compiled from "Story of the Black Hawk War," l)y U. G. 
Thwaites, in Wisconsin Historical Collection. — Editor.) 
When Wisconsin was still a part of Michigan territory and 
known as "Michiganter, " long before the idea of a separate terri- 
tory was thought of, when it was an almost trackless wilderness in 
1832, occurred the historic Black Hawk War; few events in the his- 
tory of the Northwest were as far reaching in consequences as this 
tragic struggle and perhaps none caused more bitter controversies, 
was the subject of more incorrect notions as to the causes, inci- 
dents, and the relative merits of the chief participants. The south- 
ern portion of this county, it is believed, was a part of the ter- 
ritory traversed by Black Hawk in his final retreat from the 
Mississippi with pitiful remnant of his band, making his escape 
into the Dells of Wisconsin, where he was finally captured. 

On November 3, 1840, the United States government concluded 
a treaty w'ith the Sac and Fox Indians, by wdiich, for the paltrj^ 
sum of $1,000, the Indian confederacy ceded fifty million acres 
of land comprising in general terms the present state of Missouri 
and the territory lying between the Wisconsin river on the north, 
the Fox river of the Illinois on the east, the Illinois river on the 
southeast and the Mississippi on the west ; in this treaty was a 
clause wdiich became one of the chief causes of Black Hawk War, 
which provided that the Indians need not vacate the lands, stipu- 
lating that "as long as the lands which are now ceded to the 
ITnited States remain their property" — that is to say public land 
— "the Indians belonging to said tribes shall enjoy the privilege 
of living and hunting upon them." 

Within the limits of this territory, situated on the Rock river 
three miles from its mouth and the same distance south of Rock 
Island was the chief village and seat of power of the Sacs, con- 
taining a population of about five hundred families and one of 
the largest Indian villages on the continent. 

The principal character in this village was Black Sparrow 
Hawk, or as commonly styled Black Hawk, born in 1767: he was 



not an luM'editai'v oi- an elected eliiel'. but was hy coiiinion consent 
the leader of tlie villaj^e. Altliough not endowed witli superior 
moral or intellectual (|iialities the foree of cii'cuiiistances made 
liim a national eelel)rity in his own day and a eonsj)icuous figure 
in western liistoi-y foi- all time. He was a restless, aml)itious sav- 
age, jiossessed of some of the (lualities of leadiM'ship l)ut without 
the eapaeity to attain the highest honoi-s in the Sac and Kox con- 
federacy, lie was jealous of othei" chiefs, quai'relsonie in council. 
eontinuall.v sought excuses to differ with them on ([uestions of 
policy and aii-ayed his lollowing against them, was a good deal 
of a denuigogue and ai-oused 1he passion and ])rejmlices of his 
peoph^ ])\ iiii|)assionetl ai)peals. He was doulitless sincere in his 
opinions and honest in his nu)tives. He was easily influenced by 
the Bi-itish.militai-y and connnei-cial agents, who were continually 
engaged previous to the war of 1812, in cultivating a spirit of 
hostility l)etween the Noi'thwestern tribes and the Americans, was 
led by them to consider himself under the especial protection of 
the ''I^ritish Father"' at Maiden. Too conflding a disposition. 
he was readil.v duped by those who. whitt' or red, were interested 
in deceiving him. 

l^lack Hawk was about five feet, foui- or fiv(^ inches in heiglit. 
rather si)are as to flesh ; his souu-what i)inched features ex- 
aggerated the prominence of his cheek Ixines; a full mouth inclined 
to be somewhat o])en when at rest, a pi-onounced Roman nose, 
fine "piercing" eyes, often beaming with a kindly and alwa.vs 
with a thoughtful expression, no eyebrows, a high full foi'ehead. 
liead well thrown back, with a pose of (piiet dignit.x . haii- plucked 
out with the exception of a seal]) lock in which, on ceremonial 
occasions was fastened a bunch of eagle feathers; such is a pen 
jiortrait of this ce]el)iity. 

He, with two hundred of his followi'i's. who became known as 
the "British baiul" served wilh Tecuniseh and the liritish in Ihe 
war of 1812. After burying the hatchet. Black Hawk settled 
down to the customary routine of savage life makiuLi- fre(iuent 
trips to iMalden foi* i)r()visions, arms and ammunition, and by 
flattery of the British agents his hatred against Americans was 
increased, but it is not at all surprising that he hated the Ameri- 
cans, his life was continually being disturbed l)y them and a cruel 
and causeless beating which some white settlers gave him in the 
winter of 1822 and 182:5 was an insult which he treasured up 
against the entire American people. 

In the sunnner of 1823, squatters, coveting the rich fields 
cultivateil bv the P>i-itish band neai- their villasre 1)egan to take 


possession of them ; outrages were committed of the most flagrant 
nature, Indian cornfields were fenced in hy intruders, squaws 
and children were whipped for venturing beyonds the ])Ounds 
thus established, lodges were burned over the heads of the occu- 
pants ; a reign of terror- ensued in which frequent remonstrances 
of Black Hawk to the white autliorities were in vain. It was 
all a plain violation of the treaty rights of the Indians and grew 
from year to year. When the Indians returned each spring from 
their winter's hunt they found their village more of a wreck 
than when they had left it in the fall. Black Hawk was advised 
by Keokuk the chief of the confederacy to retreat across the Miss- 
issippi, but Black Hawk was stubborn, appealed to his people, to 
their love of home and veneration for the graves of their kindred, 
for here was located their cemetery, and his people stood by him. 
He them made the claim that the representatives of the Sac and 
Fox tribes who negotiated the treaty of 1804, had not consented 
that the land upon which Black Hawk's village stood should be 
the property of the United States. In this he was of course not 
borne out by the facts but persisted in tliat understanding, and 
was advised by the mischief making British agents that if it was 
true that the government had not 1)0ught the site of his village 
to hold fast to it and the United States woidd not venture to 
remove him by force. 

In this he was also encouraged by White Cloud, the Winnebago 
prophet, who was a shrewd, craft}" Indian, half Winnebago and 
half Sac, possessing much influence over both nations from his 
assumption of sacred talents and was the head of a Winnebago 
village some thirty-five miles above the mouth of the Rock river ,- 
he hated the whites, seemed devoid of humane sentiments and 
seemed to enjoy sowing the seeds of discord, a remarkable man 
physically and mentally, a fine orator and strong in the councils. 

In the spring of 1830, Black Hawk and his band returned from 
an unsuccessful hunt to find their town almost completely shat- 
tered, many of the graves plowed over, and the whites more 
abusive than ever; during the winter, the scpiatters who had for 
seven years been illegally on the land preempted a few quarter 
sections at the mouth of the Rock, so selected as to cover the vil- 
lage site and the Sac cornfields. This was clearly a trick to accord 
with the letter but violated the spirit of the treaty of 1804; there 
was still fifty miles of practically unoccupied territory to the 
east of the village and no necessity for disturbing the Sacs for 
many years to come. 

When in the spring of 1831, Hawk again returned after a 



profitles;s limit, Ik- was fiereely warned auav by tlu- whites; lie, in a 
dignified inannci-. notilicd the settlers that it' they did not them- 
selves remove that he should use foree to eviet thciu. meaning 
physical force. This was construed 1)\- the whites to he a threat 
against their lives and petitions and messages were sent to Gov. 
Jolui ]\cynolds of Illinois, in terms so exaggerated that they would 
he amusing were it not that they were the prelude to one of the 
darkest tragedies of our western border. The governor issued an 
inflammatory ])roclamation. calling for volunteers to "repel the 
invasion of the ]^ritisli l)and"; these sixteen hundred strong and 
mounted, with ten companies of regulars under Gen. Edmund P. 
<iaines, made a demonstration before Black Hawk's village on 
the 25th of .lime. 

During the night, the Indians, in the face of such a superior 
foree quietly withdrew to the west bank of the ^Mississippi. On 
the thirtieth they signed a treaty of capitulation and peace, with 
Governor Reynolds and General Gaines, solemnly agreeing never 
to return to the east side of the river without express permission 
of the United States govei-nment. 

The rest of the summer was spent by the evicted savages in 
misery, it was too late to raise another crop of corn and beans 
and they suffered for the necessaries of life ; another difificulty 
arose; the previous year (1830) a party of ]\Ienomonee and Sioux 
had murdered some of Black Hawk's band and a few weeks after 
their removal Black Hawk headed a large war ]>ai't\' which as- 
cended the river and in retaliation massacred all but one of a 
party of twenty-eight ^lenomonees camped near Fort Crawford. 
Complaint was made to Gen. Joseph Street, Indian agent at the 
post who demanded that the murderers be delivered to him for 
trial, under existing treaty provisions, but as none of the 
Menomonees who had imii'dered his peoph^ had been given up, 
Black Hawk declined to accede, there])y rebelling against the 
authority of the Ignited States. 

Neapope, who was second in command in the British band 
who had gone upon a visit to ^Maiden prior to the eviction, 
returned in the fall and reported to his chief proffers of aid from 
the liritish, the AVinnebagoes, Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawat- 
omies in regaining their village. AVhite Cloud advised Black 
Hawk to proceed to the j)i'ophet's town the following spring and 
raise a crop of corn and that by fall the allies would be ready to 
join the Sac leader in a general movement against the whites in 
the valley of the Rock; relying upon tiiese promises Black Hawk 
spent the winter with his hiind on tlie deserted site of old P^ort 


IMadison on the west side of the river. On the sixth of April, 1832, 
Black Hawk with al)ont five hundred warriors, their squaws and 
children, with all their lielongings crossed the INIississippi a little 
below the mouth of the Rock and invaded Illinois. The results 
of the negotiations with the Winnebagoes and other tribes during 
the winter had not been satisfactory, but White Cloud, the prophet 
met him and gave him assurance of success and the misguided Sac 
proceeded confidently on his march, arrived at the prophet's 
town with four hundred and fifty of his braves, well mounted, 
while the others, with women, children and equipage, remained 
with the canoes ; the intention being to raise a crop of corn im- 
mediately above the prophet's town and prepare for war in the 
fall. Immediately upon crossing the river Black Hawk sent mes- 
sengers to the Pottawatomies to meet him in council, but this 
tribe was much divided; Shaubena, a chief of much ability, very 
friendly to the whites succeeded in persuading a majority of the 
braves to at least remain neutral ; but the hotheads under Big 
Foot and a despicable half breed British agent, Mike Girty, were 
fierce for war. Shaubena after quieting his followers set out 
immediately on a tour of the settlements in the Illinois and Rock 
river valleys warning the pioneers of the approaching war, even 
extending liis mission as far as Chicago. Gen. Henry Atkinson, 
who had arrived at Fort Armstrong early in the spring, with a 
half comj^any of regulars, to enforce the demand for the delivery 
of the Sac murderers, learned of the invasion on the 13th of April, 
and at once notified Governor Reynolds that his own force was too 
small and that a large force of militia was essential. Governor 
Reynolds at once issued another fiery proclamation for mounted 
volunteers. The news spread like wild fire ; some settlers fled, 
never to return ; the majority, however, which did not join the 
state troops went to the larger settlements where rude stockade 
forts were built, the inhabitants forming themselves into garrisons, 
with officers and some degree of military discipline. 

The spring was backward and General Atkinson was greatly 
hampered in collecting troops, stores, boats and camp equipage ; 
during his preparations he took occasion to assure himself of the 
peaceful attitude of the Sacs and Foxes not members of the British 
band. He also sent two messages to Black Hawk ordering him 
to at once withdraw to the west bank of the river on the peril of 
being driven there by force of arms, to liotli of which the Sac 
leader sent defiant answers. 

The volunteers collected at Beardstown and were organized into 
four regiments under the command of Col. John Thomas, Col. 



Jat'ol) Kr.w Col. Aliralumi 1>. Dcwitt and ( 'ol. Saiiiurl .M. Thompson, 
a scout l)attalion under ^laj. James 1). Henry and two ''odd" 
l)attalions uiidii- Majoi's Thomas James and Thomas Long. The 
entire foree, some sixteen hundred sti-on<r. all horsemen except 
three liuiidiTd wlio had been enlisted as infanti'.v. by mistake, was 
placi'd undci- command of Ui'lj^'. (icn. Saiiiucl Whiteside, who had 
some )-('putation as an Indian tighter. Accomi)anied by (iovernor 
Reynolds the brigade proceeded to Fort Armstrong and the vol- 
unteei's Were at once sworn into the I'liitcd States service by (len- 
eral Atkinson; the governor, who i-emaiiicd with ins troops was 
recognized and })aid as a major general, while Lieut. Robert 
Anderson (later of Foi-t Sumter fame) was detailed from the 
regulars as ins])ector of the Illinois militia. 

On the ninth of May a .start was made. AVhitesiih-. with the 
mounted troops, following Black Hawk's ti-ail up the east bank of 
the Rock. (Jeneral Atkinson followed in boats with cannon, provi- 
sions and the bulk of the baguagc. AVith him were :^00 volunteer 
and 400 regular infanti*y. the latter gathered from Forts (,'raw- 
ford and Leavenwoi-th and under the command of Col. Zacharv 
Taylor, afterwai'ds ])resident of the Ignited States. The trav- 
eling was bad for both divisions: heavy rains had made the river 
turbulent, the men frequently wading breast deep for liours 
together pushing the ^Nfackinaw boats against the rapid currents 
and lifting them ovei- the ra])ids: while ahtng the trail through the 
swamps baggage wagons were often miicd and the cavalry were 
ol)liged to (1(^ i-ough service in hauling freight thi-ough and over 
the black muck and tangled roots. 

Whiteside aiM'ived at the ])i'opliet"s town, tinding it deserted, 
with a fresh trail up the rivei'. so he pushed on i-apidly as pos- 
sible to Dixon's, airiving there Ma\' 12. Here he found two inde- 
pendent battalions. ;^40 men all told, undei' .Ma.jni-s Isiah Slillman 
and David Baile\" : these troops were not of the i-egulai- levy, but 
Were well sui)jdie(l with provisions and aiiiiiiunition in which 
Whiteside was deficient, and l)eing imi)atient and anxious to do 
something brilliant, they obtained AVhiteside's i)ermission to go 
forward as a scouting party and set out on the morning of the 
L"?th uiuler Stillman. ai-riving late in the aftei-noon of the 14th 
three miles south of the mouth of Sycamore creek, where they went 
into eamp in a strong posit i(ui. being in a grove surroumled by 
clear i)i-aii-ie. and under ordinary conditions of warfare could 
have repulsed ten times their numbei'. 

lilack Hawk stayed a week at the Prophet's town, holding fruit- 
less councils with the \vil\ and \ai'illating Winneba<roes: learning 


positively that he had l)een deceived, lie pushed on to keep his 
engagement for a eoiineil at Sycamore creek with the Pottawato- 
mies, faint at heart though vaguely hoping for ])etter things from 
this tribe. He went into camp with his principal men in a large 
grove near the mouth of Sycamore creek, met the chiefs of the 
tribe and found that tlii-ough the influence of Shaubena it was 
impossible for him to gain the support of more than about one 
hundred of the hot-headed element. Black Hawk stated in after 
years that he had at tliis time resolved to retui-n at once to the 
west of the ^Mississippi should he be again summoned to do so by 
(leneral Atkinson and never more disturb the peace of the white 
settlements. As a parting courtesy to his guests, however, he 
was making arrangements to give them a dog feast on the evening 
of IMay ]4 wlien the summons came in a manner little anticipated 
l)y liim. 

Tlie white-hating faction of the Pottawatomies were camped 
on the Kishwaukee river seven miles north of Black Hawk and 
with them the majority of his own party; Black Hawk says in his 
autobiography, that not more than forty of his braves were with 
lum upon the council ground ; towards evening, in tlie midst of 
liis feast preparations, he was informed that a party of white 
horsemen were going into camp three miles down the rock : it was 
Still man's force, l)ut the chief thought it was a small party headed 
by Atkinson, being unaware of the size of the force placed in the 
field against him, and sent three of ins young men witli white 
flags to parley with them and convey his oft'er to meet White 
Beaver (Atkinson) in council. The rangers, who regarded the 
expedition as a big frolic, were engaged in preparing their camp 
when the truce bearers appeared on the prairie a mile away. A 
mob of troopers rushed out at them, some with saddles and some 
without, and ran the visitors into camp amidst a ]iul)l»ul> of yells 
and imprecations. Black Hawk had sent five other braves to fol- 
low the flagmen at a safe distance and watch developments. This 
second party was sighted by about twenty horsemen and were said 
to have been partially intoxicated, hot chase was given to the spies 
and two of them were killed, the other three galloped back to their 
grove and reported to their chief that not only two of their num- 
l)er, l)ut the three flag bearers as well had been cruelly slain; this 
flagrant disregard of the rules of war caused tlic l)lood of tlie old 
Sac to boil with indignation, tearing to shreds a flag of truce 
which he had himself been preparing to carry to the white camp, 
he fiercely harangued his thirty-five braves and bade them avenge • 
the lilond of their liretliren nt anv risk. 


Tlu' neutral Pottawatomics at oik-c w itlitli-cw to tlicif village 
whik' Black Hawk and his Sacs, securely mounted, sallied forth to 
meet the enemy. The entire white force was soon seen I'ushing 
towai'ds them pell iiicll. in a confused mass. The Sacs withdrew 
hehind a fringe of hushes, their leader hurriedly l)ade them to 
.stand firm; on catching sight of this gi-im array the whites paused, 
1)ut l)efore they had a chance to turn, Black Hawk sounded tlu; 
war whoop and the savages dashed forward and fired. The Sac 
ehief tells us that he thought the charge was suicidal when he 
ordered it. hut enraged 1)\- the treachery of the whites he and all 
with him were ready to die to secure revenge. On the first fire of 
the Indians the whites fled in great consternation, without firing a 
shot, pursued hy this little l)and of savages until nightfall ended 
the chase. But nightfall did not end the rout; the volunteers, 
haunted l)y fear dashed through their own impregnahle camp, 
leaving everything hehind them, plunged madly through creeks 
and swamps till they reached Dixon's, twenty-five miles away, 
where they straggled in for the next twenty-four houi's; many 
did not stop there, hut continued until they reached their own 
homes, fifty or more miles farther on, and reported that Black 
Hawk with two thousand bloodthirsty warriors was sweeping 
northern Illinois with destruction. The white loss in all this ill- 
starred scrimmage was eleven kilh'd. while the Indians lost two 
spies and one of the flag bearers, the others escaping. The flight 
of Stillman's corps was wholly inexcusable; Stillman undoubtedly 
tried to rally his men, but the lack of discipline and experience, 
coupled with a lack of confidence, wrought havoc. It was a treach- 
erous thing to treat the bearers of flags of truce as they did, some- 
thing which even savages rarely disi-egard, and l)ut for this wanton 
act the Black Hawk War would have been a bloodless demonstra- 
tion. Unfortunately for oui- own good name, this violation of the 
rules of war was repeated more than once dui'ing this war. 

This easy victory elated Black Hawk and gavt- him a poor 
opinion of the valor of the opposing forces; almost wholly destitute 
of provisions and ammunition, the capture of Stilhnan's stores 
was a rich prize. He recognized that war was inevitable and sent 
scouts to watch the enemy while he hurriedly withdi'ew the women 
and children to the head waters of Hock river in ^Michigan terri- 
tory (now Wisconsin), to which he was guided by friendly Winne- 
bagoes. Here he reci'uitcd ])ai-ti('s of Winnebagoes and Pottawat- 
omies and descended into northern Illinois, prepared for border 
• warfare. 

Stillman's di't'eat inaugurated a reign of terror in the terri- 


tory between the Illinois and Wisconsin rivers ; the name of Black 
Hawk became ronpled the country over with stories of savage cun- 
ning and cruelty, his name serving as a household bugaboo. Shau- 
bena again sounded the alarm and settlers again left their fields 
and hurried to the forts. 

"Whiteside, on ]\Iay 15tii, the day of the battle, with one thou- 
sand four hundred men, proceeded to the scene and buried the 
dead. On the 19th Atkinson and the entire army moved up 
the Rock river, leaving Stillman's corps at Dixon to care for the 
wounded and guard supplies. They added to their record of 
infamy by deserting their post and going home. Atkinson hastily 
returned ; Whiteside being left to follow Black Hawk ; his men 
grew weary of soldiering, declaring that the Indians were in the 
unexplored and impenetrable swamps to the north, which were in 
jMichigan territory, and farther, that they could not be compelled 
to serve out of the state ; after two or three days of fruitless 
skirmishing, upon approaching the state line, a consultation of 
officers w^as held at which it was determined to abandon the search, 
the troops were marched back to Ottawa, where they were mus- 
tered out on the 27th and 28th of ]\Iay. On their way to Ottawa 
the militiamen stopped at the Davis farm on Indian creek, where 
a terrible massacre of whites had occurred a few days before and 
saw the mutilated corpses of fifteen men, women and children. 
This revolting spectacle, instead of nerving the troops to renewed 
action in defense of their homes, appears to have still further dis- 
heartened them. 

And so the first campaign of the war ended as it had begun, 
with an exhibition of cowardice on the part of the Illinois militia. 


Governor Reynolds was active and at once arranged for a levy 
of "at least two thousand" men to serve through the war to ren- 
dezvous at Beardstown June 10 ; the general government ordered 
1,000 regulars under General Winfield Scott to proceed from the 
seaboard to the seat of war, future operations against the enemy 
to be under the command of General Scott. At General Atkin- 
son's earnest appeal, 300 mounted rangers under Col. Henry Frye 
agreed to remain in the field to protect the northern line of Illinois 
settlements until the new levy could be mobilized. 

Black Hawk divided his force into war parties, himself leading 
the largest, about two hundred, assisted by small parties of Winne- 
bagoes and about one hundred Pottawatomies under Mike Girty, 


doscondrd tlic UNx-k riv< r iVom lijikr Kdslikoiion^ aiid iluriny: the 
iri'fiiuhir wjirfiii-c wincli now hi-okc out in mn'tlicrn Illinois and 
what is now soullin-n Wisconsin, sonic two Iimm(|!'<'<1 whites and 
nearly as many Jndians lost thcii- lives, the panic among settlers 
was widc-spirad and great suffering ensued. .Many incidents of 
this boi'dcr warfare arc of histoi-ic intei-es1. and have liecn the 
cause of much discussion. hn1 owing to the \ast amount of such 
iiewspapci- discussion and tiocumeutary colhH-tions. only an inci- 
dent or two will l)e alluded to here. 

( )n tile e\-eniug of .June 14tli a party of eleven Sacs killed live 
white men at Spalford's fai-m in what is now LaFayette county. 
WLsconsiu. Col. Henry Dotlge. with twenty-nine mc^n. followed 
and the next day overtook tlu' savages in a neighboring swamj). A 
battle ensued lasting but a short tiuu', the eleven Jndians were 
killed and scalped, the w hitcs hisiug tlu-ec killed and one wounded. 
No incident in the entire war has been so thoi-oughly discussetl 
and (|uarreled ovei- as this bhioily skirmish. 

On dune 24th l^lack Hawk's own party made a desperate 
attack on Apple River fort, fourteen miles east of (ialcMia. III.. 
which sustained a heavy siege for upwards of an houi-. the liltle 
garrison displaying r<'mai-kfdile \igoi-. the women and gii-ls mould- 
ing bullets, loading guns and generally |)roving themselves boi-- 
der heroines. The red men retired with small loss, setting tire to 
neighboring cabins and fields. The ne.xt day the same wai- party 
attacked IMajor Dement 's si)y battallion at Kellogg 's gi'ove. six- 
teen miles to the east; the Indians were routed ujion (Jeneral Posey 
bi-inging reinforcements, losing al)0Ut fifteen killed while the whites 
lost hut five. 

The people of what is now llie lead iidniug disti'ici of south- 
western Wisconsin became alai-mcd foi- fear that the troops cen- 
tered on Kock )'ivci- would drive the enemy across the Illinois 
hoi'der npon them; tlx' news of RIack Hawk's invasion in May 
had i-eached them and i>i'epa rations for wcu-e at once 
Ix'gun ; ('ol. 7Ieni-y Dodge, one of the ]>ioncers of the lead region, 
held a commission as chief of the .Michigan unlit ia west of Lake 
^Michigan, and assumed direction of the uulitary oi)crations north 
of the Illinois line. With a company of twenty -seven hastily 
e(|ui]ipe(l rangers he made a trii) to Dixcm to reeonnoiter the coun- 
try and to solicit aid from (lovci'uor Reynolds, in which he was 
not sueeessful. and returned to the nnnes bearing the news of Still- 
num's defeat. Aftei- arranging to recruit three additional com- 
panies he went with fifty men to Whitt> Crow's Winnebago vil- 
lage, at the hciid of Fourth lake some four ndlcs northwest of the 


site of Madison, for the purpose of holding eoimcil with a view 
to keeping them quiet during the present crisis ; he received pro- 
fuse assurances of their fidelity to the American cause, but he 
seems to have placed small reliance upon their sincerity. 

Upon returning Dodge started for headquarters at Fort 
Union with 200 mounted rangers, gathered from the mines and 
fields, a free and easy set of dare devils having an intense hatred 
of the Indian race ; they were disciplined to some extent, but in 
their march through the country paid' l)ut little attention to 
regulations. On the 3d of June they arrived at Blue ^Mounds 
just in time to receive the Hall girls brought in hy White Crow. 
Crow's manner being offensive. Dodge had him and his compan- 
ions put into the guard house as hostages for the good behavior of 
the Fourth lake band. Dodge being joined by a small party of 
Hlinois rangers under Capt. J. W. Stephenson, proceeded to 
Ottawa to confer with General Atkinson. After remaining a few 
days, the rangers returned to the lead mines to complete the 
defenses there. 

In less than three weeks after Stillman's defeat, Reynolds and 
Atkinson had recruited 3,200 troops, divided into three brigades, 
under Generals Alexander Posey, M. K. Alexander and James D. 
Henry, and in addition were Fry's rangers, half of whom con- 
tinued their service to protect the settlements and stores on Rock 
river. AVith these. Dodge's Michigan rangers and the regular 
infantry the entire army numbered about 4,000 effective men. 

An advance party of Posey's brigade was sent out to disperse 
Black Hawk's war party and it was this force which had the 
skirmish at Kellogg 's grove, previously alluded to. Aleantime 
Alexander and Henry's brigades arrived at Dixon's. When news 
came of the Indian defeat at Kellogg 's, Alexander Avas dispatched 
in haste to Plum river to intercept the enemy's crossing the Alis- 
sissippi at that point; Atkinson, witli Henry's and the regulars, 
remained at Dixon to await developments, and on learning that 
Black Hawk's main camp was still at Lake Koshkonong, pushed 
on up the Rock with 400 regulars and 2,100 volunteers, being 
joined by a party of seventy-five friendly PottaAvattomies, who 
seemed eager to join in the scrimmage. 

On June 30th the army crossed the Illinois- Wisconsin boundary 
about a mile east of the site of Beloit. Sac signs Avere fresh, for 
Black Hawk, after his defeat at Kellogg 's. had fled directly to his 
stronghold, and Atkinson's men Avere following a Avarm trail. 
Camps were invariably made in the timber Avith breastAVorks to 
protect against night attacks, the rear guard of the savages proAvl- 


HISTORY OF moxrop: county 

ing around in tlic dark and ])eing frpqnontly fired on l).v sentries. 
On .)uly 2d the army arrived at Lake Koslikonong, found hastily 
ch'serted Indian eanips; scouts made a tour of the lake, but found 
nothing of importanee except a few stragglers. A few captured 
Winnebagoes gave vague testimony and one of tiiem was shot and 
scalped for his impertinence. Fruitless scouting continued for 
several days. 

On July 4 Alexander's brigade arrived, and on the sixth Posey 
reported with Dodge's squadron. On June 28th, while Dodge was 
at Fort Hamilton, Posey arrived with orders from Atkinson to 
join forces and jirocoed to the )iiain army on the Koshkonong. 
Dodge now had about three hundred men, including a party of 
twenty ^lenomonies, and eight or ten white and half-l)reed scouts 
under Col. William S. Hamilton, son of the famous Alexander. 
Proceeding by the way of Four Lakes, White Crow and a party of 
thirty Winnebagoes offered to guide Posey and Dodge to Black 
Hawk's caiiii). After advancing through almost impenetrable 
swamps for several days, a messenger arrived from (Jeneral 
Atkinson with orders to join the main body on Bark river, as the 
enemy was believed to 1)e in that vicinity. This order provoked 
Dodge, but pi'oved to be singularly opportune, l^lack Hawk's 
camp occupied a position excellent for defense at the summit of a 
steep de(divity on the east bank of the Rock, where the river was 
difficult of passage. White Crow's solicitude as a guide was 
undoubtedly caused by his desire to lead the troops into a trap, 
whcrt- they would be badly whipped if not annihilated. 

While White Crow, with treachery had been endeavoring to 
entrap the Irfl wing of the army, other AVinnebago had informed 
Atkinson that Jilack Hawk was encamped on an island in the 
Whitewater river, a few miles to the east. In i-onsequence there 
was a useless wild goose chase through the broad morasses and 
treacherous sink holes of that region. Because of this false infor- 
mation, Atkinson sent the messenger to Posey just in time to save 
that force, though he did not then know it. 

The army, as finally formed, was Alexander's brigade and 
Dodge's scjuadron left wing, on west side of Rock: regulars \Hider 
Tayloi- ;ind llciii-y's brigade were right wing, commanded by 
Atkinson in i)erson. and marched on the cast bank: Posey's ])i-igade, 
also on the west liaid-: was the center. 

On July lOth Henry's and Alexander's l)rigailes and Dodge's 
squadron were sent to Fort Winnebago, eighty miles to the north- 
west for much needed provisions; the Second regiment of Posey's 
brigade was sent to Dixon ; with the rest of the troops Posey was 


ordered to Fort Hamilton to guard the mining country ; Atkinson 
himself fell back to Lake Koshkonong and biiilt a fort a few miles 
up the Bark river on the eastern limit of what is now the city of 
Fort Atkinson. 

Arriving at Fort Winnebago, the troops found a number of 
Winnebago, all full of advice; and also a famous half breed scout. 
Pierre Paquette. He informed Henry and Dodge of the true loca- 
tion of Black Hawk's stronghold with information as to its char- 
acter, and with twelve Winnebago was engaged to guide the troops 
to it. While at the fort a stampede of the horses occurred and 
something like tifty were lost. Henry and Dodge determined to 
return by way of Hustisford rapids and there engage Black Hawk 
if possible. Alexander's men refused to go on this perilous expe- 
dition and the General weakly yielded to their demand to obey 
Atkinson's order and return to camp. Henry was made of differ- 
ent stuff and refused to return, and the same day started with 
twelve days' rations with their guides. The ranks had been 
thinned by one cause and another so that in Henry's brigade there 
were now but 600 effective men and Dodge had about 150. 

On July 18th the troops found the Winnebago village at which 
Black Hawk had been Cjuartered, but the enemy had tied ; the 
Winnebago insisted that Black Hawk was then at Cranberry lake, 
a half day's march up the river, and the white commanders 
resolved to proceed the following day. At 2 :00 p. m. of the day 
of arrival Adjutants ]\Ierriam of Henry's and AVoodbridge of 
Dodge's started south to carry the information to Atkinson's camp 
thirty-five miles down the river. Little Thunder, a Winnebago 
chief, accompanied them as guide. When about twenty miles 
out, halfway between the present sites of Watertown and Jeffer- 
son, they suddenly struck a broad trail leading west. Little 
Thunder became greatly excited but could not make the officers 
understand him, so he turned his horse and dashed back to Henry's 
camp, the officers being obliged to follow, and there Little Thunder 
informed his people that the trail of Black Hawk in his tlight to 
the J\lississippi had been discovered and to warn them that further 
dissembling was useless. 

The news was received with joy by the troops, sinking spirits 
revived, all incumbrances were left behind, and on the following 
morning the chase was begun ; the Chicago and Northwestern rail- 
way between Jefferson Junction and ^Madison follows very closely 
Black Hawk's trail from Rock river to Four lakes; it was a tough 
country, the men getting into sink holes ; the temperature following 
a rainstorm, fell, making progress difficult, but straggling Winne- 


])ago informed tlic troops tluit Black Ilawk was l)iit two miles 
ahead and llicx' jxislicd on with fiiipty stomadis and wet clothes. 
By sunset .liil\' 2(ltli. \\\r second day. Iliey reaelied the lakes, ^oinj^ 
into ram[) near \\ir noitheast exli'cmity of Third lake. That same 
night Black Hawk was camped, stronuly and)ushed. seven or eight 
miles beyond, near tlie present \ illage of Pheasant l^j-ancli. 

At daylii-eak of the 21st the tfoops wci-e up and after lording 
the Catfish river swept across the isthmus l)etween Third and 
Fourth lakes in regular line (>\' hattle. Ewing scouts in front; the 
line of mari-h was along Thii'il hike shoi-e ti) wliere Fauerhach's 
hi'ewery now stands, thence due Avest to Foui'th lake, the shores of 
which were skirted through the ])i'esent site of the University, 
across the swamps and lulls to the Fiieasant l)rancli. and then due 
northwest to the AVisconsiu river: the advance was rapid, forty 
horses gave out dui-ing the da\-. When a horse dropped the trooper 
Irudged on afoot, throwing away camp kettle and ineund)ranees. 
It was 3:00 o'clock in the aftei-uoon hefore the enemy's rear 
guard, twenty braves under Neapope. was overtaken. Several 
slvirmishes ensued hut the weakness of Neapope's force being dis- 
covered they were easily dispei-sed hy the white advance guard. 
At about 4:30 at a point about twenty-five miles northwest of the 
site of Madison. Neapope's hand, reinforced hy a scoi-e of braves 
under Black Hawk, made a bold stand to cover the flight of the 
main body down the Iduffs and across the stream. The troops dis- 
mounted and advanced on foot. The savages made a heav.x' chai'ge. 
yelling like madmen, endeavoring to flank the whites, liut were 
repulsed. The Sacs now dropped in the grass, which was nearly 
six feet high, and after an hour of hot tiring with few casualties 
on either side. Dodge. Ewing and Jones cluii-ged the enemy with 
bayonets, driving them up a rising piece of gi'ound at the top of 
which the second rank ol savages were found. It was raining softly 
and it was found difficult to keep the muskets dry, but a brisk fi)'e 
was kept up until dusk, and the jiursuit was abandoned for the 
night. This battle on the i)art of the Sacs was conducted )>y Black 
Hawk himself, who sat on a white pony on a neighboi-ing knoll, 
giving his braves orders with stentorian voice. 

After dusk a large party of fugitives, composed nuiinly of 
women, children and ohl men, were placed on a large raft and in 
canoes begged from the Winnebago and sent down th(> rivei' with 
the hoj)e that the soldiers at Fori ("I'awl'oi'd. irnarding the mouth 
of the Wisconsin, wouhl allow thesi' noncombatants to cross the 
Mississipj)! river in peace. But tiiis confidence was misplaced. 
Lieutenant Hitnei- with a snudl detachment of regulars was sent 


out by Indian Agent Joseph ^l. Street to intercept these forlorn 
find nearly starved wretches, and a short distance ahove the fort 
Kitner tired on tlieni, killing fifteen ni(>n and capturing tlurty-two 
women and children and four men. Nearly as many were drowned 
during the onslaught, while of the rest, who escaped to the woods, 
all but a half score perished with hunger or were massacred by a 
party of ]\Ienomonies from Green Bay, allies under Colonel 

About an lioui" and a half before dawn of the 22nd, the day of 
the battle of Wisconsin Heights, a loud, shrill voice was heard 
speaking in an unknown tongue, which caused great consternation 
in the white camp as the troops feared it was the savage leader 
giving orders for an attack. It was Neapope, who, believing that 
Paquette and the Winnebago were still witli tlie whites, although 
they had returned, spoke in tiic Winnebago tongue, a speech of 
conciliation to the victors, saying in efiPect that if they were allowed 
to cross the ^Mississijipi in peace they wovdd never more do harm, 
l)ut th(^ plea fell on unwitting ears for no one in the white camp 
understood it and thus failed a second attempt of Black Hawk's 
band to close the war. As for Neapope, finding that his mission 
had failed, he fled to the AVinnebago. leaving his half dozen com- 
panions to return to Black Hawk with the discouraging news, now 
encamped in a ravine north of the Wisconsin. 

On the morning of the 22nd it was found that the enemy had 
escaped and being poorly supplied witli provisions for a long- 
chase in an unknown country beyond the Wisconsin river, prepar- 
ations were made to march to Blue Alound for provisions. Arriv- 
ing there on the 2;]rd they were joined by Atkinson and Alexander. 
Atkinson assumed command, distj-il)uted rations and ordered the 
pursuit resumed. On the 27th and 28tli the Wisconsin was crossed 
on rafts at Helena. Posey now jnined and all the l)rigades were 
together again. At noon the 28th the advance began with 450 
regulars under (leneral Brady in front. Dodge, Pcsey and Alex- 
ander following in the order named, Henry bringing up the rear. 
It appears that much jealousy was apparent on Atkinson's part 
from the fact that the volunteers liad won the glory so far in the 
campaign. After a march of a few miles the trail of the fugitives 
toward the ^Mississippi was discovered. The country between the 
Wisconsin and the great river was I'ugged and hard to get over, 
the Winnebago guides were unfamiliar with it. and progress was 
slow. However the fact that they were noticeal)ly gaining on the 
redskins spurred the troops. The pathway was strewn with dead 
Sacs who had perished of wounds and starvation, and there were 

60 lll.STOKV UF .M0XK01-: ( UlNTV 

frequent evidences tliat the fleeing wretches were eating the bark 
of trees and the sparse horse tiesli of tlicir fagged-out ponies, to 
sustain life. 

On August 1st IMack Hawk and his sadly depleted hand 
reached the Mississippi at a point two miles below the mouth of 
the Bad Axe, in A'ernon eounty. about forty miles north of the 
mouth of the Wisconsin. Here he tried to cross. There were, 
however, but two oi- three canoes to l)e had and the work was 
slow. One large raft laden with wonu^n and children was sent 
down the east side of the river towards Prairie du Chien. but on 
the way it capsized and nearly all its occupants Avere drowned. 

In the middle of the afternoon the steamer "Warrior" of 
Prairie du Chien appeared having on })oard Lieutenants Kings- 
bury and Ilobnes with fifteen regulars, who had been up the river 
to warn the Sioux chiefs at Wabasha that the Sacs were headed 
in that direction. As the steamer neared the shore Black Hawk 
appeared on the bank with a white flag and called out to the Cap- 
tain in the Winnebago tongue to send a ])oat ashore as the Sacs 
wished to give themselves up. A Winnebago stationed in the bow 
interpreted the request but the Captain, affecting to believe that 
it was an ambush, ordered Black Hawk to come aboard in his own 
craft. This he could not do as he had no boat or canoe, and his 
reply to that effect was met in a few moments with three quick 
rounds of canister shot whicli went plowing through the little 
group of Indians on shore witli deadly effect. A fierce fire of 
musketry ensued in wliich twenty-three Indians were killed and 
but one white man wounded. The "Warrioi"'" now being out of 
wood returned to Prairie du Chien for the night, the soldiers being 
highly elated at tlieir share in the campaign. 

During the night a few more Indians ci-ossed the river but 
Black Hawk, seeing that nU was lost to him. gathered a party of 
ten wai-riors, anu)ng whom was the prophet, and witli about thirt\- 
five s(}uaws and childivn headed east for a rocky hitling place in 
the Dells of Wisconsin. The next day the heart of the old man 
smote him foi- having deserted his people and he returned in time 
to witness from a neighboring bluff the conclusion of the battle of 
Bad Axe that struck the death ])low to the British band. W^ith 
a howl of rage he turned and disappeared in the forest. 

The aged chief had left excellent instructions to his people in 
the event of the arrival of the white army. Twenty picked Sacs 
were on the high bluffs east of the river as rear guard. Atkin.son's 
men on tlie ;iflernoon of August 2nd encountered these Sacs. The 



density of the timber obstructing the view it was supposed that 
Black Hawk's main force was overtaken. The army spread itself 
for the attack, Alexander and Posey forming the right, Henry the 
left, and Dodge and the regulars the center. The savage decoys 
retreated up the river away from the main position of the savage 
force and drew the troops after them as the white center and right 
wing followed quickly, leaving the left wing — with the exception 
of one of its regiments detailed to cover the rear — without orders. 
Some of E wing's scouts accidentally discovered that the main trail 
of the enemy was farther down the river than where the decoys 
were leading the army; thereupon Henry with his entire force 
descended the bluff and after a gallant charge on foot found him- 
self in the midst of the main body of 300 warriors. A desperate 
conflict ensued, the bucks being driven from tree to tree at the 
point of the bayonet, while women and children plunged madly 
into the river, many to drown. The conflict raged fiercely. Fully 
a half hour after Henry made the descent Atkinson, hearing the 
din of battle in his rear, came hastening to the scene with the 
center and right wing driving in the decoys and stragglers, thus 
completing the corral. The carnage now proceeded more fiercely 
than ever. The "Warrior" reappeared and aided the attack with 
canister. A wild dash was made for the river; some of the fugi- 
tives succeeded in swimming to the west bank, but most of them 
were picked off l)y sharp-shooters as if they were rats instead of 
human beings, showing absolutely no mercy toward women and 
children. This massacre lasted for about three hours. The Indians 
lost 150 killed outright, while as many more of both sexes and all 
ages were drowned — some fifty l^eing taken prisoners, mostly 
women. About 300 of the band crossed the river successfully 
before and during the struggle. The whites lost seventeen killed 
and twelve wounded. 

Those who had crossed the river were cruelly set upon by a 
band of Sioux under Chief Wabasha, and one-half of these help- 
less, half-starved noncombatants were cruelly slaughtered, while 
many of the others died of exhaustion and wounds before they 
reached their friends of Keokuk's band. 

The rest is soon told. The army returned to Prairie du Chien, 
General Scott assumed command and mustered out the volunteers 
the following day. Cholera among his troops had detained him 
first at Detroit and then at Chicago, nearly one-fourth of his 1,000 
regulars having died of the pestilence. Independent of this the 
American loss in the war, including volunteers and settlers killed 


in tlic inv}?iilai' skiriuishcs and in massacres, was not ovit 2r)(). 
'I'lu' (iiiaiicial cost to tlie nation and 1(» tlic state of Illinois aggre- 
gated nearly $2,()()( ).()()(). 

On August 22nd. ('Iiactai- and One-Eyed Decorah, two AVinnc- 
bago l)raves. delivered Jilaek Hawk and the Prophet into the liands 
of Agent Sti-ect at Pi-aii-ic du ("liicn. They hail fuund them at tiie 
AVisconsin river (hdls ahoxc Kilhoiirn ('iiy. ( )ii the 21st of Sep- 
tend)er a ti'eat\' of peace was signed and P>hiek Hawk. Ihe Prophet 
and Neapope. who had heen eaptui-ed hiti'i-, wci-e kept as hostages 
for the good behavior of the rest of the British ])and. 

They were kept tlii-ongh the winter at -lefit'erson l^arraeks. and 
in April. 1S:{;I. were taken to AVashington. They remained pris- 
oners in Korti'ess Monroe nntil disehai'ged. -Iinie 4tli. After 
visiting the ])rineipal eities of the east, whei'e I5hiek Hawk was 
much lionized, tlic pai'tx retni-iied to Fort Armstrt)ng much im- 
])ressed with the power and i-esonrees of the white nmn. Here 
]^laek Hawk's pi-ide was completely crushed, he being i)laced \nider 
the guardianshi]) of his hated I'ival. Keokuk. This was considennl 
an irreparahle insnit to the fallen chief, which he nurseil with much 
bitterness to the end of his days. 

Black Hawk at the age of seventy-om^ \-ears finally passed away 
on the ;5d of October, 1838, at his home on a snuill reservation set 
apart foi- him in Davis county. Towa. on tiie l)es Moines river. 

In July of the following yeai* his l)ody was stolen by an Illi- 
nois physician, ("omplaint being made by Bla(d< Hawk's family 
(Jovernor Lucas, of !o\\a. caused the skeleton to be delivered to 
him at Burlington in the spring of 1840. The seat of government 
being moved to Iowa City later in the year, the box containing 
the remains was dejiosited in a hiw office in the latter town, 
where it remained until the night ol' -lanuai'v l(i. 1S.'):I. A\hen the 
building was destroyed hy lire. 

l-'orbearaiice and honorable dealing on the part of the whites 
could easily have ])re\ented the Bhndv J lawk' war. Scpuitters 
were not ])i'e\"ented from encroaidnng upon the ])oss(\ssions of his 
l)eople, and at ^ycann»re creek he ■would ha\'e consented to remove 
his ])and |)eaceai)ly aci'oss the i-i\fi- had the oi'dinary rules of 
war in i-especting a tlasr of truce been observed by the white nu'ii. 
In fad. the c(mrse of the Americans during this sti'Uggle was 
marked by eruelly and disregard I'ov tlu' I'ules of waiMare which 
was more than savage; women, children and old men w ei-e ruth- 
lessly murdei'ed. and they caused the remnant of the liaiid which 
had crossed the i'i\er to l)e neai'l.x' all massaci'ed by the Sioux. 
A black record but mie which must be written. 


With the lapse of time, the jiassing away of so many of the 
pioneers and the laek of records in the various communities 
renders it difficult to attempt to detail the ditferent points in the 
county at which the early settlements were made, in anything 
like chronological order. It is certain, however, that the tirst 
settlement in the county ivas near what is now known as Oil 
City in the town of Sheldon, and Esau Johnson, wlio located on 
the Kickapoo in that town on the 1st day of October, 1842, was 
the first "white man who nuide his home in the county of Monroe. 

He built a little cabin a])Out two miles above Oil City and 
moved into it with his family. His own Mords probably best 
describe the manner and reason for his stopping at that place 
and in an interview given many years ago he said: "In the year 
1842 I came with my family down the AVisconsin river on a log 
raft to the mouth of the Kickapoo, and went to what was then 
known as Haney's in Richland county. We stayed there and 
worked on his land until the fall of the same year, when I took 
an ax and some provisions and started on a prospecting trip up 
the Kickapoo river until- 1 came to the mouth of Moore's creek, 
Avhich is in Monroe county. Impressed with the locality I deter- 
mined to return and bring my family up. Not Avishing to walk 
back to the farm I holhiwed out a tree, made myself a couple of 
paddles and sailed down in my improvised boat. I reached the 
farm the next day and soon had the boat in good condition for 
moving my family and what few household goods I had up to 
our new home. I finally left the 'Haney' farm September 10, 
1842, and hired two brothers named Clark to help me move. 
They agreed for a consideration to stay with me until I had my 
house, built. On the 13th day of October we reached the location 
I had fixed up and we arranged a timbered shelter for my family 
Tuitil we could cut logs for a house. Three of us got to work 
and we soon had the work under way. On the 6th of October, 
just five days after landing, myself and my family moved in. 



This I ])ositiv('ly assert was llic liisl house and I and my family 
the first white people to make a permanent settlement in INIonroe 
eoiinty. The two Clarks stayed Avitli me unlil llw m-xt day, wiien 
they took a ])oat and returned to Ilaney's/" 

IMr. Johnson also states that on the lOtli day ol' Orloher Jie 
started for tlie mouth of the Kiekapoo river to get four head of 
oxen which iie had left there, and I'lnin thei-e lie went to Prairie 
du Chien, where he got a load of provisions and hired two men to 
return and work for him. In this trij) Mr. Johnson claims to have 
been the first to travel the present road between Oil City and 
Praii'ie du Chien. Tliere were no otlun- settlers except I\li'. John- 
son and his family up until IS-IT, and in the spring of that year 
Sylvester Bacon and AVilliam Clark joined him and worked for 
him until the spring df 184*J. Soon after this in that same year 
Thonuis Lewis and Thompson Ilazen arrived and located at a 
point about a half mile from the Johnson home and went into 
the lumbering business. This they continued to handle until 
]\ray, 1847, when the business was sold to A. J. ^Martin ; Lewis 
leaving the county and going down to Grant county and Hazen 
moved to a point about five miles south of Cashton. where he 
opened a tavern and located on a farm. 

The first white child born in IMonroe county was a son of 
Esau Johnson, Avho first saw the light in September, 184(3, and the 
photo of this child noA\- hangs in the office of the county clerk of 
iMonroe county, at the court house in the city of Sparta. 

AVith the opening oL* the state road between Hudson and 
Prairie du Chien, wdiicli passed through the place where Sparta 
now is, and tlu^ laying out of the road between Portage and 
LaCrosse, came the opportunity for new settlers, which was taken 
advantage of during the years 1849-50-51. Probably the next 
point at whicli any settlement was made prioi* to 1850 Avas that 
of Frank Petit, who came to this county in 1849. which is 
authenticated by several records, and settled at a place near 
Sparta, w-hich is now knoAvn as "Castle Rock,"' and lie after- 
w^ards came to the place where Sparta now stands and was its 
first settler. In 1850 Cliarles Clute came with his family and 
went to work for Esau Johnson at the sawmill of the latter on 
the Kiekapoo river. Clute afterwards took up land in the north- 
ern part of the county. In 1851 E. E. Shaw. AVilliam Petit, 
Nelson Turrier and a man by the name of ]\Ietzler, settled in the 
coujitv, and in July of the same vear R. S. Kinsrman and his two 
brothers, twins named Rosalbo and Alvarbo, came to the county 


from Ashtabula, Ohio, and settled witli E. E. Shaw aud Turrier 
in the Leon valley. 

From that time until the organization of the county settle- 
ments at different points were quite frequent, notably that at 
Leon in 1851 by E. E. Shaw and companions ; in the town of 
Jetferson in 1854 by Thompson Hazen who, as has been before 
mentioned, opened a hotel known as " Hazen 's Corner;" the 
settlement of the towns which followed the organization of the 
county in 1851: are treated in separate articles subsequently in 
this work. 

The pioneers who settled in the early day have given many 
lessons of industry and frugality, coupled with trials, hardships 
and endurance which so strikingly demonstrates to us the cour- 
age and determination of the men of that early time. The first 
important thing that the settler did was to build himself a house 
and perhaps until that was finished to live in his immigrant 
wagon or some rudely improvised shelter. Of course, the house 
was of logs and very primitive in design, but after it was built, 
erected by his own hands, it became a home, and in most cases 
he was content with it. The ingenuity Vfiih which the occupants 
of these log cabins constructed what they called furniture is 
sometimes quite interesting and, of course, any such manufac- 
tured articles, if any existed during the early 50 's, were imported 
from a distance ; tables and chairs were made of split logs, the 
bedstead very often of poles placed over forked sticks driven in 
the ground ; and many devices were invented in the way of fire- 
places for heating and cooking purposes. 

As soon as the clearing of land was under way the first crop 
was raised, which usually consisted of a few vegetables, sufficient 
for the needs of the family ; meat was supplied by the rifle of the 
pioneer ; it was plentiful and helped to swell the limited supply 
of provisions. INIills for the grinding of corn were usually at a 
long distance, and sometimes the expedient of grinding corn in 
a coffee mill had to be resorted to, and many other methods 
devised to make cornmeal flour. But with the advent of more 
settlers neighborhoods became established, then a school would 
spring up and here and there a church. The old Indian trails 
became w^ell-traveled highways and the wilderness was hewn into 
a semblance of ciA'ilization, creating the foundation of what is 
today one of the great counties of the great state of Wisconsin. 



In the year 1849 a state road was opened between Prairie du 
Cliien and Hudson, which Avere at that time trading points, pass- 
ing throngli tlie phu-e where Sparta now is and going around by 
the way of Bhu-k llivcv Falls and Clear Water, which afterwards 
became Eau Claire. A little later on a road Avas opened between 
Portage and LaCrosse, following an old Indian trail, affording 
a way of travel to the settlements of western AVisconsin, which 
before that time Avere only reached by way of the rivei-s. At that 
time there Avas no ]iost office nearer than Prairie du Chien, but 
Avith the opening of tlu^ higlnvays ])ost offices Avere established at 
Hlaek Kiver Falls, LaCrosse and scA'eral other points. About 
that time the diAision of AA-estern Wisconsin into counties began 
to take place; CraAvford county. Avhich c()in])rised tlie AAhole of 
AA'estern Wisconsin. AA'as set off with Pi-airie du ('hien as the 
county seat, and out of this territory Avere carved, at ditferent 
times, other counties, by the vai'ious acts of the legislature. 

Originally, in 1841) LaCiosse county comprised all the terri- 
tory included in its present limits and that of ^Moni'oe. Jackson. 
Trempeleau aiul Buffalo counties: settlements being i-;i])id in the 
next few years and the inluibitants somcAA-hat "croAvded"* as they 
thought, in 185^. upon ap|)lication to the legislatiu-e. Jackson 
county was set off. and in isr)4 'ricmpeleaii. Buffalo and Monroe 
counties Avere established ;ind detached from LaCrosse county. 
Like all movenuMits looking toAvards progress there Avas opposi- 
tion to the organization of Alonroe county right iuM'e at home, but 
neA'ertheless in ]\Iai-ch. 18r)4. a bill ci-eating the county of .Monroe 
passed the legislature, Avas approved 1)\- the (Jovernor .March 
21st. published Alarcli 24th. thereby becoming a law. and .Monroe 
county Avas placed upon the ma|). Why it Avas luuued "Alonroe" 
is not knoAvn. but that its subsetjuent histoi-y justified its bearing 
the name of that sturdy patriot. James Alonro(\ the fifth presi- 
dent of the T'nited States, no one can doubt. 

While this bill Avas pending in the legislature there Avas a 
liA'ely struggle betAveen the residents of Leon and Sparta as to 



which place sliould be named as the county seat. Tlie argnnient.i 
of the Spartans prevailed, however, and the hill creating the 
county named Sparta as the county seat. This ;ic1 prescribed 
that all that portion of the county of LaCrosse situated and 
being in range one east, and ranges one, two, three and four west 
of township fifteen, sixteen, seventeen and eighteen be set oflf and 
organized into a separate county, to be known and designated by 
the name of the county of ^Eonroe. 

It further provided that an election shouki be held in the 
county of Monroe on the first Tuesday of the following April, and 
the polls should be opened in all precincts established on or 
before the first Tuesday of April ; that the vote should be can- 
vassed and returns made thereof to the clerk of the board of 
supervisors of the town of Leon, who should canvass the same 
as prescribed by law for the canvass of votes for county officers. 
and should issue certificates to such persons as received the 
greatest number of votes for the ofifices respectively for the town 
and county officers. That there should be elected at such election 
a county judge, who sliould hold his office until the first day of 
January in the year one thousand eight hundred fifty-eight, and 
until his successor was elected and ciualified. There should also 
be elected three town supervisors, one to be designated as chair- 
man of the board, who should also be the board of county super- 
visors. That at such election should also be elected a sherifif, 
a clerk of the court, clerk of the board of county supervisors, a 
register of deeds, surveyor and coroner and all other county 
officers required for the due organization of the county for 
county and judicial purposes. It also provided that the county 
of ]Monroe should consist of one town and the Ijoai'd of super- 
visors should be the l)oai'd of county supervisors, and that the 
said board of county supervisors should have to divide the county 
into three or more towns at any regular meeting of the board, 
and also provided that the county seat should be located at the 
village of Sparta, in the town of Leon. All writs, processes, ap- 
peals, suits, indictments, recognizances and othei* pi'oceediugs 
whatsoever then pending or thereafter commenced, or pending 
before the Monday next after the first Tuesday of April next, in 
the county or circuit court of the county of LaCrosse, should be 
prosecuted to the final judgment, order or decree, might be car- 
ried into eflt'ect and enforced in like manner as if the counties of 
LaCrosse and Monroe were constituted one county ; and all 
executions, writs, processes or other proceedings may be directed 


aud carried into execution and effect as such court shall direct 
any law on the contrary notwithstanding. 

At the election held in April pursuant to this act, seventy 
votes were cast for the entire county, and K. J. Casselnian, Loyd 
Angle and Peter DeCoursey were elected as the town board of 
the town of Leon, and thereby becaiiif the first county board of 
supervisors of the county of jNIonroe. .Vt that election the follow- 
ing county officers were elected: A. H. Blake, county judge; Ed. 
AValrath, sheriff; AVilber Fisk, register of deeds; John Barker, 
clerk of the court; Samuel Hoyt, county treasurer: A. H. Cornell, 
district attorney; E. E. Shaw, clerk of the board of supervisors. 
AVilber Fisk loft the county soon after the election and E. S. 
Blake filled the vacancy in the ofifice of the register of deeds until 
the appointment of R. S. Kingman, wliich occurred in January. 

The county board held its first meeting on the lltli day of 
April, 1854. at which R. J. Casselman and Loyd Angle were 
present, and without doing anything the board adjourned to the 
14th day of April, and on the 14tli the board convened pursuant 
to the adjournment Avith R. J. Casselman and Loyd Angle i)res- 
ent. The first item of business wliidi was ever transacted by a 
county board of Alonroe county was done at that meeting. The 
board very solemnly proceeded to pass the resolution to pay the 
exorbitant price of .^12. 50 to John Foster for the use of the hall 
in the "Globe HoteF' and for fuel for the same for one year in 
accordance with the agreement on file in the ofifice of the clerk. 
At its next meeting, held on the 2d day of May, 1854, Fredrick 
A. Childs of Sparta was appointed county surveyor until a sur- 
veyor should be duly elected and qualified : there appearing to 
be little use for a coroner none was elected or appointed at that 

Under the law as it then existed the county board consisted 
of the chairman of the board of supervisors of each town, and 
this prevailed up to the year 1861, when by chapter 129 of the 
laws of that year the entire system was changed and the board 
was made to consist of three electors; each county was divided 
into assembly districts, or if there were not three assembly dis- 
tricts, then into supervisor districts, and one supervisor elected 
for each district, and this system continued until 1870, when the 
legislature in its wisdom repealed the chapter 129 of the laws 
of 1861 and the original system was again adopted, which has 
ever since been in existence. The county board, made up as a 
rule of the most representative men in the county, and consists 


at the present writing of thirty-six members. As the interests 
of towns, cities and villages in the equalization of taxes and other 
matters have been important, the board has consisted in the past, 
and does at the present time, of strong and representative men, 
and during the past fifty-seven years it has had as members at 
dilferent times most all the men who have been distinguished in 
their various communities in the county. The roster of several 
hundred names contains those of men who have done things in the 
upbuilding of the great agricultural, commercial, dairy and fruit 
growing prosperity and wealth of the county. 

The first estate which came into the county court was that of 
one H. B. Hanshall, and the first record in that court w^as on the 
2nd day of April, 1856, when the bond of the administratrix in 
the said estate was approved and recorded by George Gale, who 
was then county judge. 

The first term of the circuit court was held at the village of 
Sparta beginning on the 18th day of September, 1854, the Hon. 
Hiram Knowlton, judge of the sixth judicial circuit, presiding, 
and sad to relate the first case which came before his honor was 
a divorce case in which Ellen Pendelbery was plaintiff and Abra- 
ham Pendelbery was defendant. The charge was for desertion 
for more than one year, to which the defendant made no defense 
and a decree of divorce was entered on that day by the court 
giving the care and custody of the minor children to the wife. 
The action was brought by Denison and Lyndes, attorneys for 
the plaintiff. At that time it appeared that the district attorney, 
who had been elected, had left the county and the court on the 
18tli of September appointed James I. Lyndes to act as district 
attorney for tliat term. Upon motion of Mr. Lyndes, Ellworth 
Lathrop, James Edswell and Carlton E. Rice were admitted as 
attorneys and counsellers at the law" and solicitors in chancery. 

The first jury case was that of Samuel Hoyt vs. AVilliam AVal- 
bridge for trespass. A. Holdes was attorney for the plaintiff and 
Denison and Lyndes represented the defendant. The first jury 
ever empanelled in the county was drawn and consisted of the 
following citizens: J. C. Bean, John DeLaney, A. H. Blake, R. S. 
Kingman. Riley Roberts, Hiram Anderson, B. B. Jones, AVilliam 
Winters, S. Walrath, A. Fisk. William Kerrigan and J. F. Rath- 
bun. Only one of this number is still living, J. F. Rathl)un, who 
now resides at the city of Tomah. The plaintiff' was successful 
and was awarded $50 damages. 

The first county board practiced economj^ during the year, 
and at the meeting on March 26, 1855, the clerk's report shows 


a total of orders diawn on tin- t-ounty treasurer of $295.87: i»ut 
soon the expenses began to multiply rapidly wlien the business 
affairs of the eounty were fairly lauiicluMl. Salaries, court ex- 
penses, olifiec r<'Mls \'nr llic vai'ious otiticcrs. Ices of various kinds 
provided by law all fomhiiied to rapidly increase the tax rate. 
AVith the growth of the eounty business the board found it neces- 
sary to have a court house and jail. .1. 1). Daimnon having made 
a plat of his first division to the village of Sparta, offered to 
donate block four for a location for the county buildings, and as 
a court house s(juai-e. This was accepted by the county board 
^larch H, IS.")."), and at the meeting held on the .Ith of June of the 
same year the l)oard voted an appi-opriation of not to exceed 
^(iOO.nO for a county building. H. .1. ("asselman, John Foster and 
11. ]M. Sanford were api)oiuted a l)uilding committee to draft 
plans, to receive bids and to cause the building to be erected as 
soon as possible. It was completed for occupancy in 1856, being 
a frame building containing the court room or hall, and part of 
the building Avas partitioned off foi- a jail. It stood in th" middle 
of block four of Dammon's addition, being the one in whieh [he 
house now owned by Lee Canfield is situated. Soon after its com- 
pletion the building was leased to the school district for school 
jmrposes. when not in use for holding court; and on Sundays it 
was used by the Methodists as a church. There were no otiHces 
in the building, however, nnd the nect'ssity of renting offices by 
the county board continued for sevei'al years. Mr. Dannnon in 
1862 commenced an action against the county to recover posses- 
sion of the court house site, claiming lliat the jiritvisions of the 
deed had been violated as tlie building was l)eing used for school 
purposes and foi- chuicli purposes ])rincipall\ . A special session 
of the county board was called Sept( niber 4. ISti:!. a1 which it 
Mas voted to pay the costs of the suit and settle the same by con- 
veying 111"' i)i'o]ierty back to ^Ii-. Dammnn. which was subse- 
quently (lone. 

The block where the preseul coui'1 house stands, whicii had 
l»een dedicated as a jiark l)y AVilliam Pcttit in isr)2, was selected 
as the site foi' the county buildings, ami pui'snani 1o a resolution 
of the bo;ir<l a1 the Xovendier session in ISii:!. the court house 
and sheriff's dwelling were erected in ISd.") at a cost of j|<22,r)0(). 
This building Mas considered (piile ample a1 ihe tinu' and served 
the ])ui'])oses \ery Avell until the growth in population and in the 
county's business made it necessary to erect more modern build- 
ings. A modern l)i-i(dv jail M'as built in 1<S!)() jiursuant to a reso- 
lution of th(^ (M»nnty board, costing about $17,000. and in 1894 the 


board passed an ordinance providing for tlic building of a new 
c'onrt bouse, wbicli was erected in 1895-96. It is a tbree-story 
stone building, with plain but bandsome exterior of red sandstone, 
having good court rooms, a county board room, commodious 
offices for all the county officers, with ample vault room in all the 
offices where records are kept for a long time in the future. It 
is heated by steam, electric lighted and has all the modern con- 
veniences with steel furniture in all the vaults. 

In 1871 the county being then divided into three districts for 
the care of the poor, the necessity of establishing a county insti- 
tution where paupers could be cared for became apparent. At a 
session of the board in February that year a resolution was 
passed to purchase a farm for the purpose and a committee con- 
sisting of James Thomson, J. Caney, D. Homes, AV. AVoodard and 
J. B. Marsden, were appointed to carry it out. The committee 
reported at the November session the purchase of the farm of 
David Cole of 200 acres, situated in the town of Adrian, for the 
sum of $5,000. This continued to be used as tlu^ poor farm until 
1899, but it being some distance from the county seat and the 
buildings being too small for the growing pauper population 
the county board authorized its sale, and in 1899 it was disposed 
of and another farm purchased just north of the city of Sparta, 
in the town of Sparta. In 1900 a brick home for the poor with 
modern conveniences was built upon this farm, costing about 

About this time there was considerable agitation with regard 
to building a county insane asylum, which finally culminated in 
1901, when the county board decided to turn the poor house into 
a county insane asylum, which was done, and subsequently in 
1902 a poor house was erected on another part of the farm. In 
1909 the county board purchased the farm of Grant Rogers of 
120 acres, which was adjacent to the farm owned by the county. 
Subsequently and in compliance Avith the requirements of the 
state board of control a separate building was erected in which 
was installed a modern steam heating plant. A large steel water 
tank, giving heavy pressure, was then erected which supplies the 
buildings with water and affords ample tire protection. So that 
at the present time this county owns a tine farm of 280 acres 
■svithin a mile of the city limits of Sparta. Avliich is equipped with 
modern conveniences, a home for the poor capable of housing in 
comfort thirty inmates, and with the heating plant and water 
system makes a most complete equipment, representing an invest- 
ment of about $70,000, all of Avliich is fully paid, and at the time 


of this publication the county is free from debt, a situation which 
reflects much credit upon the men who have in the past served 
on the county board and brought to bear upon the county's busi- 
ness all the careful thought and business acumen Avhich they 
applied to their own business. 

Not only has the county been rortuiiatc in the building up of 
its own institutions, but through, the efforts of some of its citizens, 
backed up by natural advantages, one state and one government 
institution has been esta])lished within its borders — the state 
public school for dependent children, now located at Sparta, and 
the government hidian school, located near Tomah. In each 
instance there was » lively contest between several cities of the 
stat(' for the location of those institutions; the competition was 
keen, l)ut against great odds in the many advantageous offers 
from other places our citizens were victorious and landed the 
prizes. The state school being established at Sparta by an act 
of the legislature known as chapter 377, laws of 1885, and now 
consists of a central or administration building, with several de- 
tached cottages, and a hospital, a heating plant and baking plant, 
all situated on a farm of 165 acres, part of which lies within the 
limits of the city of Sparta. 

The Indian school, established by the government at Tomah, 
situated on a farm donated by the citizens of Tomah and l.ving 
about two miles north of that city, consisting of several large 
buildings, including the administration building, superintend- 
ent's residence, dormitories for boys and girls, a heating plant, 
hospital and several farm l)uildings. In this institution Indian 
boys and girls are given education in tlie common branches and 
in addition to that girls are taught needle Avork and domestic. 
Science, and the boys are instnicted in farming, carpenter work 
and other useful occupations. 

"When the first settlers located in the valleys of the county 
there were but a few thousand people in the whole state of AYis- 
eonsin, and at the estal)lishment of the count.v government in 
1854 there were not more than 700 people in the entire county. 
The stream of immigration came rapidly, however, and in I860 
the county luid grown to a population of 8,000, and from that 
time forth it rapidly increased so that in 1870 it was 16,550; in 
1880 it was 21,607; in 1890 it was 23,211; in 1900, 28,103; and in 
1910, 28,888, so that the growth has been well distributed over the 
past years, has been normal and kept pace with the development 
of its resources. Its farming population is above the average in 
methods and intelligence as the wonderful increase in the dairy 


interests and the great progress made in the raising of small 
fruits will testify, each of which subjects is treated in another 
chapter. Its people as a rule are progressive in the matter of 
education and at the present time its school system is of the best ; 
and several of the towns in the county have taken the initiative 
in that most important subject — the building of good roads. 
Especially is this true of the town of Sparta and through the 
enterprise of the officers of this town several miles of macadam 
highway have been constructed and the town has become well 
and favorably mentioned throughout the state as one which has 
been a pioneer in this movement. 

The year 1911 has seen awakenings in some parts of the 
county with regard to the fact that its resources are as yet 
nowhere near fully developed, and through the experiments 
made by some of its progressive farmers and through the efforts 
of the Sparta Fruit Growers' Association a strong impetus has 
been given to the development of fruit lands not only for berries, 
but for the raising of apples. Experimental orchards, notably 
the one grown by Fred JMuehlencanip in the town of Ridgeville, 
and that of J. AV. Leverieh, in the town of Angelo, liave demon- 
strated beyond a question that a large portion of the ridge and 
valley lands are adapted to the raising of fall and winter apples 
and also several varieties of grapes. The prospects of the people 
of the county for the future seems doubly assured as the interests 
are varied, comprising cranberry culture, dairy interests, the 
raising of small fruits and bush l)erries, diversified farming and 
the prospects of the development in the years to come of the 
apple and the grape industries. With fertile ridge lands and its 
well watered valleys INIonroe county gives promise of becoming 
one of the garden spots of the state of Wisconsin. 

In the official life of the county there have been many lively 
contests for the various offices, especially for those positions 
which until a few years ago paid fees. P^or many years the sher- 
iff's office was a storm center of many political battles when the 
fees in one term of office were extremely large, which condition, 
however, the county board subsequently remedied by putting 
this office on a salary, as has been done with all the county offices ; 
certainly a good business move much to the advantage of the tax- 
payers financially and with no detriment to the service rendered. 
The office of sheriff" has been held by many well-known cliarac- 
ters, among whom may be mentioned the names of Edward AVal- 
rath, one of the pioneer settlers ; C. AV. McMillan, George B. 
Robinson, N. P. Lee, E. Bartels, E. R. Jones, A. J. Carnahan, Leo 


Vieth and many others, a complete list of which is ^iven ;i1 the 
conclusion of tliis chapter. Perhaps tlic most remarkahle record 
in this otilict' is tliat of ('. ^V. McMillan. Avho appears to have held 
it at dit^iTcnt times for Mvc tei-ms, and at other times he served 
as deputy slieriflf' and untU-i- sheritt'. which is a tril)ute to the 
popularity and political acumen of Mi-. Mc^Iillan in his day. 

The ottice of llie connty treasiirei-. county clerk and (dei-k of 
the court have been iiuu-li s()u<ili1 after and held by many men 
prominent in llie affaii-s of the comity. The otitiee of the county 
judge has lieen occupied by such men as Col. George Graham, of 
Tomah; C. ^1. Masters, of Spai-ta : S. AV. Button, of Sparta, and 
the present incund)ent. Col. H. 11 McCoy, who has the iionor of 
heing elected for that office for four terms, beginning in 18i)8. 
The jurisdiction of this coiu't in this county has never been 
enlarged to iiKdude civil and criminal nuitters, as has heen the 
case in some counties in this state, but it consists of the adminis- 
tration of the estates of deceased persons, with authorit}^ to 
sentence officers wlio plead guilty of certain ofl:*enses. the exam- 
ination and coiinnitmeut of insane per.sons, and the appointment 
of guardians of iinnors and those who aiT incapable of managing 
their own atifairs. and the connuitment to state institutions in 
such cases as are provided by law. By a law passed by the legis- 
lature in 1010 and ]i)ll this court may hold terms at Tonudi as 
well as at the county seat, and the third Tuesday of each month 
has been designated as the term day at Tomah when all matters 
may be heard. 

There has been l)rought to the offi<M^ of disti-ict attorney the 
service of many al)le lawyers in the county, beginning with that 
of T^. A\'. (ii'a\('s. who served oiu' term. l)eginning in 18(il, and 
afterwai'ds became w(dl known as a brilliant and resourceful 
ti'ial lawyer. It was also held l)y Komanzo Bunn, who became 
judge of tlic Cnited States court for the Avestern district of Wis- 
consin; by .1. M. Moriow. whose name even now is so well known 
throughout the state of AVisconsin and Avho served as circuit court 
judge of tbe si.xth judicial cirmil. .Mr. .Moi'iow held the otlice 
of district atloi-ney for four terms at different times. David K. 
• loiM'S sei'vcd foui- teinis as district attorney and latei- was 
appointed by President ^I(d\inley as I'nite I States district attor- 
ney for the western distiMd oi' Wisconsin, which otTfice he held 
at the time of his <leat li. 

The otlfiee of the register of deetls was and now is hotly con- 
tc^sti'd foi-. and has been In-ld b\- such nuMi as R. J. Kingman, 


A. H. Coiidit. AV. (r. AVillinms, Jjiuk^s R. Lyon and others prom- 
inent in county affairs. 

The following is a complete list of all the eounty officers from 
1854 to 11)11, giving: the years in which they wcmt into office and 
the length of time each served : 


A. li. Blake. 1854-r)8 ; AV. AV. -Jaekson, 1858-62; G. E. Pratt, 
1862-66; George Graham, 1866-68; L. B. Noyes, 1868-70; T. D. 
Steele, 1870-78; C. M. Masters, 1878-86; AY. M. Graham, 1886-90; 
S. AY. Button, 1890-98; R. B. AlcCoy. 1898 to now. 


E. AA^alrath, 1854-57; John Foster, 1857-59; C. AA\ Mc:\Iillan, 
1859-61; J. H. Allen, 1861-63; J. A. Gilman, 1863-65; C. AY. Mc- 
Millan. 1865-67: G. A. Fisk, 1867-69; D. B. Bon. 1869-71 ; L. John- 
son, 1871-73; George B. Robinson, 1873-75; C. AV. AIcAIillan, 
1875-77; N. P. Lee, 1877-79; C. AV. McMillan, 1879-81; E. Bartels, 
1881-83; C. AV. McMillan, 1883-85; E. R. Jones, 1885-87; C. T. 
Angle, 1887-89; E. R. Jones, 1889-91; James O 'Conner, 1891-93; 
D. AY. Fulmer, 1893-95; Henry Coome, 1895-97; L. H. Couger, 
1897-99; A. J. Carnahan, 1899-01 ; Leo Vieth. 1901-03; AV. B. Cas- 
sels, 1903-05; H. E. Falk, 1905-07; Charles MilUn-d, 1907-09; 
George Henry, 1909-11; C. AV. AIcFadden, 1911—. 


Samuel Iloyt, 1855-59 ; A. A. Rendall. 1859-61 ; L. S. Fisher. 
1861-63 ; G. H. Ledyard, 1863-73 ; Francis Avery, 1873-81 ; AY. F. 
Lee, 1881-85; H. H. Cremer, 1885-87; C. G. Ileitman, 1887-91; 
C. D. Hall, 1891-93; George P. Stevens, 1893-97; J. A. Mosher, 
1897-01 ; AY. A. Jones, 1901-05; A. L. Fowhnader. 190.5-09; E. F. 
Babcock, 1909—. 


L. S. Fisher, 1857-59; A. F. Childs, 1859-61; S. Aldrich, 
1861-63; T. I). Steele, 1863-67; S. D. Hollester, 1867-69; James 
Lowry. 1869-71; S. D. Hollester, 1871-75; AV. P. Palmer, 1875-77 
J. E. Perry, 1877-79; IL H. Cremer, 1879-81 ; 0. i\ Berg. 1881-83 
T. L. Alartin, 1883-87; J. P. Rice, 1887-91 ; H. H. Cremer, 1891-93 
C. E. Heitman, 1893-95; G. Heitman, 1895-99; C. Sutherland 
1899-03; C. B. Drowabzky, 1903-07; T. R. Talbot, 1907—. 



John Banker, 1854-57; G. B. lloldm. 1857-59; Cyrus Centis, 
1859-61; E. Nutting, 1861-6:^: L. H. Noyes, 1863-65; S. H. Stearns, 
1865-71 ; Jacob Roid, 1871-7:5; S. II. Stearns, 1878-77; Joel Brown. 
1877-79: S. II. Stearns, 1879-81 ; J. E. Perry, 1881-8:}; D. G. AVil- 
liams, 188:^85; M. J. MeOmber, 1885-87; I. R. Bryan. 1887-91; 
H. Euckhansin, 1891-95; Henry Graf, 1895-99; G. F. Lilli(\ 
1899-0;i; Ole Jaekson, 190:3-11; 0. II. Doxrud, 1911—. 


AVilbur, 1855-57; R. S. Kingman. 1857-59; A. 11. Condit. 
1859-61 ; P. Rawson, 1861-6:3; :\r. A. Thayer, 186:3-69; J. M. Tan, 
1869-7:3; J. W. Cunan, 187:3-77; AV. G. AVilliams. 1877-81; J. R. 
Lyon, 1881-8:3; J. B. Adams, 188:3-85; AV. H. Jaekson. 1885-89; 
c" A. Erickson, 1889-91 ; J. P. Rice, 1891-9:3 ; H. M. Sowle, 189:3-95; 
John A. Sholts, 1895-99; C. II. Stevens. 1899-0:3; T. C. Longwell. 
190:3-07; D. F. Davis, 1907-11 ; AV. A. Holden, 1911—. 


A. B. Cornell, 1854-59; L. W. Graves, 1859-61; C. E. Riee, 
1861-6:}; Romanzo Bunn, 186:3-67; G. E. Prott, 1867-69; G. A. 
Rieliardson, 1869-71; J. AI. :\Iorrow, 1871-77; A. E. Bleekman, 
1877-79; J. AI. Morrow. 1879-85; D. F. Jones, 1885-91; R. A. 
Richards, 1891-9:3; D. F. Jones, 189:3-95; George Graham, 1895-97; 
B. H. Ilackett. 1897-99; H. C. Altizer. 1899-01; B. H. Ilackett, 
1901 (died before taking office); Howard Teasdale, 1901-05; 
AV. B. Naylor. .Ii.. 1905-09; T. P. Abel. 1909—. 


Al. H. Gage, 1862-69; C. AV. Kellogg, 1869-71; A. E. Howard, 
1871-7:3; N. H. Holden, 187:3-75; A. E. HoAvard, 1875-77; N. H. 
Holden. 1877-81; A. F. Brandt. 1881-87; J. P. Galiger, 1887-93; 
T. Al. Bowler, 189.3-95; A. A. Thomp.son, 1895-01; G. IT. Robert- 
son, 1901-05: AI. .M. Haney. 1905—. 


Isaac Tliuiup.soii. 1854-57; F. A. Cliilds. 1857-59: A. 1). liigalls. 
1859-61; L. E. Amidon, 1861-63; L. S. Ingalls, 186:3-65; AVebster 
Kenyon, 1865-67; O. R. Dahl, 1867-69; C. C. Aliller, 1869-71; 
G. Spurier, 1871-73; A. S. Ingalls, 187:3-79; A. B. Holden. 1879-81; 
AV. Krnyon. 1881-83; E. Neuman, 1883-85: AV. Kenyon. 1885-86; 



A. B. Holden, 1886-88; AV. Kenyon, 1888-96; II. Laurer, 1896-98; 
Alex. McCaskey, 1898-1900; Fred Holden, 1900-19—; G. Sehni- 
der, ; F. Holden, . 


C. P. ^leClure, 1859-61 ; C. W. McMillan, 1861-71 ; David Ben, 
1871-71; George B. Robinson, 1875-77; C. W. McMillan, 1877-79; 
D. J. Enderby, 1879-81; C. W. McMillan, 1881-88; James 'Con- 
ner, 1883-87;^ E. R. Jones, 1887-89; C. Fangle, 1889-91; O. H. 
Doxrud, 1891-92; James 'Conner, 1892-95; D. W. Fullmer, 
1895-97 ; H. Coome, 1897-99 ; L. H. Conger, 1899-01 ; A. J. Carna- 
han, 1901-03; Leo Vieth, 1903-05; W. B. Cassels, 1905-07; H. G. 
Falk, 1907-09; George Henry, 1909—. 


Monroe county since its organization has at diiferent times 
))een in a number of different senatorial districts, and this county 
has furnished the following senators: 

John A. Chandler, of Sparta, in the sessions of 1865 and 1866; 
DeWitt C. AYilson, of Sparta, in the session of 1868 ; Adelbert E. 
Bleekman, of Tomah, in the sessions of 1871 and 1875 ; Charles K. 
Erwin, of Tomah, in the sessions of 1882, 1883, 1885 and 1887; 
H. W. Barker, of Sparta, elected in 1907 for a teiTxi of four years ; 
Howard Teasdale, elected in 1910; now holding the office. 


For a number of years the county of Monroe was a part of 
the assembly district comprised of LaCrosse and Monroe counties, 
so that it was not until al)Out 1861 that a member came from 
this county. A few years later the county w^as divided into two 
assembly districts, and afterwards into only one, which is the 
situation at the present time. 

A list is here given beginning with the year in which a mem- 
ber appeared from Monroe county, and after each name will be 
found the year of the session or sessions at which each member 
served : 

James H. Allen, Sparta, session of 1873 ; AVilliam J. Austin, 
Leon, session of 1881 ; AA'illiam Y. Baker, Oakdale, session of 
1878 ; AYilliam A. Barber, AVarrens, session of 1882 ; Jesse Ben- 
nett, Sparta, session of 1869 ; Chauncey Blakeslee, Sparta, session 
of 1877 ; Adelbert E. Bleekman, Tomah, session of 1873 : AVilliam 
H. Blyton, Sparta, sessions of 1883-85-89; Robert Campbell, 


(ileiidale, session of 1880: David I). <'heney, Sparta, session of 
]871; 1). AV. Cliciicy. Spai-ta. session of 1891 : An)ert T. Colburn, 
Cataract, session of 1876; James D. Condit, Sparta, sessions of 
1 ,s:)8-78-79 : TTan-y Doxtader. Toniali, session of 1877; Lewis S. 
Fisher, Sparta, session of 1887; ^liles LeKoy Ilineiiian. Toniah. 
session of 1887; .1. H. Hinckley. Toniah. session of iScSiJ; CharU^s 
A. Hunt. Alelvina, sessions of 1868-70; William W. Jackson, 
Tomah, .sessions of 1868-7.') ; Fredrick P. Johnson. Ontario, session 
of 1899; Steven B. Johnson. Tomah. session of 1867; David F. 
Jones, Sparta, session of 1897; Evan K. Jones, Sparta, session of 
1901: John K. Jones, Leon, sessions of 1907-09; James H. Lyon. 
Glendale, session of 1889; Thomas L. [Martin. AViltou, session of 
1895; Thomas ^McCanl, Tomah, session of 1874; John J. [McKay. 
Sj>arta. session of I860: Joseph [M. [Morrow, Sparta, session of 
1862; John O'Brien, AVilton. session of 1881; Charles E. Qnitrs:. 
Tomah, session of 1893; Carlton E. Rice, Sparta, session of l.Sii4; 
Jolm F. Kichards, Tomah, session of 1872; Eli 0. Rudd, Rudd's 
[Mills, session of 1872; George P. Stevens, Tomah, sessions of 
1903-05; Joseph .M. Tair. Tunnel City, session of 1865; [Mason A. 
Thayer, Sparta, session of 1882 ; James Tormey, Tomah, session 
of 1891 ; George R. Vineent. Tomah. session of 1891 : Levi Wal- 
lace, Oil City, session of 1885; P^li AVaste. Sparta, sessions of 
1874-75-80: Charles D. AVells, Tomah. session of 1876: DeAVitt C. 
Wilson. Sparta, session of 1866. 


Among the natural curiosities to be found in Monroe county 
there is, situated near Sparta, an enormous bhitf which is about 
600 feet high, liaving on its summit a large circular rock, and 
from its resemblance of an ancient castle it has received the name 
of Castle Rock. It is about five miles northeast from the city and 
surrounded by a range of l)luft"s. and is plainly visilde for a long 
distance along the St. Paul railway when approaching Sparta 
from the east. For a great many years it has been a resort for 
picnic parties and travelers and a curiosity even fo those Avho 
reside near it. The top can now be reached by means of a ladder 
and a view from its summit unfolds a ])eautiful picture such as 
only AYisconsin can produce, and on a clear day even the hills of 
Minnesota are plainly visible. Around this beauty spot has been 
drawn a delightful romantic legend from the pen of D. jMcBride. 
Esq.. now deceased, foi-merly one of the editors of the Sparta 
Herald, which runs as follows : 

"Some 200 years ago a roving band of Senecas made a raid 
upon the land of the Dakotas, while the latter were on the war- 
path, in pursuit of the Cheyennes, and captured Yah-ha-rah 
(Silent AVater), daughter of Keneau-ton-aken (AVar Eagle). A 
terrible storm having struck down the Seneca chief and tlu^ ma- 
jority of his followers soon after the raid, his brother, Po-ga-mie, 
took the captive girl to the French missionary station, at the 
point now known as ]\Iackinaw, where she was ransomed by the 
missionaries and put under the charge of the 'sisters' until such 
a time as she could l)e returned to her relatives. At this place 
Silent Water made the acquaintance of a young Frenchman l)y 
the name of LeClere, who had been banished from his native 
land for killing a person of rank in a duel. The two lonely ones 
became sympathizers, and a tender affection sprang up between 
them, which was soon interrupted by the appearance of AVar 
Eagle, who had, after some months, succeeded in finding the 
Avhereabouts of his child and had come to take her home. LeClere 
was lonely after Silent AVater had gone, and he resolved to seek 


80 lUSTUliV UK .M()M{(JK (.OLXTY 

liis l(i\f ill till' 1.111(1 dl' the Dakotas. Taking an interpreter with 
him lie stalled out on his journey, and after many stirring adven- 
tures reached the camp o\' War Eagle. He Jiow found that the 
old chief had betrothed liis daughter to a favorite, ]\Iame-tah, 
■who looked on LaClere Avith distrust and jealousy. F'inding that 
their love was hopeless if they remained in the land of the 
Dakotas, the young lovers planned an elopement. Tliey left the 
lodges Avhile War Eagle was on the war-path, hut were closely 
followed by Mam-e-tali. who led I hem a Jiard eluise, until he 
was finally slain by the arrows of Silent AVater. In their wander- 
ings, for they were journeying towards the missionary station, 
the young lovers discovered the bluff, now known as Castle Kock, 
the beauty of Avhich so charmed Silent Water that she begged 
LeClere to make a lodge there for the season, at least, and iie 
reluctantly complied. The rock ))ecame their castle, and on its 
very summit w^as their wigwam erected. Autumn was beginning 
to brighten 'the oak leaves with a ruddier hue, and the lovers 
had concluded that they would shortly continue their journey 
towards the missionary station Avhen an incident occurred tliat 
dashed all of their hopes from them. Wai- Eagle, who had spent 
the intervening time in searching for his child, came suddenly 
upon them, just as they were preparing for their departure. 
Silent AYater discovered him and his followers sitting at the base 
of the rock one morning upon arising from lier eouch. The chief 
and his men were in counsel, and when the counsel was ended 
the former advanced close to the rock and ])ade liis child, whom 
he could not see, to come down, declaring at the same time that 
he intended to kill LeClere and to take her home. The lovers 
resolved at once to die together if either nnist die: but they also 
concluded to sell their lives dearly, and they made instant ])i-ep- 
aration to defend their fortress. The siege lasted for several days 
— in fact, until all the arrows and ammunition of tln^ Ix^sieged 
ones had been used, then, clasped in each others arms, they 
awaited the end. War Eagle, on finding himself no longer o])- 
posed, boldly ascended the rock and aimed an arrow at the breast 
of LeClere, Avhich was anticipated by Silent Watei". who sprang 
forward in time to receive a death wound, thus for a nioment 
saving her lover's life. P'xasperated by her death LeClere smote 
"War Eagle Avith his weapon, and having rendered the old chief 
senseless, hurried the body from the eminence. A moment later 
the Frenchman yielded up liis sjiii-it at the hands of War Eagle's 

"The rude storms of 200 years," says the romance, "have 


torn and crumbled the stately form and graceful battlements 
into small rocks and sandy debris at the base of the rock. Its 
beautiful flowering shrubbery and noble crown of evergreens 
have long since disappeared. Naught but the scraggy stubs and 
roots of the tall red cedars that once adorned the lofty summit 
are left to tell the sad and melancholy tale of the fearful tragedy 
at Castle Rock." 



Rnnuiiig tlirough the county of IMoiiroe are two good systems 
of railroads which Jiave brought not a little to the development 
of the resources and interests of tliis county, as well as of the 
state of AVisconsin, and a brief outline of the history of these two 
great lines deserves a place in this work. For after all that may 
be said it is i)Iain to i)e seen from the records of the past that the 
real development of the county began Avith the establishment of 
the railroad system affording, of course, a rapid and cheap 
method of transportation when othci-wise food, clothing and sup- 
plies of all kinds and public travel wci'e accomplished by means 
of the old-fashioned stages and frcnght-hauling lines, with teams. 

Tile LaCrosse and ^Milwaukee Railroad Company was incor- 
porated by an act of the legislature, approved on the 2nd day of 
April, 18r)2. Its first president Avas Byron Kilborn. a man who 
played such a prominent part in the development of the city of 
^Milwaukee and of ihe state. In 1854 stock subscriptions were 
obtained, and ;i survey having been made the general line of the 
road was established on Avhat is ]>ractically the same route now 
used by the Chicago. Milwaukee and St. Paul railway between 
^Milwaukee jind LaCrosse. Previous to this, liowevei-. in 1851, the 
^Milwaukee and Koiid dii Lac Kailroad Comi)aiiy was incorporated 
and in 185o the conii)aiiy received its eiuirtei" under liie name of 
Alilwaukee, Fond d\i Lac and Green l^ay railroad. By an act 
of Ihe legislature. ;ij)i)i'oved .lune 27. 185.'i these iwo railroads 
were allowed and autiioi-i/.ed 1o coiisolid;ite. which ihey did. niid 
began the building of Ihe road towards Fond dii L;ic later on in 
1854. The Milwaukee, Fond du Lac and Green liay railroad was 
consolidaleil with the LaCrosse and ^Milwaukee company, assum- 
ing the latter nanu> and proceeded Avith the eonsti-uction of the 
road already commenced, by turning it in tlie direction of 

in 183G congress donated a large grant of land to the state to 


KxilLROADS 83 

assist in railroad purposes, and the western part of this was con- 
ferred by the state to the LaCrosse and INIilwaukee company 
after the consolidation, and on March 14, 1857. the road was com- 
pleted as far as Portage, ninety-eight miles from ^Milwaukee and 
just about one-half way to what is now the city of LaCrosse. 
The times were hard during the year 1857-58 and the railroad, in 
common with other l)usiness interests, suffered very much and 
there were a numlier of changes in its officers. Tlic cud of the 
year 1857 found this little railroad with a debt of .^8,263,660.91, 
while the entire stock issue of the road amounted to $7,687,540.26. 
The annual report of that year is truly a story of financial em- 
barrassment and business difficulties. The report set out as fully 
as the officials dared to but in a much guarded manner the dis- 
astrous results of the acts of the legislature and other official 
corruption by which the land grant of the previous year was 
obtained. On the 27th day of September, 1857, the road passed 
into the hands of Selah Chamberlain, avIio had been the original 
contractor and builder of a portion of it. He leased it from the 
LaCrosse and jMilwaukee company and continued with the con- 
struction of the road, and the whole line was opened up from 
INIilwaukee to LaCrosse on the first day of October, 1858. 

In 1860 Chamberlain surrendered the lease to ^Messrs. Broson 
& Sutter, the trustees of the second mortgage holders at this time. 
An order was made by the United States District Court appoint- 
ing Col. Hans Crocker as receiver of the western division of the 
road from Portage to LaCrosse. He was also subsetpiently ap- 
pointed receiver of the eastern division from Portage to INIilwau- 
kee, and after taking possession of the entire road he operated 
it until the 12th day of June. 1863, when by an order of the court 
he surrendered tlie western division to the INIilwaukee and St. 
Paul Railroad Company as purchaser, and turned over the eastern 
division of the same company to operate under him as receiver, 
in which capacity he continued to act until January 9, 1866, 
when the entire road went into the possession of the Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railroad Company. Previous to this the Chicago 
and St. Paul Railroad Company had l)een organized and started 
to build a line between Chicago, INIilwaukee and St. Paul, and on 
the first day of January, 1872, the Milwaukee and St. Paul com- 
pany formally purchased the Chicago and St. Paul railroad. This 
was made by giving the bonds of the St. Paul company for about 
$4,000,000 in gold, payable in London in 1902, bearing 7 per cent 
interest. The road between Milwaukee and Chicago was not com- 
pleted until 1872, and in the following year was transferred to 


the ]\Iihva\ikoo and St. Paul company and a route 410 miles lon^ 
between ^lihvaukee and St. Paul then completed. The road con- 
tinued to operate under the name of Milwaukee aiul St. Paul 
railroad until Febnuiry. 1S74, when hy an act of 1he legislature 
the name was changed to the Chicago. ^lilwaukee and St. Paul 
Railway Company, which name it has borne ever since. 

In 1874 the legislature passed wliat Avas known as the "Pot- 
ter" law, wliich limited the rates foi- passengers and freight 
traffic, and this provided for a l)oard of railroad commissioners. 
This law Avent into effect ^lay 1. 1874. and George II. Paid. John 
W. TToyt and Joseph Hosborn were appointed railroad commis- 
sioners. At about this time there was considerable feeling on the 
part of the people against the railroad company on account of 
the fact that the 7-ailroads regarded the "Potter'' law as uncon- 
stitutional and refused to reduce their charges for the passage 
and freight traffic until compelled to do so by a decision of the 
supreme court of the state. 

In 1876, however, the "Potter" law was repealed and a law 
passed establishing the maximum prices for freights, and since 
that time there has been considerable legislation Avhich has 
resulted in the present law giving supervision of railroads to the 
jurisdiction of a railroad commission appointed by the governor. 

The Chicago, .Milwaukee and St. Paul railway has completed 
the line to the coast, beginning at Mobridge. South Dakota, 
where it joins on to the end of the old line under tlie lunne of 
Chicago, ^Milwaukee and Puget Sound raihvay. While llu' two 
systems are i)ractically one lliey are i-un under sepai'ate manage- 
ment, and through this county tliei-e now passes daily two of the 
finest passenger trains, perhaps, in the world, the '" Olympian" 
and the "Columbian," fitted wilh every convenience known for 
the comfort of a tvn\eler. 


In the year 187.S the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Com- 
pany eonstrueled its line through this county. This eompany 
was first organized as tlie Illinois and Wisconsin Railway Com- 
pany and was to lun the line from Chicago to the Wisconsin 
state line. It was consolidated, iiowever. with the Rock Rivei; 
Valley Union railroad, which was to run from the state line to 
Fond du Lac and thus to form what was afterwards designated 
the St. Paul and Fond du Lac Air Line Railway Company. 

In 1859 the road Avas sold to a syndicate of capitalists and 
was reorganized under the present Chicago and Northwestern 


Railway Company. Subsequently the Dixon, Rockford and 
Kenosha and the Galena and Chicago railroads became consoli- 
dated with and a part of the Northwestern in June, 1864, and in 
October that same year it absorbed the Peninsular railway, and 
in 1869 the Detroit and INIadison railway, and in 1871 tlie Baraboo 
Air Line, running from ^Madison, and in due course the North- 
western absorbed the Winona and St. Peter running from AVinona 
to New Ulm, Minnesota, and thence extended to Lake Kanipeska, 
Dakota, 320 miles from the Mississippi river. The line was built 
from iNIadison to Elroy, where it formed connections with the 
West Wisconsin railroad, and this and the other line formed the 
shortest route from Chicago to St. Paul, only lacking a short 
length to fill the gap between AVinona and Elroy, but while this 
Avas not a \'ery great distance and the difficulties encountered in 
constructing this line were tremendous. There was in existence 
a company called the LaCrosse, Trempeleau and Prescott Railway 
Company which contemplated building a railroad from AVinona, 
running southwest into Alonroe county. The Northwestern com- 
pany purchased this road from AA^inona junction, finished the 
track to Sparta, Alonroe county, and opened the whole line for 
regular traffic with a grand excursion on the 25th of September, 
1873. The line from Aladison to Sparta passes through one of the 
most picturesque portions of AVisconsin, and nowhere in the 
state can more beautiful scenery be found. Passing through 
Aladison, the lake country, it skirts the shores of Devil's lake, 
goes by the dells of the Baraboo river, and runs into the beautiful 
hill country between Elroy and Sparta. But this beautiful hill 
country was the means of a vast exi^enditure of money, perhaps 
greater than any other present road in the middle west. Among 
the difficulties met with were the numerous springs of water, and 
many devices had to be resorted to in order to continue the work 
and take care of the tlow. It became necessary to make three 
long tunnels between Kendall and Sparta, the longest of which, 
"No. 3," is situated in the town of Ridgeville and is 3,800 feet 
in length and cost nearly $1,000,000 to construct. The other two, 
"No. 1" and "No. 2." between Norwalk and AVilton, and AVil- 
ton to Kendall, are al)out 1,700 feet in length. 

This great company has grown to be one of the important 
railroads of the country, and a map of its lines shows tlu^ vast 
territory reached by its various ramifications; and the traffic 
has demanded not only the building of direct routes, but great 
hauling capacity for freights to and from the far west, so that 
in order to avoid the heavy grades between Elroy and Sparta the 



Xurlliwcslfni (•uiui)aiiy cMUSftl to in' iiicr>r[)()i'ati'(.l in J!»l() what 
is known as the "^lihvaukoe, Spai-1a and Northwestern Railway 
Company." wliieh lias eonslnicted an aii- liuf in tlir slioi-t space 
of one year from ^Milwaukee to Sjiaila. passin^r through llic east- 
ern and central portion of llic count.w ])iei-('inu- tlic range of hills 
at Tunnel City, near the tunnel of the St. I'aul (•omi)any, and 
crossing the tracks of the St. Paul a few miles east of the city of 
Spar^a. At the time this work will !)(> dis1ril)ut('d trains Avill he 
in opei'ation on this road. 


Closely connected with the history of the village, now the city 
of Tomah, was the construction of Avhat was known as the West 
AVisconsin railroad, from Tomah to Black River Falls. There 
Avas considerable agitation with regard to the building of this 
road among the citizens of both places, and in view of the advan- 
tages for transportation purposes, the two communities sub- 
scribed for a large amount of stock in order that the road might 
be built. 

Accordingly the movement was set on foot to take advantage 
of national aid by the granting of lands in this state to assist 
in the construction of railroads. An act of Congress passed the 
5th day of jMay, 1864, among other things made a special grant of 
certain lands in this state for the construction of a railroad from 
Tomah, in the county of ]\lonroe, to the St. Croix river or lake 
between townships twenty-five and thirty-one. and from thence 
to Lake Superior and Bayfield. To digress a moment, the con- 
struction of this road as contemplated, if it had been completed 
clear through to Bayfield and in operation today, undoubtedly 
would have had a great influence upon the past history of not 
only the city of Tomah, but the city of Black River Falls, for it 
would run through a rich country. 

On March 20, 1865. the legislature of this state by a joint 
resolution accepted the grant as provided in this act of congress. 
Previous to this a railroad company had been incorporated by an 
act of the legislature, approved April 1, 1863, and was originally 
known as the "Tomah and St. Croix Railway Company." It was 
granted the right to build a road from Tomah in the county of 
Monroe, or on the right of way of the ^Milwaukee and LaCrosse 
Railway Company, or any other railroad running out of Tomah 
by way of Black River Falls, and from there by the most feasible 
route to such point on Lake St. Croix, between townships twenty- 
five and thirty-one, as the directors should determine. Tliis act 
was called "an act of incorporators, the Tomah and Lake St. 
Croix Railroad Company," and to repeal and annul a portion of 



the grant of laud heretofore made to tlie LaCrosse and ^lihvau- 
kee Railroad Company. 

Th(^ list of the incorporators of tliis railroad here given con- 
tains Ihe names of a numher of men who afterwards attained 
l)i'ominence in the state of Wisconsin. Here tliey are: William 
AVilson and William Carson, of Dnnn county; Joseph Th()ri)e and 
1\. F. Wilson, of Fau Claire county; Andrew S. Greg and H. S. 
Allen, of Chippewa county; A. Gaylord, of Polk ((ninty ; N. S. 
Dunbar and Charles H. Cox, of Pierce e(»iiiil\ ; 11. L. lluiiii)lii'ey, 
of St. Croix ; Miles D. Pvindle, of Pepin county: George .M. (iil- 
key, of Hutfalo county; R. C. Field, of Trenii)eleau ; Carl C. Pope 
and AVilliam T. Price, of Jackson county; Rich'ard Dewhurst. of 
Clark county, and C. D. Spaulding. of Monroe county. 

Afterwards, and on the 6th day of April, 186(i, the name of 
the company was changed to that of the West AVisconsin Rail- 
way Compan.y, and the construction of the road Avas commenceil. 
The lirst strip of it between Tomah and P>lack River Falls was 
built in the suiiinier of 1868. and train service was started regu- 
larly l)etween Tomah and Black Hiver Falls, wliieli continued up 
until Novend)er, 1873, at Avhicli time ti-onble ai-ose between the 
company and the town of Tomah irom tin tact that the company 
claimed that the town had not kei)t its conti'act with regard to 
the sul)scription of stock, and threatened to tear up the line from 
"Warren's ]\Iills to Tomah and thus cut the village ott' from Jack- 
son county. This threat Avas finally put into execution and the 
iMiiiipany sent a crew oi' men doAvn to that end of the line, and on 
the last Sunday of November. 1872, they tore u\) the track betwiHMi 
Tomah and AVarren's ]\lills. It was only accomplished after strong 
resistance l)y the citizens of the village and the excitement ran 
liigh at the time. During the same year, 1872, the company con- 
structed a track tlu'ough Warren's Alills to Fli-oy, nuiking a 
junction at the latter ])lace with the Chicago anil Northwestern 
Railway Company, and by this means, as Avell as by the tearing 
up of the track from Tomah to Warren's Mills, gi-eat 
was inflicted upon the business interests of Tomah and the citi- 
zens were vei-y indignant and did not pi'opose to tamel\- submit 
to such high-handed lu'ocedure. .Vccoi'dingly. on the 2!)th of 
January, 187o, a bill was introduced in the legislature by the 
Hon. A. E. Bleekman. then the membei- of the assem])ly from 
Alonroe county, entitled "a bill i-e(piiring the "West "Wisconsin 
iiailroad Company to relay, maintain and operate its road from 
Tonudi to "Warren's Alills in .Monroe county." The bill Avas 
referred to the judiciary committee, Avhich reported it back 


again with amendments and recommended its passage, and after 
a warm fight in tlie h'gislature it passed both houses and was 
approved by the governor February 18, 1873. The company, 
however, defied this act of the legislature, refused to comply 
with it in any manner, under the claim that, the act was uneon- 
stitutional. and thus began, perhaps, the first chapter in the 
history of railroad legislation in the state of Wisconsin regarding 
the acts of such corporations. 

The fact that the company failed to comply witJi tins law 
compelled the citizens of Tomali to go to the courts, and accord- 
ingly upon an application made to the supreme court and on the 
29th day of August, 1873, leave was granted to commence action 
against the company, and the attorney-general instituted pro- 
ceedings in file nature of quo warranto, to have declared for- 
feited the defendant's charter, and asked that the company be 
dissolved under the act of February 13, 1873, above mentioned. 
The company in its answer to this writ claimed that the act Avas 
unconstitutional and nugatory, and demurred to the complaint 
on the following grounds : First, that the court had not juris- 
diction of the subject matter. Second, that the complaint did not 
state facts sufficient to entitle the plaintiff to the relief demanded 
herein, or to any relief. 

This action was brought to hearing upon th(» demurrer at the 
January, 1874. term of the supreme court, and the demurrer was 
overruled. The defendant company then answered and the 
village in turn demurrcHl to the answer set up by the company 
on the ground that it did not state facts sufficient to constitute a 
defense. AYhen the matter came up for hearing the court held 
that the company, in discontinuing the road and taking up the 
track from Warren's Alills to Tomah, violated the provisions of 
its charter and its duty to the state under its charter; and that 
the railroad company Avas required by chapter thirty-one of the 
laws of 1873, being the act of February 13th, to relay and operate 
that part of the road which it had originally received a charter 
to ])uild, and was bound to maintain it ; namely, that portion of 
the line which they hnd, as has been stated, torn up between 
Tomah and AVarren's Alills. The court entered an order, sus- 
tained the demurrer to the company's answer with leave to the 
company to amend !>>' the first day of the next term. 

This decision of the court was a body blow to the claim of 
the company, and in order to save further litigation a proposition 
Avas made to the village of Tomah to settle the case by a payment 
of a sum of money. A meeting of the citizens Avas called and 


the matter eonsidered, and after one oi- two stormy sessions the 
proposition of the company lo i);i\' $l(),0()(i in consideration of the 
droi)pin!y: of ;ill litigations Avas tinally aeeepted, and this ended 
tile matter. By an act of tiie legislature Fel)ruary i:]. 1876, the 
act of February 13, 1878, Avas repealed and the building of the 
line from AVarren's ]\Iills to Elroy whs legalized. The UKMuber 
of the assembly from Tomab ;it Hiis lime was ("liarles D. Wells. 
Portions of tlie old road betl fruiu Tomali to AVarren's IMills may 
still be seen, mute monuments of those stirring times which lead 
not only to ])hysical violence, but costly litigation on tlie part of 
this little community to maintain its rights against a corporation. 




The beginning of newspaper work in ]\Ionroe county dates 
from some time in the year 1854, when L. P. Rising l)egan the 
publication of a small paper called the ^Monroe Citizen. ]\lr. 
Rising came from Cattaragus County, New York, bringing Avith 
him a knowledge of the printer's trade and a small printing out- 
fit. He settled near the western line of the county, about two 
miles from Sparta. Here he cultivated a small farm and also got 
out a paper about 8x12 inches in size, which he printed on a press 
of his own construction. Nominally it was issued at Sparta and 
the subscription price was $1.00 per year. It did not appear with 
regularity, but at intervals, according to the opportunities of the 
eccentric farmer-editor. The period of existence of the Citizen 
was limited to about two years. 


This was the first regular newspaper in Monroe county ; was 
published under different names at ditt'erent periods in its his- 
tory. The Sparta Watchman was established at Sparta in the 
spring of 1855 by Milton ^Montgomery and J. 1). Condit. This 
was prior to tlu^ entrance of any railroads into the county and 
the printing outfit obtained at Beaver Dam was brought to Sparta 
by wagon. After pid)lishing the paper one year IMontgomery and 
Condit sold it to Lucius ]\1. Rose, who had been connected with 
the Watertown Chronicle. ]\Ir. Rose changed the name of the 
paper to Monroe Freeman, and i)ublished it until the spring of 
1858. Avhen it was purchased by David IMcBride, who had 
previously published the ]\Iauston Star. He changed tlie name 
to the Sparta Herald, which the paper has retained to the pres- 
ent time with the exception of the two years 1867-1 860. In the 
spring of 1867 the paper passed into Democratic control and was 
called the Sparta Democrat. It was edited by William Jay 



\\'!ii|i|)l('. wlio jil'tcrward wciil lo Wii;oiui mikI pulilislicd llic 
Winona Democrat. In 18()!> llic pajjer again cjiuk* into tlic pos- 
session of D. .McRride, Avho associated with him in Ihc hnsiness 
his son, \V. .McBride. They rechristened the paper S|)arta Her- 
ald, and from that time to the present it has l)e('ii stnrdily Ke- 
pnl)lican in politics. In 1884, after the death of I). McBridc, the 
newspaper i)rop(M-ty ]iassed into the hands of his two sons, who 
have pnblished it under the name of .McHride Brothers. ;iiid it is 
still so pnhlishcd. althongh owned liy W. Mcl'.ride. The paper 
is an eight-colnmn folio, printed all at Iiohm-. 

So far as can he learned the first effort to establish a Demo- 
cratic newspajx'r in ]\Ionroe connty was in 18.")!). when the Sparta 
Democrat was started by two men, Richard M. Copeland and 
George Babcock. The pnblication of tliis paper was discontinued 
after about six months. 

Another attempt at a Democratic paper in Sparta was made in 
1868 by two brothers, Henry and Harrison Hayden. who had been 
previously employed l)y the Herald. It was published only a few 
mouths, the Tlaydens having some disagreenu^it willi theii- Dem- 
ocratic backers, and was discontinued, the llaydens moving 


The Sparta Kagle was a second Republican paper started at 
Sparta in 18(i(). as the result of dissensions among Republieau 
politicians in the county. William H. Farnham and Luther B. 
Xoyes were the publishers one year, after which the latter retired 
and the paper was continued by .Mr. Fai'uham luitil 18ti8. lu 
that year he sold it to George Kedway. who came from Ohio, and 
sul)se(inentl>' his bi-otlnM'. R. E. Redway. had it for a time, .\flei' 
this the |)apei- freciueiitly changed hands. D. B. J'riest. Carson 
Graham and William Nelson, all of Viro(|ua. were connected with 
it between 18()!> and 1871. In the latter year it was owned for a 
time by W. li. Kiiieh. aftei-ward editor of the LaOrosse Repub- 
lican-Leadei'. He sold it to R. ('. Bierce. of Vii-o(|na. and Henry 
Rising, a son of the editor of .Monroe county's tii-st paper. t!ie 
Citizen. In the fall of 1871 the paper was sold to D. W. C. Wil- 
son and Theodore F. Hollister. The following year .Mr. Wilson 
withdi-ew and the Kagle soon after died. 


Soon after the suspension of the S])arta Kagle the outfit was 
bought bv D. W. C. Wilson, who in 187:^ started the ^Monroe 


County Republican, a Democratic paper. He published it until 
1879, when it was consolidated with the Monroe County Demo- 
crat, a paper moved from Tomah by Brown and Foster. Mr. 
Wilson retired from the business and Messrs. Brown and Foster 
continued the paper under the name of the Monroe County Re- 
publican. In August. 1879, Mr. Foster's connection with the paper 
ceased and ^Ir. Brown changed the name to the ]Monroe County 
Democrat. In October, 1883, Guy Whitney, of Portage, took 
charge of the paper and the next February B. W. Perry became 
associated with him in it. About three months later Mr. Perry 
became proprietor and in January, 1885, he changed the name to 

After disposing of the Democrat F. A. Brown started a Repub- 
lican paper, the Sparta News. He had been publishing it nearly 
a year when, on the 16th of August, 1885, the Sparta Democrat 
was burned out in the Ida House fire. The remnant of the outfit 
w^as bought by B. E. McCoy, of Sparta, who also bought the 
Sparta News, and combining the two began the publication of the 
Sparta Democrat, changing the name soon after to, ^lonroe 
County Democrat. ]\Ir. McCoy published the paper almost ten 
years, selling it in September, 1895, to D. C. Streeter, of Sparta. 
Later S. E. Streeter became associated with his brother in the 
business under the name of Streeter Brothers. In October, 1897, 
it was leased to D. W. Cheney and Clark S. McCoy; was run by 
them for a year. At the conclusion of the lease D. C. Streeter 
again became publisher and S. E. Streeter editor. These brothers 
became involved in some litigation, the paper going into the hands 
of a receiver for a time. D. C. Streeter being successful in the 
litigation again became proprietor, and published the paper with 
C. S. McCoy as editor until December 19, 1903, Avhen the plant 
was sold to G. S. Ellicott. The following fall he sold to el. P. Rice 
and W. C. Plawkins. October 1, 1905, IMr. Hawkins disposed of 
his interest to George Esch, who, with Mr. Rice, conducted the 
paper until November 15, 1907, when Esch disposed of his inter- 
est to W. N. Wells, and the Democrat has been conducted by Rice 
& Wells up to the present, Mr. Wells being editor and manager. 


Among the papers published in the county for a short time 
was the Wisconsin Greenback, which flourished during the 
Cooper campaign. It was started in June. 187(). by Lamborn and 
Needham. j\lr. Needham soon retired and the paper was con- 

94 IIISTOHV OF .MnxK(u: corxTY 

liiiucd l)\' Di'. J. L;iiiil)(tni Mild his son, Artliui' 15. Ii l)ecamc' the 
or^an of tho GrcciiljjifU paity in th<' state and was removed to 
^lihvankee in 1S77. I)u1 iiftcrwjird returned to Spiirta and was 
published for a short time. 


The Sparla Trihiiue was a paper stalled in 1SS2 by II. E. 
Kelly and had a brief existenee. it was the organ of the so-called 
Independent Re])nblieans. who formed a coalition with the Demo- 
crats antl carried the county in the fall election. ^Ir. K(dly 
started another paper called tlie Tudej^endent in -July, 1M90. He 
sold it in January. 181)4. to L. S. lliiiii])lirey. of .Madison. The 
next July it was discontinuetl. the outfit beiii"; sold to ^IcBride 


The pioneer newspaper of Tonudi w;is 1lie Tonuili Chief. It 
was published as early as ]859 when Toiuali was only a small 
settlement, and there was not adequate sui)])()i-t for ;i news]iaper. 
It was a small sheet and was i)ublis!ied aliout a year. 


The establishment of a permanent lU'wspaper in Tomah dates 
from the year 1867. In .July of that year the Tomah Journal Avas 
started, and from that time to the i)resent the name has not l)eeu 
changed. It has l)een ])ublished eontinuou.sly longer than any 
other paper in tlu^ county. 

The .Jouriud was started by .lames A. and Cli.-ifles D. AVells 
and for al)out eight ye;irs \\as published by one or both of these 
brothers, with sexcral changes of firm name. In ls7-'>. ( '. D. 
AVells' coiuiection with the ])aper ceased, .-iiid in April. lS7(i. he 
started a Democratic paper in Tonuih calI'Ml the Tomali Signal. 
It was i)ublished less Ihiiii ;i .\e;ir. .1. .\. Wells continued the i)ub- 
lication of the .Joiu'iial until in .lanuar\. 1S,S4. when he sold it to 
Kibbe (Jc A'iiH'ent. .\1 lh;it time .Mr. Fred Kilibe was ]tul)lishing 
a small |)apcr cwlled the St;ir. -which w;is then merged with the 
Journal. During the llu' .Journal was leased to Mr. S. L. 
Chase, mid in .laiiuar\-, ISS."). it wns sold to F. I>. S(|uier and .1. H. 
Diitton, w!io ])ublished it for three years. Al tluit time .Mr. 
S(|uier bought out his ])ar1iic!-"s interest jind li;is conducted the 
l)api']' to the prest-nt time. The .loui-nal is a six column (piarto. 
four i)ages liom(> print. It has licen T?e])ub]ic;in in politics 


throughout its entire history. The office is well equipped, with its 
own power plant. 

About the year 1867 a paper called the Toniah Democrat w'as 
started hy a ]Mr. Averill. but it Avas published only six months. 
The next attempt to establish a Democratic paper in Tomah was 
made by C. D. Wells in 1876, and has already been mentioned. 
In January, 1878, V. A. Brown and George A. Foster began the 
publication of the Monroe County Democrat at Tomah. About a 
year later they removed the office to Sparta and the paper w'as 
consolidated with the Monroe County Republican. 


The next Democratic paper in Tomah was called the Badger 
State Monitor, Avas started July 1. 1880. by Jay R. Hinckley. He 
published this paper for eight years, during part of which time 
he also published the Juneau County Argus at New Lisbon and 
the Herald at Portage. In 1888 he sold the Monitor to J. A. 
AVells, a former editor of the Tomah Journal ; later he took into 
partnership his son, C. J. AYells; they purchased the Tomah Her- 
ald in 11>U1, com])ining it with the ^Monitor under its present 

The Tomah Herald was started in 1891 by Jay R. Hinckley 
and successively owned by Briggs Brothers, George F. Grassie 
and ]\Ir. Lee, by whom it was sold to J. A. and C. J. AVells. 

The ^lonitor-Herald is a weekly newspaper of eight pages, 
seven columns to the page, published Fridays, is Republican 
in politics. The office is ecjuipped Avith a modern outfit, the 
largest tAVo revolution press in the county at the present time, a 
linotype, three job presses, using electric poAver. 


In February, 1891, Mr. Hinckley having purdmscd the Port- 
age Advertiser, combined it Avith his Portage Herald and again 
located in Tomah, i)ublishing his paper under the name Herald- 
Advertiser. In January, 1891, he moA^ed his paper to Sparta, 
Aviiere he published it for a fcAV years, then turned it into a 
daily, Avhieli Avas sold to a local company, Avhich conducted it 
for about a year, finally disposing of the plant to L. D. Merrill; 
he moved the outfit to the Teasdale building, discontinued the 
daily and resumed the Aveekly publication. Subsequently, the 
plant Avas sold to Dorrington and Ross, Dorrington retiring from 
the firm shortly after. The paper had a precarious existence 


;iii(l tiii;ill\' liiiii iiriii I (lit'tictilt ics llircw il iiilo l);iiil<i'ti|)1cy and it 
was sold by the trustee, ajiaiii passing' into Ihe hands of L. I). 
jNlerrill. l-]ai-l\- in litlo he sohl it to a eoHipany formed of local 
men. who ehanged the name to the Monroe County Republiean. 
it Avas published under that name up to about October 1. IDll, 
when jmblicat ion was finally discontiinicd, the plant sobl 1o 
.Merlin Hull of Black TJiver Falls and moved to lliat eity. 


The Tomah Enterprise was started in the spring of 1885 by 
K. .\. Alderman and Son. and A\iis discontinued in -Inly. 1887. 
Later the i)lant was removed to .Montana. The Enterprise was 
Republican in politics. 


In Decern biM', 18!);}. J. A. Haines canu' 1o Cashton from Han- 
gor and founded the first newspaper, which he named The Star. 
Not having an outfit of liis own. he luid the sheet printed at 
Sparta. After continuing the publication for about a year, he 
sold Avhat he had to his son, Fraidx. who kept the paper running 
until the spring of 1895, when he sold to E. II. Briggs, Avho 
came here with an outfit from Shell Lake, AVis. Briggs changed 
the name of the paper from The Star to The p]nter])risc. Briggs 
sold the plant to E. II. Brown and d. AY. TTaughton in August, 
1895. These gentlemen came iici'e Irom \'iro<|ua and conducted 
the business until the foUoAving July. 1896. when they moved the 
plant to Brooklyn, AVis. For a few weeks Cashton was without 
a paper, but the peoi)le induced Frank Haines to try auain and 
he. in company with Frank Rudoli)h, started the Record. Things 
went l)adly with tliem and they Avere forced to sell the following 
sunniier to .James ^McAIanamy. AlcAlanamy edited the paper until 
the winter of 1898, when a fire destroyed the building ami most 
of the outfit. .McAlanaiiiy then sold what was left to 0. G. 
Briggs oi' \'ii(i(|ua. IL conducted the i)usiness until the fall of 
1!)05, when E. 11. Brown of A^'iroqua. the present owner, pur- 
(diased the i)lant and also that of the Independent, whicli was 
started by .1. R. Ilinkley in the summer of 190:?. Air. Iliid<ley 
sold his interest in the paper to d. A. .\ori"is and Xorris to E. II. 
Brown. During the year 1!)()(> Fraid< Haines started a paper here 
called the Sun. but its life was short. He afterward started a 
.jol) otlice. but that also soon gave up the ghost. 



This paper was started in January, 1888, and was discontinued 
six months later. The Norwalk Times was started just after the 
Sentinel ceased publication and was published for about six 
months by H. C. McGary; the paper being printed at Sparta. 


Founded in October, 1903, by 0. AV. Sprecher, who conducted 
it until the summer of 1907, Avhen it was purchased by AY. J. 
Robinson, and the ensuing fall was purchased by E. G. Hessel- 
grave, the present owner and proprietor. This paper started 
under discouraging circumstances, but has steadily grown in cir- 
culation and advertising patronage until at the present time it 
stands second to any paper in tlie county in respect to legiti- 
mate home patronage. Independent in politics and stands for 
the best interests of Norwalk, Alonroe county, and state of 


The AA^'ilton Herald was started about the beginning of the 
year 189-4 by a man named Bugbee, who set the type in the A^^il- 
ton office and printed the paper at Reedsburg. He was soon 
succeeded by Thompson & Brown, and later C. H. Brown became 
the sole owner, he in turn sold the paper to J. E. Gruber in 
February, 1900. who has been the proprietor and editor ever 


The first issue of the Kendall Keystone was published Jan- 
uary 28, 1904, by Clarence S. Dodge, who came to the village 
from AYhite Rock, S. D. It was started as an eight page five col- 
umn paper and its publication was continued by Mr. Dodge 
until July 29, 1905. when it was purchased by the present pub- 
lisher, Alex R. McCleneghan. He soon enlarged the paper to a 
six column eight pages, the standard county paper size. In 
politics the Keystone is Independent Republican; the paper has 
prospered from the beginning and now has a subscription list of 
about eight hundred and good advertising patronage. The paper 
is ably edited and has succeeded in bringing Kendall to the at- 
tention of the outside world, which is appreciated by the people 
of that bustling village. 



The AVarrons Index was started at AVarrens, Wis., October 2, 
1896, -with AY. G. p]vans, formerly of ^Missouri, as editoi-. Tlu' 
newspaper outfit "vvas added to a job printing office, which liad 
been doing business for a few years, owned by F. R. Barber. 
The paper was published by IMr. Evans until ^lay, 1908, when 
he disposed of his interest to I. S. Dunn, of Elroy. ^Ir. Dunn 
severed his eonneetioii with the })ai)er the following year, l)ut its 
publication was continued ))y the Index Printing Co. under dif- 
ferent editors for several years. In September, 1910, the paper 
was discontinued, the subscription list and i)art of tin- i)lant being 
sold to the Tomah Jonnml. 


The AViseonsin Yalley Advocate was started at Yalley Junc- 
tion on JNIarch 3, 1898, by E. T. Hale, of Elroy. After l)eing run 
for a time as a local paper, it passed into the hands of the 
Twentieth Century Co., with AY. C. Brawley, of ]\Iauston, as 
editor. It was enlarged and became chiefly an agricultural paper, 
devoted to the development of the lands in that section of the 
county. Mr. Brawley Avas succeeded by AY. II. Price as editor, 
who conducted the paper until November, 1907. At that time it 
Avas discontinued, the subscription list being disposed of to the 
Toniah -lournal and the plant was sold to other parties. 


The Tomah Ib-rakl was started as a daily newspaper in the 
year 1894 by J. R. Hinckley and Son, avIio were also publishing 
a daily paper in Sparta at that time. After a short time it was 
purchased ])y Briggs Bros., Avho changed it to a weekly paper. 
In about a year they sold it to George Grassie, of Alilwaukee, Avho 
afterward disposed of it to R. G. Lee. In 190-1 Air. Lee mo\ ed 
the press and part of the ])lant to Tomahawk, selling the sub- 
scription list and part of the material to AYells and Son of the 
Tomah Alonitor, who then chantred tlu^ name of tlicir paper to 



When the news was received of the fall of Fort Sumter the 
general feeling of indignation felt by the North did not escape 
the citizens of this young, but loyal county, and at no place in 
the United States was the president's call for troops more 
promptly responded to. Six full companies of volunteer soldiers 
w^ere organized and a part of the seventh furnished by this 
county, together with a large number of men in different com- 
panies in several of the regiments. In all, there were 927 men 
who w^ent from JMonroe county during the war, and of this num- 
ber 141 gave up their lives in the service of their country. 

This is a remarkable record ; Monroe county did its full share 
and a little more, as will readily be seen when the fact is remem- 
bered that in the census report for 1860 the entire population 
of the county, men, women and children, numbered about 8,407 
souls, and the male population between the ages of fifteen and 
fifty was only 2,220, together with the further fact that the 
county w^as only seven years of age, having been organized 
March 21, 1854 ; and that when war was declared the assessed 
valuation of the entire property of the county, real and per- 
sonal, was but $1,477,745. 

In view of the foregoing, it seems that it may be said that 
Monroe county did more than her full share and made for her- 
self during the AVar of '61 a record that any and all of her citi- 
zens may refer to with pride. We feel that w^e are justified in 
boasting of our volunteer soldiers, who Avere citizens before they 
became soldiers. 

The population of the county now is 28,881, as against 8,407 
in 1860, and the assessed A'aluation of our real and personal 
property is $25,921,265, as against $1,477,745 in 1860, which is 
suggestive of the truth of the oft repeated saying that we live 
in a progressive age, and as a new generation stands in our 
places, let them be taught that the Union soldier has done much 



ill AVar and in Peace. That in every avenue of life soldiers are 
nuiiihcred still l)y the thousands, and the lessons of patriotism 
should not be lost ui)on our children or our children's children, 
and they should be made to feel that the blessing enjoyed in a 
free country depend upon the loj'alty, patriotism, and intelli- 
gence of its people. 

The history of the troops which went from this county into 
the war is necessarily the history of the various regiments in 
which its citizens enlisted ; in order to fully record the great 
service which was rendered in that struggle by our own peo- 
ple, the history of some of the regiments in which companies 
enlisted from this county is given in this chapter; it is a remark- 
able record, the record of hardships, bravery and good Ameri- 
can patriotism under all circumstances, and one which has 
formed no small part of the remarkable history of AVisconsin 
troops during the Rebellion. There were several regiments in 
which nearly whole companies came from ^Monroe county, no- 
tably Company A, Third Cavalry, which was almost entirely from 
this county; Company I, Fourth Cavalry, and a large number in 
Company F, Fourth Cavalry; some twenty-tive or six in the First 
Battery, Light Artillery; quite a number enlisted in the Sixth 
Infantry in A'arious companies; Company C of the Eighteenth 
Infantry ; Company C of the Nineteenth Infantry, a large num- 
ber in Company D of the same regiment ; Company D of the 
Twenty-tifth Regiment of Infantry, also a large number of Com- 
pany F; Company C, Twenty-sixth Infantry; Company K, Forty- 
third Infantry: Company I, Forty-eighth Infantry; Company B. 
Fiftietli Infantry, and Company A, Fifty-first Infantry. 


The Sixth Regiment was organized at Camp Randall in -June. 
1861, and mustered into the United States service July 13th : left 
the state July 27th, reaching AVashington August 8th. This regi- 
ment, in connection with the Second AVisconsin. Fiflh Wiscon- 
sin and Nineteenth Indiana, composed Gen. Rufus King's First 
Brigade and throughout the war the Second, Sixth and Seventh 
AA^isconsin Regiments served in the same organization, and 
became knoAvn the world over as ''The Iron Brigade," and their 
services throughout that struggle were rendered as brigade and 
not as regiments. 

These three "Wisconsin regiments had absolute confidence in 
one another; the men to a great extent were personally ac- 
quainted; their campaigns extended over a comparatively small 


section of the country ; they became familiar with the army 
against which they Avere called upon to battle. During the four 
years they were in close proximity to the powerful armj'^ led by 
the most brilliant officers of the Confederacy; they knew that a 
march of a day or two in its direction meant skirmishing, if not 
a battle. It was necessary throughout these years in which his- 
tory was made that men of this brigade be ready for battle all 
of the time. 

Another circumstance is found in the fact that from the first 
to the last, the brigade was commanded by a soldier who knew 
how to command and Avho knew how to get the best possible 
work from his men. General King was a graduate of West Point. 
A thorough disciplinarian, and his work during the few months 
in which he had command was invaluable in preparing the 
brigade for its future services. 

He M'as succeeded by Gen. John Gibbons in ^lay, 1862, who 
continued the work of making his brigade regular army soldiers, 
and they were regulars in fact as well as in name ; not only were 
the men well drilled and well instructed, but the field and line 
officers were made efficient, so that when General Gibbon was 
placed in the command of a division after the battle of Antietam, 
all of the surviving colonels of the brigade were competent to take 
his place. Meredith of the Nineteenth Indiana and Cutler of 
the Sixth Wisconsin were made brigadiers, and had experience 
as commanders of the brigade. They folloAved as closely as they 
could in the footsteps of Gibbon. Then came Colonel Robinson, 
of the Seventh Wisconsin, and then Colonel Bragg, of the Sixth. 
Colonel Bragg had been a remarkably close student of Gibbon's 
methods and soon after assuming the command he was made a 
brigadier general. When he left the command in February, 1865, 
an officer who had left AVisconsin as a first lieutenant and had 
reached the rank of colonel of the Sixth Wisconsin, succeeded 
him, and ])ecame a brigadier general by brevet because of his 
splendid management in the closing campaign of the war, this 
was Gen. John A. Kellogg. 

Aside from the battles of the Army of the Potomac in the 
spring and summer of 1862 on the Potomac, this brigade missed 
none of the great and small battles of the Army of the Potomac. 
Its opportunities for winning credit and thinning its ranks were 
greater than were offered to any other Wisconsin regiments 
sent to the war, and the statement is here emphasized that any 
other four Wisconsin regiments similarly situated, similarly 
commanded, kept together throughout the war and given the 

102 iiisi'DRY OF :\ionrop: county 

same opportunity to win distinction Avoiild, without any kind of 
donbt, liave won tho sanio rank and licen given tlic same erodit. 
After spending the winter of 18()l-2 on Arlington Heights, the 
brigade broke eainp ]Mareli 10, 1862, joined in the march of Mc- 
Clellan's great army on Centerville and IManassas. 

The first great battle in which the brigade played a i)r()ini- 
nent part was in Gainsville, Va., August 28, 1862; it was the 
beginning of a series of battles in Uie vicinity of Bull Run battle 
tield of the year before; here Jackson's corps had destroyed mil- 
lions of dollars worth of property at Manassas and had turned 
back to join the balance of Lee's army. Gibl)on's brigade con- 
sisted of Ihe four regiments named and Hattery B; for hours 
faced antl fought Stonewall Jackson's army corps of nearly 
thirty-six regiments. The only help it had for a portion of the 
time being the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvaiiia and the Seventy-sixth 
NeAV Yorl: on the right (tf the line. The brigade entered the 
engagement with 2,200 men and its loss, killed and wounded, was 
800, but in that battle it won a name for good soldiership. 

The next engagement was South ^Mountain, "Sid., September 
14: in this battle the brigade charged upon the high mountain 
in the face of a much larger force and won the signal victory. In 
this battle its conduct was witnessed by the corps commander. 
Gen. Joseph Hooker, and Gen. George B. JMcClellan, conunander 
of the Army of the Potomac, and it was in this battle that it 
was given thr name of the "Iron Brigade." General ]\lc('lellan 
asked, "Whose troops are these?" As he saw Ihe l)i'igade charge 
upon the mountain, Avhen told by General Hooker that it was 
Gibbon's western brigade, he remarked, "They are men of iron." 
as the story goes. AVithin a few days Cincinnati ]iapers were 
received in which the western men Avere spoken of as the "Iron 
Brigade." There are different stories as to how the brigade 
received its name, but General Bragg, who grew up with tlie 
organization, said tliat in his belief it was the war correspond- 
ents and he thought it was a con-espondent of a Cincinnati paper 
who gave the comni.iiKi the name it has held (>ver since. 

At the first battle of Fredericksburg, in December, 1862. when 
tlie brigade was in Franklin's grand division, on the left, and 
while it was under fire two days and lost considerable nund)er 
of men, it was not the disastrous kind of an (>ncounter it had 
experienced in previous battles. 

It participated in Burnside's famous !Mud ^Marcli in 1S()2 on 
the Potomac, when it returned to its camps at Bell Plain until 


Hooker's campaig'n began iu the last week of April, 18G3, when 
it made its remarkable charge in pontoon boats across the Rap- 
pahannock river at Fitzhugh Crossing, charged the heights on 
the opposite side of the river, drove the enemy, took possession, 
fortified and held the place until General Hooker's men had 
crossed the riA'er and got on the left flank of Lee's army, when 
the brigade recrossed the river and marched to join the main 
army at Chancellorsville, where it participated in the fight and 
joined in another retreat on the safe side of the Rappahannock. 
A short time later it participated in the three bloody days of the 
battle of Gettysburg, beginning July 1. 1862. At this time it 
was the First Brigade, First Division, First Army Corps, Gen. 
Solomon Meredith being in command. It is claimed by some 
authority that the Wisconsin brigade and Pennsylvania infantry 
opened fire in that battle at about the same time. 

The authorities of ])oth states claim that their soldiers were 
the first to begin the infantry fighting, but the fact is that they 
belonged to the same division and marched into the fight at the 
same time. In the first day's fight the brigade's loss was very 
great in officers and men, and lost more than one-third of its 
troops in killed and wounded. During the balance of the two 
days' battle it was on Gulp's Hill, behind strong entrenchments. 
It was called into action several times and saw the never-to-be- 
forgotten charge made by the Confederates under Gen. George 
E. Pickett. 

After Meade's fruitless campaign in November, 1863, the 
brigade returned to its quarters with the rest of the corps at 
Culpeper Court House, and on the 1st of January the Sixth and 
Seventh regiments re-enlisted for three years more or during 
the war, and were given thirty days' furlough, returning to 
Wisconsin as regiments. Their reception by the people of the 
state constituted one of the great events in the lives of the young 
soldiers. At the end of the thirty days the two regiments 
returned to the brigade and iu May. 1864, it, with the rest of 
the army, plunged into the AVilderness campaign on ]\Iay 5, 1864, 
and they were not out of the hearing of hostile guns until the 
surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. It was 
in the forefront in the two days' battle of the Wilderness 
proper, at Laurel's Hill, Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, in 
North Anna, Cold Harbor, the Siege of Petersburg, the three 
days' battle of Weldon railroad beginning August 18th, and 
ending on the 21st; the battles of Hatcher's Run, Gravely Run, 


Five Forks and Appomattox. Tlie brigade took its place in the 
grand revicAV in AVasliington after the "war, and two months 
later returned to the state and was mustered out of the service. 


The Eighteenth Infantry was ordered to Camp Sigel. ^U\- 
waukee, January 7, 1862. It completed its organization and 
was mustered into the service and left the state about the last 
of March, 1862, reaching Pittsburg Landing April 5, and went 
into the Battle of Shiloh the next day. It was surprised by the 
Confederates early in the morning of April 6th, and, although 
it was poorly drilled and wholly unprepared for service, yet 
Avithin a week it Avas forced into one of the greatest battles of 
the war and took up the work of fighting, and made a credit- 
able record, losing many valuable officers, including the colonel 
and a large number of men. Col. S. H. Alban was killed early 
in the engagement; Lieut. Col. S. AV. Beall, who had been 
lieutenant governor of AVisconsin. Avas severely Avounded, and 
Maj. J. AV. Crain Avas killed. In this battle, the Eighteenth 
lost tAventy-five killed and ninety-one Avounded. Jn the folloAV- 
ing October it Avas in the battle of Corinth, again losing heavily 
in killed and Avounded. 1)ut adding greatly to its reputation as a 
fighting regiment. Capt. Gabrial Bouck, of the Second AViscon- 
sin, Avas made colonel to succeed Colonel Alban. killed at Shiloh. 
The Eighteeutli Avas one of AVisconsin's regiments at the battle 
and siege of Vicksburg. The regiment reached Chattanooga in 
time to take part in the battle of Alission Ridge, November 25, 
1863, and from there Avent to Iluntsville. Avhcre it remained on 
guard and outpost duty until 'May. 1864. ]\Iost of its duty from 
that time to the end ol' the war consisted of important guard 
and outpost duty, aside from tiic i)arl it took in 1iu^ Confederate 
attack on Alloona I'ass. There Avere stored at this pass an 
immense quantity of aniiy supplies. The Confederate army 
needed these supplies and they attacked Avith great force and 
A'igor. ])ut the small force of Union troops stationed there fought 
as soldiers are seldom called upon to fight. Here the Eighteenth 
Avon for itself great praise and great distinction. It Avas in this 
battle that General Slu>rman signaled to General Corse from 
KenesaAv AFountain to hold the position, for he Avas coming. From 
this dispatch came that Avouderful old song. ''Hold the Fort, 
for T am Coming." General Corse had received, previous to 
this message, seA'eral Avounds and signaled l)ack to Sherman, 
"I have lost an ear, part of a cheek and am Avounded in one arm. 


but I will hold the fort until Hades freezes over." It was one 
of the sharpest battles of that kind fought during- the war, and 
to this day many wonder how that small force could check and 
drive back a whole division of Confederates. 

AVhile the Eighteenth did not march with Sherman to the 
sea, it joined Sherman's' army by traveling on boats and rail- 
roads, reaching it the last of March, and was with him until 
Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, surrendered, soon after 
which Johnston and his army laid down their arms. The 
Eighteenth had three colonels, J. S. Alban, Gabrial Bouck and 
Charles H. Jackson. 


The Nineteenth was organized at Camp I tley, Racine, l)ut in 
April, 1862, was ordered to Camp Randall to guard prisoners 
taken at Shiloh. Early in June of tliat year the regiment pro- 
ceeded to Virginia. 

This regiment was given a larger amount of our post and 
guard duty than most of the regiments, though it was in all ways 
an excellent command, and both officers and men were anxious 
for more service; Init this important duty had to be placed in 
good hands and this regiment was thoroughly to be depended 
upon, and did work in a manner to bring praise from its superior 

It was stationed at Norfolk for some time and again was 
stationed at Suffolk, Va. It was engaged in several battles in 
front of Richmond and Petersburg, and lost in killed twenty- 
nine, died of wounds twelve, died of disease 107. Horace R. 
Sanders, of Racine, was the first colonel, and S. K. Voughan the 
second colonel. The regiment had only these two colonels. It 
was mustered out of the service August 9, 1865. 


This regiment was organized at LaCrosse, AVis., in Septem- 
ber, 1862, and as soon as it was mustered into the service was 
sent to Minnesota to aid in the Indian War prevailing there at 
that time. It returned to Madison in January, 1863, and left 
for Kentucky February 17th of the same year. It was com- 
manded by a jMonroe county man. Col. ]\Iilton Montgomery, and 
the history of this regimeiit is of peculiar interest inasmuch as 
nearly one whole company, D, and a great part of another, F, 
Avere composed of Alonroe county citizens. 


Tlie Tweiity-fiftli had quite an experience in ^Minnesota in 
the Indian campaign, after which, as has been stated, it returned 
to Madison and was sent soutli in ISfi:}. and became a part of 
the Sixteenth Army Corps and joined Grant's army at Vicks- 
burg early in June, remaining there until after the surrender 
and performing well every duty assigned to it. It was one of the 
regiments wliieh participated in this memorable march of Gen- 
eral Sherman from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and from there to 
the sea: It saw hard service throughout this camjiaign, and the 
regiment was depended upon, on numerous occasions, for very 
important duty, and was fref(uently engaged in severe battles. 
AVhile its losses in killed and wounded were not as great as 
many of the regiments, it lost from disease a larger number than 
any other regiment from the state. The records of Company 
D showing a large percentage of Monroe county men who died 
of disease. This is the regiment of Avhich Jeremiah 31. Rusk 
was lieutenant colonel. He went out with it as major. l)ecame 
lieutenant colonel, and as such commanded it in many of its 
campaigns and battles, and was promoted to brevet brigadier 
and for some time commanded the brigade. General Rusk told 
this story on himself: While going through North Carolina in 
command of a brigade his troops went in the x^i'ie forests to 
camp and when, two days later, it In-oke camp, nearly every man, 
because of the piteh ])ine smoke, was nearly as dark skinned as 
the colored people. AVhile General Rusk was riding at the head 
of his brigade, his face nearly as black as a crow's wing, he 
heard some southern people by the roadside say: ''For Gaud 
sake, if the Yankees haven't been obliged to put niggers in 
command of their brigades." Colonel ^Montgomery of this regi- 
ment lost an arm in action, and for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct was made a brigadier general 1)y brevet. The Twenty- 
fifth's losses in killed and wounded Avas forty-two. and of its 
number 376 died of disease. It was one of Wisconsin's famous 
regiments, which left a glorious record (if its services. It was 
mustered out on June 7, I860. 


Till' Thirty-sixth regiment was organized \inder the presi- 
dent's first call in 1864, and was Ww first to respond. It left 
]\[adison ]\lay '10, 1864, and joined the Army of the Potomac at 
Spottsylvania, Va.. a Aveek later. It went directly into the line 
of battle when it reached that place, and Avas soon taken into the 
thick of the fight and acquitted itself as if its soldiers had been 


veterans. From that time until the end of the war the Thirty- 
sixth regiment was given the hardest service, and was ordered 
into all of the battles recorded up to and including Appomattox. 

It had for its colonel, Frank A. Haskell, who left the state 
in 1861 as adjutant of the Sixth Wisconsin, and Avas General 
Gibbon's adjutant general. At the battle of Gettysburg, while 
serving on General Gibbon's staff as a captain, command of the 
entire army corps devolved upon him for a brief space of time. 
Generals Hancock, Gibbon and AA^ebb had been wounded and 
Haskell assumed the responsiliility of directing the corps in the 
engagement. At the battle of Cold Harbor, where his regiment 
did great execution and met Avitli distressing losses. Colonel 
Haskell, while at the head of his command, standing on the 
breast work and as he was about to give a command to charge, 
was instantly killed. Two days before that he had been rec- 
ommended for promotion to brigadier general. He was, without 
doubt, one of the most soldierly and manly men from this state. 
Though its services extended for only a year, the losses of this 
regiment were much greater than two-thirds of the three years' 

It had four different colonels, Haskell, who was killed; Col. 
John A. Savage was mortally wounded, and Col. Harvey M. 
Brown was erroneously reported killed at Petersburg. Col. 
Clement E. A\"arner lost an arm, and a number of captains and 
lieutenants were killed. More than half of the thousand men 
that Colonel Haskel hurried to the front early in 1864 were 
killed or wounded. The regiment lost in one year seventy-nine 
killed, forty-seven died of wounds, and 168 died of disease. It is 
not surprising that the survivors of the Thirty-sixth AVisconsin 
are proud to have been of such a regiment. 


This regiment was recruited and organized under the direc- 
tion of Col. Amasa Cobb, formerly of the Fifth AVisconsin. It 
left ]\Iilwaukee for the field on the 9th of October, 1861, under 
orders to report at Nashville, Tenn., to General Sherman. From 
Nashville they moved by rail and encamped on the 15th of 
October at Johnsonville, the terminus of the military railroad 
connected with Nashville and situated 110 miles from Paducah, 
on the Tennessee river. Here Colonel Cobb was appointed post 
commander and Lieutenant Colonel Paine assumed command of 
the regiment. This important post, at which was collected 
immense quantities of stores, was then menaced by the approach 


of rebel forces under General Hood, and from the 4tli to the 
6th of November the regiment was exposed to the fire of tin- 
rebel gnns, planted on the opposite bank of the Tennessee, losing- 
one man killed and one wounded. 

The ForlN-third left Johnsonville on the morning of the 30tli 
of November, and marched l»y Avay of Waxcrly through an 
unbroken wilderness and arrived on the 4th of December at 
Clarksville, on the Cumberland river. Embarking at ( bii-k'sville 
on the 28th they ]-eached Nashville at 10 in the evening. They 
landed the next morning and remained in the city awaiting 
transportation until the evening of the 21st of January. I8ti5. 
when they left Nashville by rail and arrived at Dechard. Tenn., 
where six companies of the regiment went to camp riiid tour 
companies, under command of ^Major Hrightman. being detadu'd 
to guard the Elk river brigade. 

The regiment was employed at that station in i>ost and guard 
duty on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad until 
the beginning of June, Avhen it was moved to Nashville, at whidi 
place it was mustered out of the service June 24. 1865, arriving 
soon after in Milwaukee, where they Avere paid and disbanded. 


Was organiz(?d at ^lihvaukec during tin- months of Februai-y 
and ]\rarch, 1865. Eight companies oi' the i-i-giment under tlic 
command of Lieutenant Colonel Shears left ^Milwaukee on the 
2nd of ]\rarch under orders to report at Benton Barracks, Mis- 
souri, at which place it received orders on the 28th of ^Marcli to 
proceed to Paola, Kan. I^pon its arrival llicre tlu^ (•oui])anies 
were sent in different directions to detached duly, and on the 
19th of July Colonel Pearsall was assigned to the command of 
all the troops in and west of Neosho Valley, Kan., including tiie 
station on Osage iMission, with headquarters at Humboldt. Kan. 
Orders were received on the lOth of August for the regiment 
to proceed to Lawrence, hut on account of heavy rains the march 
was delayed until the l!Jtii. arriving at Lawrence, Kan., on Sejv 
teniber 5th. I'pon its an-ival at Lawriuice the regiment Avas 
again assigned on delacln-d service, companies being sent to 
occupy different places. Companies B. D. F and I, Avere nuis- 
tered out at LeaA^euAvorth, Kan., on the lllh of February, 1866, 
and reached ]\Iadison on the 23r(l. The balance of the companies 
Avere mustered out on the 24th of ]\Iarcli, 1866, and arriA-ed at 
INIadison on the 28th, Avher(» they Avere ])aid and disbanded. 



The Fiftieth AViseonsiii was organized under tlie supervision 
of John G. Clark, of Lancaster; left Madison by companies the 
latter part of March and the beginning of April, 1865, and on 
arriving at St. Louis, ]\Io.. the companies were assigned to Ben- 
ton Barracks. On the 11th of October, Colonel Clark assumed 
command of the ])()st at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where the regi- 
ment w^as stationed until the expiration of its term of service. 
Company E was ordered to report at INIadison, AVis., where it 
was mustered out and discharged on the 19th of April, 1866. 
The balance of the regiment remained in garrison at Fort Rice 
until the 31st of May, 1866, when Companies A, B, C and D, 
under the command of Lieutenant Colonel McDermott set out for 
home, reaching Madison, AYis.. on the 12th of May, 1866. Com- 
panies F, G, H. I and K, under the command of Colonel Clark, 
left Fort Rice on the 3rd of June and arrived at Madison on 
the 14th of June, and here the whole army was immediately 
mustered out, paid and disbanded. 


Six companies of this regiment were recruited under Col. 
Leonard ]\Iartin and were organized at Camp Washburn, Mil- 
waukee, during the months of February, March, April and May, 
1865, and were sent to Benton Barracks, Mo., the last company 
being organized on the 29th of April, in that year. The four 
junior companies not having left the state, they were mustered 
out and discharged at Milwaukee on the 6th of IMay under gen- 
eral orders from the War Department for the reduction of the 
army. On the 7th of April Company B was placed on temporary 
duty at St. Louis, and on the 8th of May Companies A, C, E and 
F were ordered to Warrensburg, Mo. These companies were 
then stationed along the line of the Pacific railroad, and were 
occupied in guarding the construction of this road from Holden 
to Pleasant Hill. Company B reached the regiment on the 21st 
of June. In accordance with the special orders from the War 
Department June 10, 1865, the Fifty-third Wisconsin, consist- 
ing of four companies, was consolidated with the Fifty-first regi- 
ment and was mustered out at Madison in companies, the last 
company being disbanded on the 30th of August, 1865. 


This regiment was fully organized, and the colonel and field 
officers mustered into the United States service on the 28th of 


fJaiiuary, 18H2. Col. William A. Barstow took i-oiiunaiul and its 
headciiiarters were at Camp Jiarstow, Janesville. 

On the 26th day of March, 1862, the regiment left the state 
under orders to rejiort at St. Louis. Th(\v took Ihc ti-aiii for 
Chicago and had arrived within three nnles of that cily when 
they met with a terrible disaster. The cars were running i-apidly 
and several of them were thrown from the track. Twelve men 
were instantly killed, and twenty-eight wounded. On the morn- 
ing of the 27th they arrived in Chicago and took the cars for 
St. Louis, wher(^ they arrived the 28th, and marched to the fair 
grounds, near Benton Barracks. ^lay 22nd, 1862. they took 
three steamers up the ^Missouri for Leavenworth, Kan., arriving 
IMay 27th. They had previously drawn ^Merrill's carbines at St. 
Louis and sabres at Janesville. They camped on the blue grass 
near Fort Lea\ eiiworth, and there drew their horses and eiiuij)- 
ments, and in the city their revolvers. Colonel Barstow was 
appointed provost marshal of Kansas, and in the beginning of 
June the regiment was stationed, by detachments, in different 
parts of the state, extending from the Nebraska line on the north 
to Fort Scott on the south. The nature of the service was 
chiefly to hunt up and expel the jayhawkers and bushwhackers of 
that region. Companies C, F, I and ]\I were sent, June 12th, from 
Fort Leavenworlh to Fort Scott, Avhere they aii-ived on the 
17th. This inai'ch is worthy of record, as it was accomplished in 
five days without the loss of a man or horse, the distance being 
180 miles. Fort Scott was now the outpost of the forces, and 
]Major Ilenning took command of the post. Company T was 
sent to occupy Carthage, Mo., sixty-five miles from Foi-t S^-ott. 
Captain Conkey in t-onnnand. 

Company C Avas sent to Trading Post, thirty-five miles north 
of Fori Scoit. (Hi llie border. Bands of rebels were jtrowling 
about the territory. Captain Conkey followed one jiarty, with 
a snuiU force, from Carthage, and finding himself in danger, 
charged through their camj) of 2.000 one morning before day- 
light and escaped. Colonel Barstow unexpectedly met the same 
band at ]Montevallo. and routing them, fell back to F(n"t Scott, 
where an attack was expected. But General Salomon's arrival, 
on liis retui-n from the Indian country, made the post seeure. 
General Blunt arriving, Comjianies V and T, Lieutenant Willets 
in command, joined an expedition in ])ursuit of the enemy. At 
Taberville they had an engagement witli liim. and Company 
I being in front, showed so nmch bravery that Colonel Cloud 
commendctl them in his official report. They took ])art also 


in the action at Coon Creek where 600 loyalists routi'd 1,500 
rebels. . 

Early in Sci)teinber, Companies I and ]M were substituted, at 
Fort Scott, for C and F, ]\Iajor Henning still commanding. They 
were constantly engaged in scouting expeditions, and as escorts 
for trains to General Blunt 's army in southwest ^lissouri, until 
January, 1863. when Companies C and G were added to th(^ com- 
mand, and remained till July, at which date Company G was 
ordered to report to Lieutenant-Colonel AVhite, who then had 
cniiuiiand of the regiment. 

Meanwhile the first and third battalions, under ]\Iajor 
Schroeling, were engaged in such varied movements as were 
common to a state of border warfare. In June, 1862, a disposi- 
tion was made of them at ditit'erent points, thus: Company D 
was sent to Atchison, G to Shawnee, and L to Aubrey; Com- 
panies B and H guarded Fort Leavenworth ; at Leavenworth 
City, A, E and K performed provost duty besides scouting in 
the border counties of Missouri. The infamous Quantrell, Avith 
his guerillas, was often found and fought by them. 

September 13 six companies Avent to Indian Creek, in south- 
west Missouri, and joined the command of General Salomon. In 
his brigade they took part in the battle of Cane Hill, the last 
of November, and in that of Prairie Grove, December 7th, to be 
described hereafter. Subsequently tlicy went to Cane Hill again, 
thence to Van Buren on a raid, driving out a Texas regiment 
and capturing several steamboats. During the Avinter of 1862-63 
they Avere a part of the time at Elm Spring ]\Iills, and ]\Iarma- 
duke being engaged in raiding through the country, they Avere 
continually on the alert to intercept and dislodge him. They 
Avere noAV in Arkansas and then in ^Missouri, on short marches 
and on long ones — at one time moving from Forsyth, Missouri, 
to Springfield, 256 miles, in four days, AA^thout taking forage 
or rations. June 22nd they Avere separated from the rest of the 
command and marched to Fort Scott, camping there July 5th, 
the day after the fall of Vicksburg. 

The other companies of the regiments B, C, H. I and ]M, in 
the preceding month of ]\Iay, under the command of Captain 
Stout, marched to Fort Blunt, in the Cherokee Nation, as an 
escort for the post supply train. A heavy force of some 1,500 
Texans and Indians under the rebel general. Cooper, attacked 
them on the 30th of May, Avhen they were only four miles from 
the fort. The enemy Avas repulsed, the national troops losing 
five men killed and Avounded. June 4th they again set out from 


Fort lUuiit as I'si-ort lo tlir rcliiniiii^- train, and un the 2()th 
turned about as escort to a large train of supplies to the fort. 
At Cabin Creek, on the 27th. the ichd General Cooper again 
attacked them with a nuich snpcrior force. The enemy, however, 
were (liixcn lil'ls' miles across the Verdigris river. Reaching 
Fort Hlunl they were attached to the Third brigade, army of the 
frontier, .luly 16th tlie}' marched soutli. nndei- tlie lead of General 
Blunt. The next day they had a battle at Honey Springs, where 
the I'ebels under Coo])ei' and Stamlwaite lost numy i)risoners 
anol their wiu)le artillery. Afterward they crossed the Arkansas 
river aiul i)ursued the enemy, having some skirmishes, and on 
the 19tli returned to Fort Blunt \\ith tli<' army. 

The early holder warfare led to the formation of several 
Indian regiments, composed in general of the arms-bearing 
refuges among the Indians that could be obtained for the service 
of the United States. The Thii-d AVisconsin Cavalry had some 
connection with these regiments, i)articularly the Third, wliieh 
was recruited on the frontier of .Missouri and Kansas, ^ir. F. II. 
Ely, of the Third Wisconsin Cavalry, was first detailed for special 
service, and then ordered by General Blunt, November 15, 1862, to 
take command of Company G, Third Indian Regiment, as first 
lieutenant. The First Battalion was with this regiment in the 
battle of Honey Springs, or Elk Creek. 


This regiment was originally organized as the Fourth Regi- 
ment of infantry about the 6th of June, 1861, at Camp Utley, Ra- 
cine. On the 15th day of July, 1861, they left the state under 
orders to report at Baltimore, ]\Id., where they arrived on 
the 2:^rd. After detached duty, which separated the companies 
i)f the regiment, they were reunited on the 5th of August and 
Avent into camp thirty miles north of AVashington. Here they 
renmined engaged in drill until the 4th day of Novendx'r. when 
the regiment took part in an expedition on the eastern shore of 
Virginia under General Lockwood. wliiili accomplished no result. 
Upon its return the regiment Avas plaeed in liari'acks in the city 
of Kaltimoi-e, where it i-eniained until V'ebruary, lS(i2. It was 
orch-red on board of transports at Newport News, Virginia, and 
sailed south to join the army of the Gulf, and arrived at Ship 
Island, ^Mississippi, on the bilh of .March. There the reginu'nt' 
was assigned to the Second bi'iL;a<le of the (inlf department, 
lirig. -General Thomas Williams connnantling. Here it remained 
in camp until the 16th of April, and on that day. with tlie Fourth 


Wisconsin, Sixth Michigan and Twenty-first Indiana regiments, 
went on board the ship Great Republic, which was the next day 
towed by Jackson toward the Mississippi river and anchored off 
the southwest pass to await the action of the fleet which had gone 
up the river to attack Forts Jackson and St. Phillips. Here they 
witnessed in the distance that terrible bombardment whose 
lightnings and battle clouds filled the heavens as with a tempest. 
The bombardment opened April 18th under Captain Farragut. 
The forts were damaged but before being captured it was de- 
cided to pass them and go on to New Orleans, which was done 
on the 24th, the chain boom obstruction over the river having 
first been passed and the rebel fleets silenced and the guns of the 
forts were partially silenced. The land forces were ordered to 
sail around by a more shallow passage through the Bay of Ronde 
and strike the river in the rear of the forts. The Fourth Wis- 
consin was transferred from the Colorado to the Great Republic 
and on the 26th started with other troops for Sable Island. The 
expedition was successful and the Fourth Wisconsin received 
high praise from Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, who was in command 
of that district. On the 29th the companies of the Fourth AA^is- 
consin were assembled from the gunboats and in connection with 
the Thirty-first Massachusetts Avere the first troops to land in 
New Orleans. With colors flying, their feet keeping time to 
''Yankee Doodle" as they marched to the custom house and took 
forceable possession, the Fourth Wisconsin occupying principally 
the post office. Here it remained until the 8tli of May, perform- 
ing the duty of provost guard in the city. On that day six com- 
panies embarked on the transport Burton, steamed up the Mis- 
sissippi river thirty-five miles and landed on the left bank. Just 
before daylight they started with part of the Sixth Michigan 
for the Jackson and Mississippi railroad after a difficult and 
dangerous march through cypress swamps and difficult roads 
and having a little brush with the outpost of the enemy. On the 
18th they reached, in boats, the vicinity of Warrenton at 5 :00 
in the afternoon and tied up at that place in sight of the rebel 
works. After some skirmishing the regiment proceeded on the 
river to Baton Rouge, wdiere it landed and remained until the 
17th of June. On the 5th of June General AYilliam's order was 
issued directing the commanders to turn fugitive slaves out of 
their camps and keep them out. Colonel Paine refused to obey 
this order and was placed under arrest. Colonel Paine consid- 
ered that by turning these fugitives out that he was violating 
the act of congress which provided an officer from employing 


trooi)s under his coiiiitiaiKl to return fugitivL's from services or 
labor and that by turning them away from the protection of 
these troops he was violating that act. The regiment stood by 
the colonel and was highly indignant, and on the 17th of June 
it was so modified that he again assumed connnand and the regi- 
ment embarked on the second expedition to Vicksburg. At Grand 
Gulf they burned every building and in the night embarked for 
Vicksburg, which Avas reached on the 2r)th. Soon after the 
arrival at Vicksburg it was decided to dig a canal from the 
jNIississippi river above the city, the neck of land opposite to the 
river below, and part of this work was then under the direction 
of Captain Bailey. Negroes Avere conscripted from all the planta- 
tions along the river for this work. Jt was continued up until 
July 14th, when, owing to the fearful loss of life from disease 
contracted in the low, wet ground, the Avork Avas abandoned on 
July 14th. On that same day Capt. John AV. Lynn, of Company 
I, AA'ith tAventy men, tAvo from each company, crossed to the fleet 
aboA'e Vicksburg and Avent on board the gunboat "Tyler," and 
the next morning started up the Yazoo river to perform the duty 
of sharpshooters. AYIien near Old River the rebel ram Arkansas 
Avas met and the Tyler turned about. A running fight folloAved 
on th(> ^lississippi riA^er in Avhieli the ])rave eaptaiu and five men 
were torn to ])ieces by a sliell and six others AvoundiMJ. The ram 
ran through Poilei-'s ii<'et fo Vicksburg. The Fourth AVisconsin 
Avas sent undei- flie commaiul of ('()lon(4 Paine to the ])oint oppo- 
site the toAvn to jorevent the crossing of the rebels. AVliile here 
they AAntnessed the bombardment of the city by the eomliined 
fleets of Farragut and Davis, Avliieh Avas a ttM'riI)le scene. Tlie 
regiment steamed doAvn the river and landed at Baton Rouge on 
the 26th after the bombardment, the expedition having suffered 
much from disease, and on the 31st of July Colonel Paine, in 
obedience to ordei-s, started for Ncav Orleans to i'e]>ort arrest of 
General Butler. On the morning of August ')1h an advance Avas 
made to meet ihc confederates under General Breckenridge, avIio 
was repulsed Avith great loss. Tn this battle General AVilliams 
w^as killed and Colonel Paine Avas sunnnonod to Ncav Orleans 
by General l^utler and i)laced in command to return to Baton 
Rouge and burn the city to the ground. The next night at 12:00 
o'clock Colonel Paine reached the city, found that the rebels liad 
retreated and fhat fhe federal troops had changed their i)osition 
and Avere Avaiting another attack. Colonel Paine held the city 
until the ITlli of August. Avhen he received information from 
General Butler tliat Batou Rouge Avould be again attacked on the 


ISth of August. The Colonel had also learned the same thing 
from his scouts and was prepared. All spare baggage was 
ordered on board the transport, signals were arranged for by day 
and night, all state prisoners were taken to the boats and sent 
down the river. On the 18th the enemy approached the works 
on the southeast but were easily repulsed by the gunboats. On 
the 19th the colonel posted notices requiring all residents to leave 
the city on the following day, and directed that the buildings 
should be burned on the 20ih unless the order was rescinded by 
General Butler. Before daylight on the 20th an order was re- 
ceived, dated the 19th, from General Butler, rescinding the order 
to burn the city. The town was thus saved, for which the people 
of Louisiana may be forever grateful to the generous heart of 
Col. Halbert E. Paine, of the Fourth Wisconsin. On tlie 21st the 
city was evacuated. The regiment did some service at different 
points during September, October and November, and on the 
19th of December returned to Baton Rouge, Major Boardman in 
command. The regiment afterwards participated in that famous 
siege of Fort Hudson and lost very heavily. It had been con- 
verted into a cavalry regiment in 1863, and as such it took rank 
with the best cavalry regiments in the service. Most of its serv- 
ice was in ^Missouri, Louisiana and Tennessee, and at the close 
of the war it went with the army destined for Texas and served 
there until 18G6. The Fourtli had a longer term of service than 
any other regiment sent from AYisconsin to the war. From its 
ranks there came four generals : Gen. Harrison Cubart, Gen. 
0. H. LaGrange, Gen. Joseph Bailey, who rendered the county 
great service, and Gen. Ilalbert E. Paine, who served several 
terms in congress and held various positions in civil life. To 
have served in the bonny Fourth Wisconsin was an honor to 
any man. The Fourth had as colonels, and they were all superb 
soldiers and officers, Halbert E. Paine, S. A. Bean, Fred E. 
Boardman, Joseph Bailey, AVebster Moore and N. F. Craigne. 
The regiment lost in battle 103, and from disease 261. It was 
mustered out of the service on the 28th of Alay, 1866, at Browns- 
ville, jNIinnesota, and was sent to Madison, up the river, arriving 
there on the 16th of June, 1866, where this veteran cavalry regi- 
ment was soon afterward paid off and disbanded. 




A carci'ul scai-t-li lia.s been iiuttlc tliroiigli .ill ;i\ail;il)lo rci-urils, 
including the report of the adjutaiil general of AViseonsin for 
1865, and the roster of AViseonsin volunteers published by author- 
ity of the legislature in 1886; we have endeavored to give here 
as accurate a list as is ])()ssibl(' of tlic naiiic of e\ery man who 
volunteered or Avas drafted from IMonroe county during that 
great struggle; owing to the similarit>' in names of towns in dif- 
ferent counties some confusion has resulted, ])ut llir following 
roster is believ(>d to be correct. 


Phillips. AVilliam •)., Sparta; second lieutenanl : dii'd Novem- 
ber 9, 1862, of wounds received at Chalk Bluft', Ark. 

Company "H" — Henry J. Crouch, James AA". L(>wis, Serenus D. 
Lombard, Lewis Stanley, all of Ontario. 


Geoi-ge 1). Iliggins, Sparta, hospital slcwai'd: lliraiii A. I>run- 
dage, S]iarta, battalion liospital steward. 

Company "A" — ('apt. Jeremiah D. Dainuioii, Sparta: Cai)t. 
Robert Carpenter, Sparta; See. Lieut. John Davis, Leon; Allen, 
Levi, Sparta; Harkei". rctci- H.. Leon; Harnes, Seth, Sparta; 
Benedick, Origin R., Glendale; Bennett, Benjamin AV.. Sparta; 
Billings, Frederick, Spaita ; Blake, Albn-i .!.. Sparta ; Briggs, 
Charles, Adrian: Britton. Ori'iii A.. Sjjarta; Kiundagc, Hiram A., 
Adrian; Bullcn. Px-njamin. Sparta; Bullcn, -Jesse \\. Little Falls; 
Bui-dick. Alfred, Sparta; Buttei'tidd. LaFayettc, Sparta: Cai'i-, 
AVilliam, Sparta; Carr. A'ercUo. Lilth' P'alls: Cliadscy. .losepli, 
Leon; Coi'iiisli, -John H.. Spaiia: Critrliclt, William II., Sheldon; 
Crosby, George C, Spai-ta: Davis, .losiah, Sparta; Decker, Josej))! 
]\I., Adrian; Delong, AVilliam A.. Aiigelo; Dunlap. James F., 
Glendale; Davis, AVilliam, Roaring Creek; Eddy, Edgar, Sparta; 



Farwell, Corydoii J.. Sparta ; Finnell, Joseph, Sparta ; Foot, Wil- 
liam R., LaFayette ; Fullagar, Benjamin, LaFayette ; Gates, 
Charles F.. Sparta ; Gilbert, Thomas, Athens ; Gilson, Clark, 
Adrian; Gordon, Oscar L., AVellington; Green, Manson L., Glen- 
dale ; Grnmons, John. Leon ; Harris, Lewis P., Little Falls ; Hen- 
derson. William, Leon; Hettman, Fredric C, Sparta; Hill, John, 
Eaton; Hill. Simeon, Eaton; Hodgkins, George C, Sparta; Hogue, 
Hugh T., Sparta ; Hohn, Reuben, Leon ; Ilollenbeek, Henry D., 
Sparta; Hoover, Ancill B.. AVellington ; Houghtaling, John, Well- 
ington ; Howland. Herman, Sparta : Hubbard, Ozro W., Sparta ; 
Hubbard, Charles F.. Sparta ; Hull. Joseph C.. Sparta ; Hubbard, 
Watts AY.. Sparta; Johnson. Thomas, Sparta; Johnson, Frederick 
H., Adrian ; Kidney, Albert J. H., Sparta ; LaBare, Charles, 
Sparta ; Lawrence, Robert. Sparta ; Logan, Samuel M., Sparta ; 
McGary, Thomas, Ridgeville ; McNab, Daniel, Sparta ; McNab, 
James S.. Roaring Creek; McMillan, AVilliam F., Sparta; Mc- 
Queen, Samuel, Glendale ; McAA'ithy, Lucian A., Sparta ; Mc- 
Withy, Henry E.. Sparta; Meadows. Thomas E., Portland; Mead- 
ows, AVilliam H., Sparta; Meadows, Charles W., Leon; Peters, 
Nelson, Adrian ; Peters, Timothy, Angelo ; Peters, Munson, Ad- 
rian; Pierce, Austin, Sparta; Pierce, Martin, Sparta; Putnam, 
Charles, Leon; Pain, John, Roaring Creek; Rawson, Lucian M., 
AVilton ; Russell, Andrew, Sparta ; Seeley, Boyd F., Athens ; 
Smith, John J., Leon ; Snow, Jonathan, Leon ; Snyder, Abram C. 
Sparta ; Starkweather, Hiram, Sparta ; Steward, Henry E., Ad- 
rian ; Thorp. Adelbert D., Glendale ; Thorp, Charles R., Sparta ; 
Tower, Alartin V. B., Clifton: Underwood, Horace H., Portland; 
Walrath, John J., Sparta; AVaste, James, Sparta; AYest, Francis 
D., Sparta; AViseman, Augustus. Athens; AYensel. AYilliam J., 
Roaring Creek ; Youmans, Samuel J., Leon. 

Company "K" — Hohn, Elmore, Sparta; Riggs. Andrew, 
Sparta ; Stegmann, Conrad, Portland ; AYalter, Charles, Port- 
land ; Zoelle. A^alentine, Portland. 

The Third AYisconsin cavalry was reorganized in 1864 and a 
large number of IMonroe County men re-enlisted. All from origi- 
nal Company '"A": Barker, Peter R., Leon; Billings, Fredrick, 
Sparta; Blake, Albert J., Sparta; Butterfield, LaFayette, Sparta; 
Chadsey. Joseph, Leon ; Farwell, Corydon, J.. Sparta ; Gates, 
Charles F., Sparta; Gilbert, Thomas, Athens; Grummons, John, 
Leon; Hollenbeck , Henry D., Sparta; Howland, Herman, Sparta; 
Hubbard, Charles B., Sparta ; Hubbard, AYatts AY., Sparta ; John- 
son, Fredrick H., Adrian ; Kidney, Albert J. H., Sparta ; LaBare, 
Charles, Sparta; McMillan, Wm. F., Sparta; McQueen, Samuel, 

118 HISTORY OF :moxrop: county 

Glendak' ; ^Meadows, "William IT., Sparta ; ^Meadows, Edward T., 
Portland; ^Meadows, Charles AV., Leon; Niehols, Joseph, Green- 
field ; Paine, John, Roaring Creek ; Peters, Nelson, Adrian ; See- 
ley, Boyd F., Athens: Thorp. Cliarles R., Sparta; Tower, ]\Iartin 
V. B., Clifton; AVabrath, John J.. Sparta; "Wiseman, Augustus, 


Theodore AV. Gillett. eonnnissary, Tomah; sergeant majors, 
IMyron P. Chase, Sparta, second lieutenant Company "I," June 
24, 1863 ; Daniel A. Kenyon. Tomah : saddler sergeant, Rufus A. 
Roliertson, Sparta. 

Company "A" — Farnswortli, James F>.. Tomah. captain, Au- 
gust 22, 1865; made ma.jor June 18, 1866; Alton, ^Michael C, Ad- 
rian; Ayres, Anson, Angelo; Bacon, Amos, Leon; Baker, George 
R., Tomah; Batis, IMathis, Tomah; Beekwith. Joseph, Sparta; 
Boyle, John, AVilton; Childs, Clinton D., Sparta; Cray, Parman. 
Sparta; English, Isaac, Tomah; Getman, Hiram, Lincoln; Get- 
man, Lorenzo. Lincoln ; Gleason, Emanuel P., LaFayette ; Haynes, 
Sanford A., Leon ; Jackson, AVilliam S., Tomah ; Knight, Charles 
A., Tomah ; Kerr, Alexander, Tomah ; Putnam, Lucius AL, Sparta : 
Ralston, AVilliam H., LaFayette; Roberts, AVilmot, Sparta; Root, 
Jason, Tomah; Seeley, David A., Sparta; Skinner, John B., Port- 
land; Smith. John, Adrian; Twiner, Jonathan F., Adrian; Van 
Kirk, John II., Sparta; AYalker, Joseph A., Ontario; AYeed, AYil- 
liam D., Tomah; AYheeler, John AA"., Sparta. 

Company "C" — Baker. Hugh, Sparta, second lieutenant, June 
18, 1866. 

Company ''D"— Lock, Henry F., Sparta, from Co. "I" Yoi. 
Corp; McLain, Eleazer P., Sparta; from Co. "I" A^et. Corp: AVal- 
worth, Ilartwell C., Tomah, from Co. "T" A^^t. Corp. 

Company "E" — Capt. Joseph Hall, Tomah. 

Company ''I" — John AA^. Lynn, captain, Sparta; Levi R. 
Blake, captain, Sparta ; Capt. Daniel G. Jewett, Sparta ; Capt. 
Jas. B. Farn.sworth. Tomah; First Lieut. ]\Iyron P. Chas, Sparta: 
See. Lieut. Ansyl A. AYest, Sparta; Alger, Josiah, Leon; Alton, 
]\Iichael C., Adrian, transferred to Co. "A"'; Ayers. Anson, An- 
gelo ; Ayres, Albert, Leon ; Bacon, Amos, Leon ; Baker, Cliarles, 
Ridgeville. transferred to Co. "A"; Baker, Hugh, Ridgeville, 
transferred to Co. "C"; Baker, George R., Tomah. transferred 
to Co. "A"; Beekwith, Joseph, Sparta; transferred to Co. ''A"; 
Beardsley, George L., Tomah ; Blake, Albert IL, Sparta, trans- 
ferred to 20th Inf. ; Bloss, Charles, Greenfield, transferred to Co. 


''A"; Boring, LaFayette, Ontario; Boyle, John, Wilton, trans- 
ferred to Co. "A"; Brist, Mandly ^Y., AVilton ; Bush, Wm. J., 
Tomah ; Chandler, John L., Greenfield; Cole, John N., Cataract; 
Gray, Parkman, Sparta, transferred to Co. "A"; Davidson, Jo- 
seph H., Leon; English, Isaac, Tomah; Farley, AVilliara E., 
Sparta; Getman, Lorenzo, Lincoln, transferred to Co. "A"; Get- 
man, Hiram, Lincoln, transferred to Co. ''A"; Gillett, Theo. W., 
Tomah; Gilson, William, Tomah; Gleason, Emanuel P., LaFay- 
ette, transferred to Co. "A"; Graham, Miller, Sheldon; Green- 
man, James, Wilton ; Grenzo, John, Wilton ; Hall, Joseph, Tomah, 
first lieutenant, May 30, 1864; Hall, Benjamin F., Sparta; Hall, 
Archibald G., Leon; Hall, Joseph R., Leon; Haynes, Sanford A., 
Tomah; transferred to Co. "A"; Hill, Jacob, Sparta; Hodgkins, 
Edward I., Sparta ; Hubbard, Charles S., AA^ilton, transferred to 
Co. "A"; Hull, Edward, Sparta; Jackson, William S., Tomah, 
transferred to Co. "A"; Jewell, Isaac, Roaring Creek; Johnston, 
Clayton M., Tomah; Jones, Ransom, Sparta; Kennedy, John, 
Sparta; Kerr, Alexander, Tomah, transferred to Co. "A"; 
Knight, Charles A., Tomah, transferred to Co. ''A"; Large, 
Jacob I., Tomah; Matteson, John P., Cataract; McClure, John B., 
Sparta; McLain, Eleazor P.. Cataract, transferred to Co. "D"; 
Meadows, William C, Sparta ; Osborn, George I., Sparta, trans- 
ferred to Co. ''C"; Pangburn, William, Sparta; Perry, John T., 
Roaring Creek; Putnam, Lucius M., Sparta, transferred to Co. 
"A"; Ralston, AYilliam H., LaFayette; Rathbun, Dewey, Leon; 
Rice, Wellington, Ridgeville ; Robertson, Rufus A., Sparta ; Rock- 
wood, James H., Leon ; Rockwood, Theodore H., Adrian ; Root, 
Jason, Tomah, transferred to Co. "A"; Smith, John, Adrian, 
transferred to Co. "A"; Spaulding, Charles D., Tomah; Skinner, 
John B., Portland; transferred to Co. "A"; Tolles, William, 
Wilton, transferred to Co. ^'A"; Turner, Jonathan F., Adrian, 
transferred to Co. '^A"; Van Arnum, LaFayette, Cataract; Van 
Kirk, John, Angelo ; Walker, Harlow S., Cataract ; Weed, Wil- 
liam D., Tomah ; Yoemans, W^illiam H., Sparta ; Yoemans, James 
H., Sparta. 

Company "L" — Capt. Joseph Hall, Tomah. 


Babcock, Oscar, Tunnel City; Buzzell, Charles C, Sparta; 
Carvar, Nelson, Wilton ; Clark, John, Clifton ; Green, Frank L., 
Sparta ; Harper, Peter, Sparta ; Hayward, Pliny P., Sparta ; Her- 
rick, George L., Sparta ; Hodgkins, Edward I., Sparta ; Hoyt, 
Samuel, Sparta ; Joseph, Charles, Lincoln ; Ledyard, Nathaniel 


D., Sparta; ^McCabe, John, Sparta; ]\lelntyre, Charles, 
Sparta; Middaugh, Charleston E., Sparta; Milligan, .Joseph 
G., Sparta; Murphy, William, Cataract; Pangborn, Hiram 
L., Sparta; Powell, ]\lilton E., Sparta; Randless, James 
W., Wilton; Rathbun, Ilallett. I.eon; Rathlmn, AVilliam A., 
Jefferson; Rice, Benjamin \V.. Oakdale ; Smith, Gilbert, AVilton ; 
Sowle, Albert AY., Wilton; Smnmcrfield, William A., Sparta, 
transferred to Company 1, II. A.; Thrall, Joim, Sparta; AVhita- 
ker, Samnel, Wilton; Williams, Jay "VV., Sparta; AYoodbridge. 
Charles B., Tunnel City. 


Junior Sccojul Lieul. Henry A. Hicks, Glendale; ]\Iinets, 
Nelson, Clifton. 


Company "E" — Ackerman, James 0. Byron; Adelmeyer, 
John II., Leroy ; Bates, Butler H., Leroy ; Blanchard, p]dmund L., 
Leroy; Braman, James II., Byron ; AVeyranch, Conrad, Lincoln. 

Company ''F"— Bashford, Frank AY., Clifton: BroAvn, Will- 
iam C. Clifton ; Cook, George, Clifton"; Ellis, Leroy, Clifton. 


Company "B" — Andre, John. Lineolii; Brown, Christoplu'r. 
Portland; Dehvick, Eugene, Lincoln; Erickson, Lars, Portland. 

Company "II" — Aney, John J., Ridgeville; Ballamore. James, 
Sparta ; Combert, James, Sparta ; Cottrill, Stephen. Sparta ; 
Downing, George AY., Sparta; Downey, Charles H., Sparta; Dunn, 
George AY., Sparta; Hancock, George AV.. Sjjarta : Harding. 
Charles, Sparta; AVilliams, James P., Ontario; AYeston. Charles 
B., Ontario. 

Company "I" — ('apt. Leonard Johnson, Glendale: Boldcn, 
AYilliam L., Ontario; Boughton, Lewis AL, Tomah : Brigliam, John 
M., Glendale; Davis, Lawson, Glendale: Briggs, Job S., Glendale. 
afterwai'd second lietuenant Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry: 
Graham, Larneck, Tomah; Green. Chester A., Glendale; Har- 
land, John, Glendale; Johnson, AYilliam II., Sparta; Newton, 
Thomas, Glendale; Robbins. George, Glendale; Rockwell. Eli, 
Sparta; Staker, James A., Sparta; AYarner, A^'alentine, Sparta. 

Company "K" — Andress, Alonzo L., Tunnel City; Conway, 
Thomas, Lincoln; Cuimnings, Daniel, Sparta: Dowing, George 
AY., Sparta, from Company "IT": Hancock, AVilliam D., Clifton; 


Revels, William J., Sparta; Revels, Henry, Sparta; Roli'e, Albert 
H., Sparta; Taylor, Charles M., Tomah ; A^nn AVie, David C, 
LaFayette ; AVilliams, Jured. Ontario. 


Cullow, Edward. Tomah; Culver, Charles A., Sparta; Element, 
Frank, Clifton; Grimes, James, LaFayette; Kelso, Evans P., 
Sparta ; Stalker, Clinton L., Sparta. 


Col. AYilliani W. Robinson, Sparta, lieutenant colonel, August 
15, 1861 ; colonel. January 30, 1862. 

Company "A" — Culver, AVilliam P., Lincoln; Kitts, Edward, 
Leroy; AYalrod, Jonathan, Portland. 

Company ''B" — Barman. AVilliam AV., Tomah; l^lowers. John 
J., Tomah. 

Company ''E" — Robinson, AVilliam AV., Sparta; Spooner, 
Edward J., Lincoln. 

Company "I'' — Capt. Edward Terrell, Leon; Birdsall, David, 
Leon; Perkins, Hugh, Leon; AVilliams, George AV., Leon; AVill- 
iams, Byron S., Leon. 


Kavanaugh, Patrick, Kendall. 


Company "D'" — Aney, James P., Ridgeville, from Company 
"I"; Hall, AVilliam G., Sparta; Parker, Adelbert. Sparta. 
Company "I" — AA'^orden, Henry D.. AVilton. 


Company "D" — Shaffer, AVilliam Henry, Sparta. 

Company "G" — Carnahan. Archibald, Sparta; Carnahan, 
Andrew, Sparta, transferred to Twenty-first AA'isconsin; Lane, 
George, Jefferson; Lane, Jobe, Sparta. 

Company "II" — Beardsley. Everett AV.. Tomah; Bigelow, 
Hiram 0., Lincoln ; Church, Orange, Lincoln ; Corey, Phillip, 
Greenfield ; Deyotell, John, Tomah ; Gee, Charles C, Sparta ; Gor- 
man, Aaron H., Tomah; Harding, AVilliam, Sparta; Harp. AVill- 
iam, Lincoln ; Harp, Jacob, Tomah ; Haywood, Joel, Tomah ; 
Hogue, Charles P., Sparta ; AleClure, Samuel, Tomah ; AIcGinniss, 
Joseph, Greenfield ; Rockwood, Delorama, Tomah ; Spaulding, 
Henry C, Tomah ; Spooner, Charles AV., Tomah ; Thomas, Alelvin 


G., Lincoln; Thompson, Dwiglit, Tuniali; AVeaver, lliiaiu O., 

Company "K" — Calhoun, John, Byron; Dow, Loren, AVilton; 
Gibbs, Albci't, Byron; Graves, Russell C., Leroy; Hatch, Charles, 


Company "E" — Bai-hcr. IIuIxtI, AVilton; Beaumont. Georore. 
Kendall; Carr, xXndi-ew, Kendall; Dain, .James AI., Kendall; 
Doyle, John, Kendall ; Gugerty, William A., Kendall ; Alarr, 
Andrew, Kendall ; ]\Iurphy, Dennis AV., Kendall ; Shea, Edward, 

Company "F" — Carver, Austin, Wilton; Early, Jobn, Green- 

Company '"G"^ — -James, Joseph, Portland. 

Company "H "-^Chamberlain. Thomas, Lincoln; Hancock, 
Thomas IL. Tomali; ITollenback, Charles, Lincoln. 


Company ''D" — Bass, Charles H., Tomah; Birdsell. John, 
Sparta; Braman, Edward F., Tomah; Broughton, Timothy B., 
Tomah; Cleveland, Daniel F., Tomah, from Company "D," 
Twenty-fifth Infantry; Darwin, Samuel N., Sparta; Haskins, 
Nathaniel, Sparta; Matchett, James, Sparta; Peterson, Christo- 
pher, Tomah; Parshall. AVilliam H. II., Sparta; Purcell. Walli-r 
\V., Tonudi, from Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry; Put- 
man, Charles IL. Sparta, from Comi)any "D." Twenty-Hfth Infan- 
try; Richardson, Perry, Glendale; Scott, Leonard, Sparta, from 
Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry; Tuthell, Jobn, Sparta, 
from Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry; Trowlridge, George 
M., Tomah, from Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry; Yan 
Kirk. .Icrciiiiali. Sparta; Yaughn, Ilanisou II.. Tomah. 

Company ''E" — Livingston, James, Roaring Creek, from 
Company "F," Twenty-fifth Infantry. 

Ct)mpany "H," — Rogers. Jacob. Tomah. 

Company "I" — Griffin. Charles. Tomab. 

Com]iany "K" — Xicols, John, Kendall, from Comi)any "E, "' 
Tweiily-liflb Infant I'y. 


Company "D" — Harrison. William L., Greenfield; Sour, 
Daniel IL, Sparta. 

Company "I'' — Reedei". George AV.. Spai-ta. 



Company "H"" — Seeond Lieut. Martin A. Erickson, Sparta. 
Recruits Not on Any Company Roll — Ole Olson. Toniah. 


Company "C" — Kelly, Jeremiah, Glendale, from Company 
"F," V. C. ; Lyman, Jeremiah, Glendale ; Pearsoll, James I., Glen- 
dale ; Rowin, Robert, Glendale, from Company "F"; Saddoris, 
Samuel, Summit, from Company "F"; Teed, Truman, Glendale. 

Company "D" — Lloyd, Silas, Portland, transferred to Com- 
pany "E"; AYalrod, Michael, Portland. 

Company "E"— McDougal, Fredrick E., Tomah. 

Company "F" — Birdsill. George, Glendale; Boughtou, Tim- 
othy, Glendale ; Hancock, Wallace B., Clifton ; Douglas, Richard 
A., Glendale ; Teed Truman, Glendale ; ]Morse. Anthony, Lincoln ; 
Palmer, Sylvester C, Lincoln; Winegar, William, Lincoln. 


Company '"B" — Nelson, Andrew A., Portland. 
Company "H" — Thompson. Alexander, Sparta; Wilcox, 
Martin. LaFayette. 


Sergt. Maj. Edwin L. Bolton. Tomah, from Company '"E." 

Company "A'' — Bannigan, William, Tomah; Miller, Joseph, 

Company "B'' — Claigg, Ilospild, Kendall; Okes, Charles, 

Company "PI" — Reddelin, John, Ridge ville. 


James Delaney, chaplain, Sparta ; Hosp. StCAvard, Luther B. 
Noyes, Sparta. 

Company ''C" — Carpenter, John, Jefferson; Frazer, Elijah 
S., Jefferson; Herron, John. Jeft'erson : Rodgers, JMerrick, 

Company "D" — Capt. George A. Fisk, Sparta; First Lieut. 
Dewitt C. AVilson, Sparta; Austin, Palmer, Sparta; Beach, 
Arunah J., Angelo ; Beach, Henry, Angelo ; Birgal, Francis, Cata- 
ract; Brown, Jesse, Angelo; Bugbee, Lanson L., Cataract; Camp- 
bell, George, Angelo ; Comstock, Ambrose L., Leon ; Crocker, 

124 IlISTORV OK :\I()NK01': corxTY 

Ephrain, Eaton; Culver, Nathan, Ontario, transforrcd to Cnni- 
pany "K": Dnstin, John P., Cataract; Earr, Li'rov II.. Cataract; 
Einncl, .James, Ontario; Freeman, Select, Sparta; Gary, John, 
Sparta; (h-oss, John, Sparta, transferred to Company "K"; Iler- 
rick, Lotin C., Sparta; Hill, Oscar A., Sparta: Hoard. Ziha. Cata- 
ract; Humphrey, John, Sparta; Jewell, Jolm I).. Sparta, trans- 
ferred to Company "K"; Landon, Lewis, Cataract; Lang, Daniel 
II.. Wellington, transferred to Company "K"; Lathrop, Alfred 
H., Tomali; Lowe. AVilliam IT., Greenfield, transferred to Com- 
pany '*K"; ]\Iaguire, Thomas, Sparta; Maila, Charles. Ontario; 
^Mathews, Albert C, Cataract; McKay, Sheldon, Cataract; 
]Merriam. Enos S., Sparta; Merriam, Charles W.. Sjjarta ; 
^Mitchell, DeLos AV., -leffersou; ]\Iooney, James, Sheldon; 
]\Iott, Theodore, Portland; Noyes, Luther P., Sparta, 
promoted to hospital stewainl. 1861 ; Osborn, James, Sr., 
Leon; Osborn, James, Jr.. Leon; Pierce. Henry. Adrian; Phelps. 
Henry J., Ontario; Purdy, Owen W.. LaFayette ; Rathbun. Dewey, 
Leon; Eathbun, Charles. Leon; Remington. George, Rockland; 
Riggs. Andrew, Leon ; Ring, Alonzo, Sparta ; Robinson, John, 
Sparta; Robinson, AVilliam, Sparta; Rowley, Henry ]M., Ontario; 
Sanderlin, Isaac S., Greenfield, transferred to Company '"K": 
Sayles. William IT.. Sj^arta ; Seepiy. Edward. Cataract; Sheldon. 
Joshua AV., Sheldon; Smith. Amisa, Angelo ; Sprout. Cummings. 
N., Cataract; Stacy, Norman B. ; LaFayette; Stetson, James ]\I., 
LaFayette; Stratton, Josiah, Sparta; Stewart, Alilton AI.. Sparta; 
Teague, Isaac, Sparta; Towiisend. AValdron. Jefferson; ToAvn- 
send. Jonathjin. Jefferson; AVilson. High C., Eaton; AVinter, John, 
Cataract; AA^oodford, Thomas, Cataract; AVheeler, John E.. Ridge- 
ville; Youmans, AA^illiam. Angelo. 

Comi)any "K'' — Jewell. John D.. Sjiarta. from Company ''D": 
Kapi)ing. Christian. Eaton; Lown, William II.. (Jreenfield, from 
Company '"D"; Lang, Daniel H., AVellington, from Company 
"D"; Danderlin. Isaac S., Greenfield, from Company *'D." 


Q. ]\I. Sergt. AVilliaiii 11. Plyton, Sparta; Com. Sergt. Galusha 
B. Field, Synirta : i'rin. Musician Willinni Ken-igan. Sparta. tVoiii 
Company "('.'" 

( 'omjiany "A" — Lee, li\ run 1>.. Spai'ta ; SheiMdan. -Tames. Leon, 
from Company "G." 

Company ••("' — Capt. .John A. Chaiullei-. Sjiaiia; Capl. Alonzo 
H. Russell, Sparta; First Lieut. AVilliam R. V. Erisby, Sparta; 
Allen, James ^L, Eaton; Ashton, John, Sparta; Austin, AVilliam 


G., Sparta ; Barber, George II., Sparta ; Beardsley, George W., 
Sparta; Bingham, Henry S., Sparta; Bloom, Henry J., Sparta; 
Blyton. Thomas W., Leon; Blyton, Charles "W., Sparta; Branden- 
stein, John, Ridgeville ; Bremer, Charles, Sparta ; Brist, William, 
Sparta ; Bullen, Samuel T., Sparta ; Campbell, Eleazor J., Sparta ; 
Chamley, William, Sparta; Close, W^esley J., Sparta; Commons, 
James, Sparta ; Cottinger, John, Sparta ; Coon, Caleb, Sparta ; 
Cutland, Phillip, Sparta; Draper, John, Sparta; Draper, Thomas, 
Jefferson; Fields, Gakisha B., Sparta, promoted to commanding 
sergeant; Garden, Daniel, Leon; Gates, ]\Ielvill B., Sparta; Gross, 
Henry. Sparta, transferred to V. R. C. ; Hall, Horace, Sparta; 
Gross, John P., Jefferson; Hartwell, William H., Sparta; Hen- 
shell, William H. I., Sparta ; Hill, Eber B., Sparta ; Howard, David 
H., Sparta ; Hurlbut, Albert H., Sparta ; Hutchins, Sylvester, 
Sparta ; Jonas, Elias, Leon ; Jones, Thomas, Leon ; Jones, John 
W., Sparta; Lovell, Abijah J., Eaton; Lynn, James H., Sparta; 
McDougal, Alexander, Sparta;, McGary, Henry, Ridgeville; 
McPheters, Alexander, Leon ; Moore, Horace J., Sparta ; Murray, 
Christopher, Sparta ; Nichols, Joseph, Sparta ; Nolan, Andrew, 
Ridgeville; Paugburn, Francis S., LaFayette; Payne, Nelson, 
Sparta; Perkins, John B., LaFayette; Pierce, Alfred, Sparta; 
Pameroy, Erastus, Sparta ; Potter, Joseph AV., Sparta ; Potter, 
Jasper, Sparta ; Preston, Taylor, Sparta ; Premo, Lewis, Lincoln ; 
Rath, Henry A., Ridgeville ; Rathbun, Edward C, Sparta ; Rath- 
bun, Edmund, Sparta; Ross, Elisha, Leon; Sanderlin, John, 
Sparta; Schmitz, AVilliam, Jefferson; Sherwood, ]\Iartin. Ridge- 
ville; Shepherd, George A., Sparta; Shepherd, AA^illiam, Angelo; 
Shepherd, George AV., Angelo ; Sheridan, James, Sparta, from 
Company "F"; Snow, Jaspar E., Sparta, from second lieutenant; 
Steward, James, Sparta ; Suckam, Edward, Sparta ; Swift, Lucian, 
Sparta; Swift, Cola, Sparta; Utter, Benjamin F., Leon; AValter, 
Michael, Cataract ; Warner, Samuel W., Sparta ; AVhitelesly, 
George M., Jefferson ; AVitting, John, Sparta ; AVoodliff, John, 
Sparta ; AVruk, Christian, Sparta ; Ziegler, Caspar, Ridgeville. 

Company "D" — Allendorf, Peter. Angelo; Clifford. Charles 
C, Sparta, from Company "G"; Cooper, Silas J., Sheldon; Hol- 
lenbeck, AA^illiam A., Lincoln, from Company "G"; Hoskins, 
Marvin, Lincoln, from Company "G"; Hubbard, Richard, Ridge- 
ville ; Mallory, Rodney D., Lincoln ; Meyer, Christian, Ridgeville, 
from Company "G"; Robson, John, Leon, from Company "G"; 
Sabls, Charles F.. Leon; Shanklin. Ridgeville, from Company 
"G"; Sherwin, Bissels, Angelo; AVilson, Roger J., Leon, from 
Company "G." 


rompany ''£"— Tuttlc, Ezra. AVclliiicrtnn. 

Company "G" — Crane, Ohadiali. Lincoln; Cnlvcr. T^nke, 
Byron; Hettman, Jacol) R., Ridgcvillc; Ilaskins. Varvin Ji., Lin- 
coln, transferred to Company "D"; Hollenbeek. AVilliam A., Lin- 
coln, transferred to Company "D"; ileyer, Cliristian. Rid<;eviile, 
transferred to Company "D"; Vanghan, George \V.. Byron; 
Vaughan, Ira \\^. iJyroii: Wilson, Addison, Lincoln; AVilson, 
Roger J., Leon. 

Company "K" — Bist, AVilliam. Sparta, transferred to Com- 
pany "C"; Close, AVilsey J., Sparta, transferred to Company 
"C"; Hazelton, James A., Sparta: Hill. Alher B., Sparta, trans- 
ferred to Company "'('." 

Recruits Not on Comjiaiiy Roll — Pick. AVilliam II.. Sparta. 


Company "A" — Babcock. Ralph \V.. Tomali; Chandler, Jere- 
miah I)., Tnnnel City. 

Company "F" — First Lieut. Albert H. Blake, Sparta; Dego- 
tell, Abraham, Lincoln; Degotell. AVilliam, Lincoln; Duggan, 
James, Greenfield; Durant. Robert K.. Sparta; Eastnu^n. Limuel, 
Clifton ; Frank, John, Jefiferson ; Hicks, Addison G.. Sparta : 
Johnson, John, Greenfield ; Jones, Henry C, Clifton ; Kies, Alva 
E., Clifton; Lamb, Galen. Tomah ; Lewis, Samuel, Sparta; Nolle, 
Bernhard, Spai'ta ; Thiry, John L. C., Sparta ; Vincent, Fredrick, 


Col. Alilton Montgomery, Sparta; Surgeon AFartin R. Gage. 
Sparta; IIosp. Stewards Charles AV. Kellogg. Tomah; Samuel 
Gunn, Sparta. 

Company "D" — Capt. James D. Condit. Sparta; Capt. Morti- 
mer E. Leonard, Sparta ; First Lieut. Charles S. Farnham. Sparta ; 
Second Lieut. Andrew .1. High, Sparta; Abies, Henry A.. Welling- 
ton; Aldrich, Nathan B., Angelo ; Alger, Thonuis, Leon; Ayers, 
Albert. Sparta, transferred to Company '"D." Twelfth Infantry: 
Bailey, Amnion, Lincoln; Bass, Charles IL, Lin<oln. transferred 
to Company *'D.'' Twelfth Infantry: Birdsill. John. (Jlendale. 
transferred to Company "D." Twelfth Infantry; Bon. David B.. 
Lincoln; Boughton. William T.. Tomah; lioyle, Peter, AVilton: 
Braman. Edward P., Tomah, transferred to Company "D," 
Twelfth Infantry; Braman, Roswell E.. Lincoln; Broughton, Tim- 
othy B., Glendale, transferred to Company "D," Twelfth Infan- 
trv; Burdick, Alfred, LaFavette ; Carver. Nelson, AVilton: Chat- 


terson, Jefferson, Angelo; Cleveland, Daniel F., Ridgeville ; Con- 
ger, Lewis B., Ridgeville; Crawford, Charles IL, Tomah; Cressy, 
Henry W., Tomah; Cressy, Warren P., Tomah; Darwin, Samuel 
N., Sparta ; Day, Henry, AVellington ; Demmon, Ira P., Tomah ; 
Depen, Wile}', Tomah; Dnnlap, Robert B., Sparta; Dunlevy, 
Thomas, Sparta ; Edgerton, Henry L., Lincoln ; Edgerton, Charles 
L., Lincoln; Fitch, Norman D., Sparta; Foster, Anson T., Sparta; 
Gill, Edward, Wilton ; Gleason, George, Lincoln ; Goff, Spenser 
F., Lincoln; Green, Abner, Sparta; Grover, Elizer H., AVilton; 
Harland, William H., Glendale, Harman, John A., Sparta; Harp, 
George F., Tomah ; Heth, Perry, Ridgeville ; Haskins, Nathaniel, 
Sparta, transferred to Company ''D," Twelfth Infantry; Hol- 
gate, Francis, Clifton; Hollenbeck, Amos J., Sparta; Houghtaliug, 
Henry, AVellington ; House, Phileman P., W^ilton ; Howard, 
Charles, Tomah; Howes, David S., Tomah; Hull, Richard J., 
Angelo ; Huntley, Jabez L., Sparta ; Hutson, Thomas, Angelo ; 
Hyde, Alfred, Tomah ; Johnson, Eben, Tomah ; Justice, John, 
Sparta; King, George AY.. Tomah, transferred to Company "D," 
Twelfth Infantry; Kinney, AVilliam H., Sparta; Kenyon, Mon- 
roe, Sparta; Lamb, AVilliam H., Tomah ; Leavett. Edward, Sparta ; 
Lewis, Thomas S., Angelo; Littell, James H., Angelo; Little, 
Theodore AA^., Sparta; Lyon, Samuel J., Glendale; Aloltby, Appel- 
ton N., Tomah; Manchester, Charles G., Sparta; Alanly, Henry, 
Greenfield : Alatchet, James, Pine Hill ; AIcGinnis, Elisha A., 
Tomah; AlcLean, AVilliam, Tomah; Aliller, Alexander, Sparta; 
Milligan, Rueben A., Sparta ; Alills, Elias, Leroy ; Alills, Eli, 
Leroy; Alinor, AVilliam H., Ridgeville; Alorrision, AV. A. Sparta; 
AIusgraA'e, AVilliam P., Sparta ; Newton, Daniel, Glendale ; Owens, 
Lewis E., Portland; Peterson, Christopher, Tomah; Quacken- 
bush, Ernest, Pine Hill, transferred to Company ''D," Twelfth 
Infanty; Pursell. AValter P., Tomah, transferred to. Company 
"D," Twelfth Infantry; Putman, Charles H., Sparta, transferred 
to Company ''D," Twelfth Infantry; Quackenbush, George, Pine 
Hill; Randies, John, AA^ilton; Rathbun, Robert B., Sparta; Reed, 
Cheney, LaFayette ; Reeve, Horace, Little Falls ; Richardson, 
Samuel, Glendale ; Richardson, Perry, Glendale ; Rood, AVilliarii 
J., Ridgeville ; Rottenstetter, Simon, Tomah ; Russell, Alexander, 
Sparta; Rugg, Alfred H., Tomah, transferred to Company "D," 
Twelfth Infantry; Sanders, AVilliam H.. Lincoln; Sawyer, Peter 
E., Lincoln ; Scott, Leonard, Sparta, transferred to Company 
"D," Twelfth Infantry; Scoville, Charles, AA'^ilton ; Scruby, John, 
Sparta; Shaw, Joseph, Tomah, transferred to Company ''D," 
Twelfth Infantry; Shaw, William E., Adrian; Sherland, Joel E., 


Augelo ; Sliker, John J., Toniali ; Snow. George .M.. Sparta; 
Spooner, Daniel II.. Lincoln; Sfjuirls, Gardner, Lincoln; Thomp- 
son, James AV., Greenfield: Thomson, Allen. Hidgeville; Trow- 
bridge, George ^\.. Tomah. transferred t<» (Vnnpany "D," 
Twelfth Infantry: Trulsdell, William P., Tomah; Tuthell, John, 
Sparta, transferred to ('(>iii])any "D,'' Twelfth Infantry; T'stick, 
Jacob Y., Tomah; Van Anthrip, EdAvard, Si)arta; Van Kirk. Jere- 
miah, Sparta, transferred to Company "D," Twelfth Infantry; 
Vaughn, Emery W., Lincoln; Vanghan, Harrison H.. Lincoln, 
transferred to Company "D, " Twelfth Infantry; AVatson, George 
R., Lincoln: A\'est, Ilial, Glendale ; AVilcox, Lucius C, Augelo ; 
Wilcox, William X.. Augelo; AVolcott, George L., Leon; Worden, 
Samuel H., Glendale; AVright. AVilliam IL, Tomah; AVyant, AViU- 
iam IL, Sparta; Yomans, William II. , Leon. 

Company "E'' — Bartdel, Francis A., Clifton: Hudson, James 
R., Clifton; Mero. Fredrick, Clifton. 

Company ''F" — Braiuerd, DarAvin L.. Glendale; Berry. 
Charles IL, Sparta; Bugbee, Alien, Tomah; Burliugame. Phillip, 
Tomah; Chadwick, James, Roaring Creek; Chapman, John D., 
Roaring Creek ; Coonrod, Jared P., Roaring Creek ; Davis, Sheron, 
Sparta; Dell, Edward, Roaring Creek; Echner, Philemon, Green- 
field; Godbould, David, Tomah; Helmka. Fredrick, Adrian; 
Hastings, Orlando D.. Lincoln; Lewis, Samuel C., Tomah; Lin- 
coln, James IL, Ridgeville; Xelliot. Simeon, Sparta; Papst, AVill- 
iam G., Greenfield; Spencer. AVilliam J.. Leroy ; Taylor. Pratt AI., 
Leroy; AValker, Charles AL, Tomah. 

Company "G" — Bishop, Joseph, Augelo; liishop, Amos. 
Augelo ; Alauu, Nathan, Cataract ; Alanu, Eliade E., Cataract. 

Company "H" — Falke. Fredrick, Sheldon; Finnell. James, 
Sheldon; Heath, AVinslow J., Sheldon; HoAvard, elohn. Adrian; 
King, Robert, Adrian; Schmelling, Fredrick, Ridgeville. 


Com])aiiy "("'" — AVade, Edwanl F.. Lincoln. 

Comi)aHy "11" — Blakeley, Janu's II.. Leon; Blakeley. Kevilo. 
Leon; Brown. John S., Leon; Carpenter, AVilliam J., Leon: Alait- 
land, John, Leon; ALathews, James J., Leon; Alathews, AVilliam, 
Leon: Noyes, Fredrick E., Leon; Stratton. William, Leon; AVar- 
ren. Goram X.. Leon ; AVeaver, David, Leon. 

Company "1" — Block, August, Lincoln; Brick. Edward P., 
Lincoln; Hill, Alathias, Lincoln; Ilonodell. JkIiii. Lincoln; Roach, 
Ernest, Lincoln. 

Company "K" — Steese, AVillinin II.. Lincoln: Stelson, 


LaFayette, Lincoln ; Stone, John F., LaFayette, AYliitney, Ber- 
nard K.. Tunnel City. 


Company "E" — Young, Thomas, Clifton. 


Company '"C" — Capt. George A. Fisk, Sparta; First Lieut. 
Luther B. Noyes, Sparta ; Baker, John, Ridgeville ; Barnes, 
Alfred 0., Little Falls ; Berry, Jehial S., Sparta ; Britton, Daniel 
A., Sparta ; Brown, Huston, Sparta ; Casner, Thomas, Sparta ; 
Carnahan, Archibald, Sparta; Cleaves, Corydon L., Portland; 
Cole, David AY., Adrian; Cole, Darwin, Sparta; Cross, George- C, 
Little Falls; Cross, Jeremiah A., Sparta; Davis, Robert A., Little 
Falls; Douglas, David, Little Falls; Dunbar, Alfred, Sparta; 
Emmos, Andrew J., Sparta; Fink, Cornilius, Sparta; Fosdick, 
Jay H., Little Falls ; Freeman, Fredrick, Sparta ; Gallaghur, 
Thomas AY., Sparta ; Graves, Nathan, Sparta ; Greenman, George 
E., Sparta; Griffin, Valentine, Angelo; Hathaway, Henry, Sparta; 
Head, Delo AY., Little Falls; Hunt, John AY., Little Falls; Inger- 
sall, Daniel, Sparta ; Ingersall, AYilliam AI.. Sparta ; Ingles, Augus- 
tus B., Leon; John, Charles W.. Little Falls; Jones, Alilo, Sparta; 
Kroll, AYilliam F.. Little Falls; Alartin, John, Little, Falls; Alatte- 
son, David A., Little Falls; AlcClure, Charles L., Sparta; Allies, 
Stephen C, Sparta ; Nichols, Theodore, Sparta ; Nichols, Edward, 
Sparta; Peterson, Joseph R., Sparta; Potter, Joseph AY., Sparta; 
Rathbun, Eldridge, Sparta ; Ripley, Edwin, Sparta ; Sacia, Henry, 
Sparta ; Sherwood, Alartin, Ridgeville ; Sour, Cynes, Ridgeville ; 
Stevens, John E., Portland, AYalker, Perry C, Little Falls; AYash- 
burn, AA'illiam H., Little Falls; AYilsey, John J., Portland; AYol- 
cott, Jerome B., Sparta; AYright, AA'illiam, Sparta; Yoemans, 
Samuel J., Sparta; Young, Jerome B.. Sparta. 


Company "K" — Capt. Robert A. Gillett,' Tomah ; Armstrong, 
Sebastian, Greenfield; Buswell, Samuel, Glendale; Cassels, AYill- 
iam, Tomah ; Collins, Neal AL, Glendale ; Day, Allen, AA^ellington ; 
Durkee, Lawren 0., Tomah; Englerth, Adam, Ridgeville; Grover, 
James K., Oakdale ; Gudbauer, AYilliam, Greenfield ; Kellogg, 
Charles H., Tomah ; Lamb, Lewis A., Greenfield ; Loomer, Amasa, 
Lincoln; Aledcalf, Edward AI., Greenfield; Alooney, James, Shel- 
don ; Aloore, David A., Glendale, Plunker, AYilliam, Tomah ; Raf- 


try, Thomas, Sheldon ; Reikie, Thomas, Tomah ; Robertson, Xeth- 
ven, Tomah; Root, AVilliam L., Greenfield; Root, Mortimer, Green- 
field; Thompson, Chelnsk, Glendale ; Thorpe, Adelbert D., Glen- 
dale; Twohay. John. Slicldon : AVard. Joseph, Glendale. 


Company "E" — Bennett, Henry R. J., Sparta; Crosby, 
Charles, Sparta; Donovan, Daniid, Kendall. Donnelley, James, 
Kendall, Dounellev, Frank, Kendall; Dutt'v, John, Greenfield; 
Houghton, George B., Sparta; Kelley, Christopher, Greenfield; 
Lovell, Andrew C, Eaton ; ]Mott, Alfred H., Leon ; AYilliams, 
Henry C, Tomah; Wymau, Elias F., Eaton. 


Company ''K" — Capt. Edward F. AVade, Lincoln; Johnson, 
Evan, Sparta ; Johnson, Louis, Sheldon ; Jones, John, Sparta ; 
Losh, David AY., Sparta ; McLaren, AVilliam, Sparta ; Oakley, Alil- 
ton, Sparta; Stewart, John, Sparta; Stoddard, Richard Al., 
Angelo ; Underwood, Lyman, Sparta. 


Company "H" — First Lieut. Job S. Driggs. Glendale. 


Company ''C" — Curtis, Henry 0., Sparta. 

Company "I''— Capt. Christoi)her C. Aliller, Tomah; Banker, 
Bctlincl, Ontario; Bell. Richard, Cataract; Bellerman, Joseph, 
Ridgeville; liigalow. Daniel AV., Tomah; Brooks, Samuel E.. AVil- 
ton. Burroughs, Eli. AVilton : Daggett, Samuel AI., AVilton ; Fish, 
Henry, Tomah; Fitcli. Irvin X., Sparta; Fryer, John, Tomah; 
Fuller. AVilliam L., Glendale; Griswold, Samuel AV., Ridgeville; 
Hale, Oliver C., Ridgeville; Hancock, AVilliam B.. AVilton; Ilodg- 
kins. George C., Sparta; AEcAIauus, A^'incent, Cataract; Aliller, 
l^uy, I.<ineoln; Palmer, Reuben. Little Falls; Palmer, Zarah, Cata- 
ract; Rliodes, Bela, AVillon; Skinner, Austin F., Cataract; Strana- 
han, Rodolphus A., Ridgeville; Thompson. Albert F., Ridgeville; 
Triffany. Sylvanus. Ridgeville; Tom]>kins, Chester AV., Cataract; 
A'^inccnz, Ferdinand, Ridg(>ville; AVeile]i, Henry. Ridgeville: AVhit- 
ney, Charles L., Lincoln; AVhitney, Jacob AV., Lincoln; AVise, 
Fredrick, Lincoln ; AVoodworth, Lucuis, Leon ; Yo\mg, Thomas, 



Company "B" — Ciiininiiis, John, Jefferson; Haskill, Charles 
C, Jeft'erson ; Jolmsou, Albert, Jeft'erson ; Kight, James, Green- 
field; Kight, John, Greenfield; Kyes, David S., Jefferson; MoUey, 
Andrew, Jefferson; Moore, Daniel M., Jefferson ; Moore, Robert J., 
Greenfield ; Natwik, Ole H., Jefferson ; Schriver, Buy F., Jefferson ; 
Seals, Daniel W., Jefferson; Shult, Williams, Jefferson. 

Company "I" — DeCoursey, Edward G., Sparta; Graff, Joseph, 
Greenfield ; Ilolloek, Richard, Leon ; Hewitt, Henry, Leon. 


First Asst. Surgeon Rouse Bennett, Tomah. 


Company "A" — Banker, Stephen 0., Sparta; Edwards, "Will- 
iam A., Sparta; Fairbanks, Abram F., LaFayette; Hubbard, Jobez, 
Lincoln; ]Mumford, James R., Sparta; Nolan, John, Leon; Perry, 
Leauder, Leon; Talbot, Robert A., Sparta; West, Henry C, 

Company "D" — Brooks, Seth, Leon; Comstock, William B., 
Leon ; Hilmer, Fredrick, LaFayette ; Jacobs, John, Leon ; Jost, 
Peter P., LaFayette; Keeler, Daniel H., Leon; Kinney, Peter S., 
Angelo; Luskuski, Nicholas, LaFayette; Putman, Isaac, Leon; 
Ray, Robert, Leon; Robinson, Henry J., Leon; Robinson, William 
B., Leon ; Shaaf, Christian, Leon ; West, AVarren G., Leon ; Winter, 
Simon, LaFayette ; Woodworth, Chester, Leon. 


Company "A" — Crouch, Stephen V., LaFayette; Curtiss, 
Martin M., Greenfield ; Rosenan, John, Lincoln ; Scott, Lee, Lin- 
coln ; Williams, Jeremiah G., Tomah. 


Company "G" — Grover, George W., Tomah; Guthery, John 
L., Tomah ; Murat, Conrad, Wilton. 


co:\rMissioxED officers. 

]\luni'ot' county can well Ix' proud of the lad that its citizens 
did their full share and a little more, in the AVar of the Rebellion ; 
in this connection it is a matter of considerable interest, that in 
addition to the large number of enlisted men, ''The man ])eliind 
the gun," many of its citizens received commission to various 
ranks to the extent of furnishing two colonels, one of whom was 
promoted to brevet brigadier general, two majors, fifteen caj)- 
tains, eleven first lieutenants, twelve second lieutenants, one regi- 
mental surgeon, one assistant surgeon and three regimental chap- 
lains; and we here give the record of each man in the service as 
far as it is possible to obtain it from the official records. 


Milton Montgomery, Sparta. AVas commissioned colonel of 
the Twenty-fifth Regiment of Infantry, with the rank, from 
August 16, 1862; was in command of a provisional division from 
June 6, 1863, to July 28, 1863 ; he connnanded the First Brigade, 
Fourth Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, February 3 to April 
14, 1864; he was Avounded and taken prisoner July 22, 1864, at 
Decatur, Ga. ; his right arm was amputated ; upon his exchange 
and recovery he again reported for active duty and was assigned 
to the command of the same brigade, which he held from January 
29 to March 28, 1865; on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meri- 
torious conduct he was commissioned brevet brigadier general of 
United States A''olunteers and Avas nnistered out of the service 
Juno 7. 1865. 

William W. Robinson, Sparta. AVas nui.stercd into the service 
August 15, 1861, as lieutenant colonel of tlie Seventh Regiment of 
Infantry; was severely wounded at Gainsville; was commissioned 
colonel January 30, 1862, and served until July 9, 1864, when he 
resigned his commission. 


George A. Fisk, Sparta. AVas commissioned captain of Com- 
pany "D," Eighteenth Infantry, December 17, 1861; he was 



taken prisoner at the battle of Shiloh, was exchanged and re- 
signed his commission August 9, 1863. He again entered the serv- 
ice and was commissioned captain of Company "C," Thirty-sixth 
Infantry, Llarch 4, 1864, was promoted to the rank of major 
March 7, 1865, and mustered out of the service July 12, 1865. 

James B. Farnsworth, Tomah. Enlisted in Company "I," 
Fourth Cavalry, April 20, 1861 ; was promoted to veterinary ser- 
geant and first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant of Com- 
pany "I," Fourth Cavalry, August 11, 1862; first lieutenant June 
24, 1863; captain September 24, 1864; he was transferred to the 
command of Company "A," Fourth Cavalry, August 22, 1865; 
commanded the Third Battery of the Fourth Cavalry, and was 
mustered out May 28, 1866, receiving a commission as major, 
dated June 18, 1866. 

- J 


Levi R. Blake, Sparta. Enlisted April 20, 1861, and was com- 
missioned first lieutenant of Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, April 
26, 1861; was severely wounded June 3, 1863, at Clinton, La., and 
died from the effects of his wounds June 10, 1863, at Batan Rouge, 

Carpenter Robert, Sparta. Enlisted in Company "A," Third 
Cavalry, Octol)er 7, 1861. AVas commissioned first lieutenant of 
Company ''A." Third Cavalry, October 21, 1861; was mustered 
out of the service January 30, 1865. Upon the reorganization of 
the Third Cavalry he was commissioned captain of Company "L," 
Marcli 9, 1865, and resigned his command August 14, 1865. 

Chandler, John A., Sparta. He was commissioned captain of 
Company ''C," Nineteenth Infantry, January 8, 1862; resigned 
and retired July 30, 1862. 

Damman, Jeremiah D., Sparta. Enlisted in Company "A," 
Third Cavalry, September 7, 1861, and was commissioned captain 
of company "A," Third Cavalry, October 31, 1861, and on account 
of disability, he resigned INIarch 9, 1863. 

Hall, Joseph, Tomah. Enlisted in Company "I," Fourth 
Cavalry, April 23, 1861 ; was promoted to corporal and sergeant, 
transferred to Company "L," Fourth Cavalry, and commissioned 
first lieutenant of the same company April 12, 1864; captain of 
Company "L" November 28, 1864, and transferred to the com- 
mand of Company "E," Fourth Cavalry, August 20, 1865; mus- 
tered out of the service May 28, 1866. 

Johnson, Leonard, Glendale. Enlisted in Company "L," Sixth 
Infantry, ]May 9, 1861 ; was commissioned captain of the same 



company ]\Iay 15, 18(il ; he resigned tind retired from the service 
December 13, 1861. 

Leonard, Mortimer, Sparta. Was mustered into the service as 
first lieutenant of Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, August 
22, 18G2; was Avounded June 22, 1S()4. at Decatur, (ia. ; was mus- 
tered out of the sei"\'i<'e June 7, 18()r). 

Lowrie, Alexander, Jeflt'erson. Enlisted in Company "I," Sixth 
Infantry, June 1, 1801 ; was promoted to corporal, sergeant and 
first sergeant; was coimnissioned second lieutenant of the same 
company April 27. 1864; first lieutenant December 21. 1864, and 
captain February 25. 1865. He was Avounded at the second battle 
of Bull Rini. and was nuistered out of the service July 14, 1865. 

Lynn, John W., Sparta. Enlisted in Company "T." P'ourth 
Cavalry, April 20, 1861 ; Avas commissioned captain of that com- 
pany April 26. 1861; Avas killed July 15, 1862, on board the gun- 
boat Tyler. The Post of the Grand Army of the Republic at 
Sparta bears his name. 

Miles, Stephen C, Sparta. Enlisted February 29, 1864, in Com- 
pany "C,'' Thirty-sixth Regiment Infantry; promoted to ser- 
geant and first sergeant; Avas Avounded at the battle of Cold Har- 
bor; commissioned captain of the same company July 22, 1864; 
Avas nuistered out of the service July 12, 18()5. not having been 
nnist(>red as a captain. 

Miller, Christopher C, Tomali. Was nuistered into Company 
"I," Forty-ninth Reginu'ut Infantry, January 31, 1865, and coin- 
missioned cajitain of the same com])any February 24, 1865; Avas 
mustered out of th(» serxice Xoveiiil)er 8, 1865. 

Russell, Alonzo H.. Si)arta. Enlisted in Company ''C," Nine- 
teenth InfantiN'. Januaiy 7, lSti2: was i)i'()moted to first sergeant; 
commissioned second lieutenant of the same company February 8, 
1863; first lieutenant January 14, 1865; caj^tain of the same com- 
pany ^Fay 23. 1865, and Avas mustered out August 9, 1865. 

Slog'gy, Peter, Sparta. "Was nuistei'ed into the service as sec- 
ond lieutenant Company "D,"" Kighteenth lid'antry. December 17, 
1861; Avas commissioned first lieutenant of the same company 
July 10, 18()3; commissioned captain August 11, 1863, ami Avas 
mustered out of the serA'ice ]\Iarch ^^, 1865. 

Wilson, DeWitt C, Sit.ii-ta. Was nuistered into the serA'ice and 
commissioned first lieutenant of Company "D, " Eighteenth Infan- 
try, December 17, 1861 ; he AA'as taken prisoner at tlu' battle of 
Shiloh ; Avas exchanged and ]U"omot(Hl to captain in the Eighth 
Louisiana (colored) Regiment. 



Blyton, William H. Enlisted at Sparta January 23, 1862, in 
Company "C," Nineteenth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, 
appointed post quartermaster sergeant at Camp Randall INIay 11, 
1862; regimental commissary sergeant July 1. 1862; regimental 
quartermaster sergeant November 14, 1862 ; commissioned first lieu- 
tenant October 21, 1864, assigned to Second United States Infan- 
try; November 11, 1864; commission approved by the Presi- 
dent; mustered in as first lieutenant and regimental quartermas- 
ter, quartermaster department. United States army. Mustered 
out at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., June 20, 1866, as first lieutenant 
and regimental quartermaster. Fourth Regiment, United States 

Blake, Albert H., Sparta. Mustered into the service with 
the rank of first lieutenant of Company "F," Twentieth Infantry, 
August 18, 1862; w^as wounded at Prairie Grove; resigned June 
10, 1865. 

Chase, Myron P., Sparta. Enlisted April 25, 1861, in Company 
"I," Fourth Cavalry; was promoted to sergeant and commission- 
ary sergeant ; was commissioned second lieutenant of the same 
company June 24, 1863, and was wounded October 10, 1864; 
resigned his commission April 28, 1865. 

Driggs, Jobe S., Glendale. Enlisted May 10, 1861, in Company 
''I," Sixth Infantry; was promoted to sergeant in the Veteran 
Corps; was transferred to Battery "B," Fourth United States 
Artillery, September 21, 1862, where he remained until February, 
1864 ; was wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness ; promoted to 
second lieutenant of Company "H, " Forty-eighth Infantry, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1865 ; commissioned first lieutenant October 28, 1865 ; 
was mustered out of the service December 27, 1865. 

Farnaham, Charles S., Sparta. Mustered into the service as 
second lieutenant of Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, Sep- 
tember 9, 1862 ; was wounded July 22, 1864, at Decatur, Ga. ; 
acted as assistant inspector general. First Brigade, Second Divis- 
ion, Seventeenth Army Corps, from September 26, 1864, until 
June, 1865 ; was mustered out June 7, 1865. 

Foote, Oscar E., Tomah. Was mustered into the service as 
first lieutenant of Company "H, " Tenth Infantry, September 11, 
1861 ; he resigned his commission October 5, 1861 ; he entered the 
serAdce again, being commissioned as second lieutenant of Com- 
pany "F," Twenty-fifth Infantry, September 9, 1862; died of 
disease at Helena, Ark., August 9, 1863. 



Frisby, William R. V., Sparta. Enlisted January 7, 1862, in 
Company "'C," Nineteenth Infantry; promoted to sergeant and 
first sergeant ; was commissioned second lieutenant July 30, 1862 ; 
resigned December 11, 1864. 

Johnson, Chester W., Liltle Falls. Enlisted February 10, 
1864, iji ("oiiii)any "C," Thirty-sixtli Infantry; Avas promoted to 
corporal and sergeant; was wounded August 14, 1864; com- 
missioned first lieutenant July 22, 1865, but not mustered ; was 
mustered out of the service July 12, 1865. 

Lynn, James H., Sparta. Enlisted March 4, 1862, in Company 
"C," Nineteenth Infantry, and was transferred to Veteran Corps; 
promoted to sergeant and first sergeant ; commissioned first lieu- 
tenant July 11, 1865, but not mustered. He Avas mustered out of 
the service August D, 1865. 

Noyes, Luther B., Sparta. "Was mustered into the service as 
first lieutenant of Company "C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, March 
4, 1864; was wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864; on 
account of wounds he was discharged September 28, 1864. 

Pike, Anson A., Sparta. Mustered into the service as first 
lieutenant of Company "I," Forty-ninth Infantry, February 24, 
1865; resigned his command May 27. 1865. 


Avery, Ralph H., Lincoln. Enlisted in Company "I," Forty- 
nintli Infantry, February 21, 1865 ; was promoted to first sergeant ; 
was commissioned second lieutenant of the same company June 
17, 1865; mustered out of the service November 8, 1865. 

Baxter, Walter, Glendale. Enlisted in Company '"A," Fiftieth 
Infantry, February 22, 1865; was promoted to corporal, sergeant 
and first sergeant ; commissioned second lieutenant June 18, 1866, 
not mustered. He was mustered out of the service June 12, 1866. 

Carnahan, Archibald, Sparta. Enlisted in Company ''C," 
Thirty-sixtli Infantry, February 24, 1864; promoted to sergeant 
and first sergeant; was taken prisoner at Rean's Station: com- 
missioned as second lieutenant April 18. 1865, not mustered. lie 
was mustered out of the service June 10, 1865. 

Ellis, George M., Sheldon. Enlisted in Company "A," Third 
Cavalry, November 2, 1861; promoted to corporal, sergeant and 
first sergeant; commissioned second lieutenant of the same com- 
pany March 0. 1863. ^Mustered out of the service January 30, 

Erickson, Martin A., Sparta. Enlisted in Company ''II," P'if- 
teenth Infantry, Oeti)l)er 22, 1861; promoted to first sergeant; was 


made sergeant major of the regiment January 1. 1863; was com- 
missioned second lieutenant of Company "H," Fifteenth Infantry, 
]\Iay 21, 1863. He was taken prisoner at Chieamauga ; was mus- 
tered out of the service April 20, 1865. 

Hicks, Henry A., Glendale. Enlisted October 28, 1861, in the 
Tenth Battery, Light Artillery; promoted to sergeant; was com- 
missioned junior second lieutenant March 3, 1862 ; was transferred 
to the Ninth Battery, Light Artillery, March 29, 1862, and com- 
missioned senior second lieutenant October 21, 1863 ; he was 
mustered out of the service January 26, 1865. 

High, Andrew D., Sparta. Enlisted in Company "I," Twentj'^- 
fifth Infantry, August 5, 1862 ; promoted to first sergeant ; w^as 
commissioned second lieutenant of the same company July 16, 
1863, and Avas mustered out of the service June 7, 1865. 

Hill, Eber B., Sparta. Enlisted January 7, 1862, in Company 
"C," Ninteenth Infantry; promoted to sergeant and first ser- 
geant; was taken prisoner October 27, 1864; commissioned lieu- 
tenant of the same company January 11. 1865, not nuistered. He 
was mustered out of the service May 15, 1865. 

McMillan, William F., Sparta. Enlisted in Company "A," 
third corporal September 30, 1861 ; was promoted to corporal and 
sergeant; when the regiment was reorganized he was transferred 
to Company "K" March 3, 1865; promoted to veterinary ser- 
geant and first sergeant ; mustered out September 27, 1865 ; was 
commissioned second lieutenant October 11, 1865, not mustered. 

Phillips, William J., Sparta. Enlisted in Company "A," first 
Cavalry, August 15, 1861 ; commissioned second lieutenant of same 
company September 2, 1861 ; died May 2, 1862, of wounds received 
at Chalk Bluffs, Ark. 

West, Ansyl A., Sparta. Enlisted April 20, 1861, in Company 
''I," Fourth Cavalry; commissioned second lieutenant of the same 
company April 26, 1861 ; resigned December 6, 1861. 

Davis, John, Leon. Enlisted in Company ''A," Third Cavalry, 
October 21, 1861 ; commissioned second lieutenant September 6, 
1862 ; mustered out January 30, 1865. 


Bennett, Rouse, Tomah. Was mustered into the service as first 
assistant surgeon of the Fifty-first Infantry February 24. 18(j5 ; 
was mustered out of the service April 26, 1865. 

Gage, Martin R., Sparta. Mustered into the service as sur- 
geon of the Twenty-fifth Infantry August 4, 1862; resigned on 
account of disability June 15, 1864. 




DeLaney, James, Sparta. .Mustered into the service as chap- 
lain of the Eighteenth Infantry March 10, 1862; resigned July 14, 

Hawes, Lewis, M., Sparta. Enlisted as a private in Company 
''E," Thirty-seventh Infantry, March 31, 1864; promoted to cliap- 
lain of the regiment July 28, 1864; resigned April 18, 1865. 

Phillips, Enos M., Sparta. Mustered into the service as chap- 
lain of the First Regiment of Cavalry December 10, 1862, and 
resigned September 26, 1863. 



The roster, which follows, is taken from the adjutant general's 
report for 1865 and also from the roster of Wisconsin troops, pub- 
lished by authority of the Legislature ; in every instance the place 
is given where the soldier lost his life, either by reason of being 
killed in action, dying of disease or wounds or accident, together 
with the date of his death. 



John W. Lynn, captain, Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, on gun- 
boat Tyler, July 15, 1862. 

William J. Phillips, second lieutenant. Company "A," First Cav- 
alry, Chalk Blutf, Ark., August 3, 1863. 


Broughton, Lanson I., private. Company "D," Eighteenth Infan- 
try, Vicksburg, Miss., May 22, 1863. 

Broughton, Lewis M., private. Company "I," Sixth Infantry, Get- 
tysburg, Pa., June, 1864. 

Campbell, George, private. Company "D," Eighteenth Infantry, 
Cornith, Miss., October 8, 1862. 

Cole, Darwin, private. Company "C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, 
Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Cleaves, Corydon, private, Company "C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, 
Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Cummings, David, private. Company ''K," Sixth Infantry, Antie- 
tem, Md., September 17, 1862. 

Davis, Josiah. private, Company ''A," Third Cavalry, Osage, Nev., 
August 31, 1863. 

Douglas, David, private. Company "C," Sixth Infantry, Peters- 
burg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Green, Chester A., first sergeant, Company "I," Sixth Infantry, 
Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 



Gibbs, Albert, private, Company "K," Tenth Infantry, r'h;i])]iri 

Hills, Ky., October 8, 18G2. 
Gallagher, Thomas AY., sergeant, Company "C,'' Thirty-sixtli 

Infantry. Pcter.shui'g, Va., June 26, 1864. 
Ilarhind, John, private. Company "D, " Sixth Infantry, Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 
Haywood, Joel, private, Companj' "II," Tenth Infantry, Perrys- 

ville, Ky., October 8, 1862. 
Huntley. Jabez L., private, Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Decatur, Ga., July 22, 1864. 
Ilaneoek, "\Yilliam D., private. Company "K, " Sixth Infantry, 

Salesburg, N. C, Novemlier 27, 1864. 
Hicks, Addison, corporal, Company "F," Twentieth Jiifnntry, 

Prairie Grove, Ark., December 6, 1862. 
Ingles, Augustus B., private, Company "C," Sixth Infantry, 

Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 
Morse, Anthony, private. Company "F, " Sixteenth Infantry, 

Shiloh, Tenn., April 6, 1862. 
IMcClure, Charles, private. Company "Cy Thirty-sixth Infantry, 

Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864. 
Murray, Christopher, corporal. Company "C," Xinetcentli Infan- 
try, Fair Oaks, Va., October 27, 1864. 
Palmer, Sylvester C, private, (^^ompany "F, " Sixteenth Infantry, 

Shiloh, Tenn., April 6, 1862. 
Revels, AYilliam J., private, Company ''K," Sixth Infantry, \Yrl- 

don R. R., Va., August 19, 1864. 
Stegman, Conrad, private. Company "G," Third Cavalry, Baxter 

Springs, (? ? ), October 6, 1863. 
Stewart, Milton H., private, Company "D," Eighteenth Infantry, 

Shiloh, Tenn., April 6. 1862. 
Stewart, James, ])rivate. Company 'TV' Nineteenth Infnntry. Fair 

Oaks, Va., October 27, 1864. 
Sherwin, Bissell, private, Company ''D," Nineteenth Infantry, 

Fair Oaks, Va., October 27. 1864. 
"Walker, Perry C, ])ii\;i1e. ('(tnipnny ''C," Tliirty-sixtli Infjintry, 

Petersburg, Va.. June 18, 1864. 



Levi R. Blake, captain. Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, Baton 
Rouge, La., June 10, 1863. 


Enlisted Men. 

Brown, Hutson, private, Company "C," Sixtli Infantry, AVash- 
ington, D. C, August 24, 1864. 

Casner, Thomas, private. Company "C," Sixth Infantry, AYash- 
ington, D. C, August 14, 1864. 

Cressy, Henry W., private, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Decatur, Ga., June 22, 1864. 

Chandler, Jeremiah, private, Company "A," Twentieth Infantry, 
Fayetteville, Ark., December 31, 1862. 

Dunlevy, Thomas, private, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Decatur, Ga., July 23, 1864. 

House, Phileman P., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try, Atlanta, Ga., August 7, 1864. 

Eathbun, Eldredge, private. Company "C, " Thirty-sixth Infan- 
try, AYashington, D. C. June 9, 1864. 

Robbins, George, private, Company "I," Sixth Infantry, George- 
town, D. C, September 21, 1862. 


Briggs, Charles, private, Company "A," Third Cavalry, North- 
western Railway, 111., IMarch 26, 1862. 

Davis, Y^^illiam, private. Company "A," Third Cavalry, North- 
western Railway, 111., March 26, 1862. 

Hull, Edward, private. Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, Rilay 
House, Md., August 25, 1861. 

Rawson, Lucian M., private. Company "A," Third Cavalry North- 
western Railway, 111., March 26, 1862. 


Abies, Henry, private. Company '"D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Helena, Ark., April 26, 1863. 

Alger, Thomas, private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Helena, Ark., December 16, 1863. 

Batis, Mathias, private, Company ''A," Fourth Cavalry, IMorgan- 
zie. La., July 25, 1864. 

Bush, William J., sergeant. Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, Car- 
rolton. La., November 8, 1862. 

Brigham, John M., corporal, Company "I," Sixth Infantry, Camp 
Lyon, D. C, October 2, 1861. 

Birdsill, George, private. Company "F," Sixteenth Infantry, Co- 
rinth, Miss., July 1, 1862. 



Brown, Jesse, private, Company ''D,'' Eighteenth Infantry, Vieks- 

bnrg, :\Iiss., September 24, 1863. 
Boyle, Peter, private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Andersonville, Ga., September 4, 1864. 
Barnes, Alfred 0., private, Company "C,'' Thirty-sixtli Infantry, 

Madison, Wis.. April 10, 1864. 
Britton, Daniel A., ])rivate, Company "C, " Thirty-sixth Infantry, 

Annapolis, ]\Id., ]\Iareh 26, 1865. 
Crouch, Hiram J., private. Company "H," First Cavalry, Madison, 

Wis., April 5, 1864. 
Cottwill. Stephen, private. Company "H," Sixth Infantry. Point 

Lookout, Md., March 4. 1864. 
Corey, Phillips, private. Company "II," Tenth Infantry, Cowan 

Station, Tenn.. August 3, 1863. 
Claigg. Ilospild. private. Company "B," Sixteentli Infantry, 

Rome, Ga.. July 27, 1864. 
Comstock, Ambrose L., private, Company "D," Eighteenth Infan- 
try, Corinth, :\Iiss., August 2, 1862. 
Cottingar, John, private, Company ''C," Nineteenth Infantry, 

Salisburg, X. C., January 24, 1865. 
Chatterton, Jefferson, private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try. St. Louis. ]\Io., January 1. 1864. 
Chadwick. James, private, Company "F,"" Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Rome. Ga.. September 3. 1864. 
Conger, Lewis B., private. Company "D," TAventy-fifth Infantry, 

hospital boat, July 29, 1863. 
Cressy, AYarren P., private, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Cairo, 111., September 6, 1863. 
Cross, George C, first sergeant. Company "C," Thirty-sixth 

Infantry, ^Madison. AVis.. May 13, 1864. 
Deyotell. John, private. Company 'II.'" Tentli Infantry, Bacon 

Creek, Ky.. February 23, 1862. 
Bustiu. John P.. jirivate. Company "D," Eighteenth Infantry, 

May 21, 1S62. 
Degotell, AYilliam, jtrivate, Comjiany ""F,"' Nineteenth Infantry, 

Sjiringfield. ^Mo., January 1, 1863. 
Day, Henry, private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, Man- 

kato, :\Iinn., November 22, 1862. 
Demmon, Ira P., corporal. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Cher.saw, S. C.. :\Iarch 2. 1865. 
Depen, AYiley, i)rivate, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

drowned Dallas. Ga.. Januarv 1, 1864. 


Davis, Joseph, private, Company "E," Forty-third Infantry, 

Louisville, Ky., June 15, 18()5. 
David, Theron, private. Company ''F," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

iMeniphis, Tenn., September 9, 1863. 
Dell, EdAvard, private, Company "F, " Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Memphis, Tenn., September 9, 1863. 
Eschner, Phileman, private. Company "F, " Twenty- fifth Infantry, 

Vicksburg, Miss., March 9, 1864. 
Edgerton, Henry L., private. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth In- 
fantry, Greenfield, Mo., December 6, 1864. 
Edgerton, Charles L., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try, Helena, Ark., August 19, 1863. 
Eastman, Lemuel, private, Company "F, " Twentieth Infantry, 

Springfield, Mo., June 9, 1863. 
Freeman, Select, private, Company "D," Eighteenth Infantry, 

date and place unknoAvn. 
Fitch, Irwin N.. private, Company "I," Forty-ninth Infantry, 

Madison, Wis., ]\Iareh 27, 1865. 
Gorman, Aaron II., private. Company "H, " Tenth Infantry, 

Bowling Green, Ky., March 31, 1862. 
Gugerty, AVilliam A., private. Company "E," Eleventh Infantry, 

Brashear City, La., July 15, 1864. 
Gleason, George, private. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Helena, Ark., August 19, 1863. 
Godbould, David, private. Company "F, " Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Rome, Ga., August 27, 1864. 
Graves, Nathan, private, Company "C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, 

Salisbury, N. C, December 18, 1864. 
Hill, Jacob, private, Company ''I," Fourth Cavalry, Carrolton, 

La., November 5, 1862. 
Hill, Oscar A., corporal, Company ''D," Eighteenth Infantry, 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo., December 20, 1862. 
Hutchins, Sylvester, pivate, Company "C, " Nineteenth Infantry, 

Alexander, A^a., July 16, 1862. 
Harman, John A., corporal. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Helena, Ark., September 30, 1863. 
Harp, George F., private. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

AVinship Furnace, Ga., June 16, 1864. 
Holgate, Francis, private. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Snyders Bluff, Miss., June 15, 1863. 
Hollenbeck, Amos J., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try, Andersonville, Ga., August 4, 1864. 



Ilydo, Alfred, private, Company "D," Twonty-finii liif;nitry, 
^Memphis, 'reim.. September 15, ISi^i. 

Ilatliaway, Henry, private, Company "C," Tweiity-iiftli Iiiiaiilry, 
Salisl)ury, N. C, November 27, 1864. 

Justiee, John, sergeant, Company ''D," Twenty-fit'th Infantry, 
Helena, Ark., August 15, 1863. 

.Icwi'll. Isaac. ])rivate, Company "I," Fourth Cavalr}', Carrolton, 
La., September 28, 1862. 

Kiii<rht, Charles A., private, Compan.y "A," Fourtli Cavalry, 
Whitewater, AVis., November 28. 1864. 

Kinney, AVilliam P.. private, Company "D."' Twcnly-fifth Infan- 
try, Vieksburg. .Miss., February 22, 1864. 

Love, Job, private, Company "G, " Tenth Infantry, Murfreesboro, 
Teun., September 6, 1861. 

Lj'man, Jeremiah, jnivate, Companj^ "C," Sixteenth Infantry, 
Vieksburg, Miss., August 10, 1863. 

jMurphy. AVilliam. private. First Battery Light Artillery, Youngs 
Point, La., February 26, 1863. 

Merriam, Enos S., ]n'ivate, Com{)any "D," Eiglitccnth Tnfanti-y, 
Grand Junetion. Tenn., Deeember 4, 1862. 

McPheters. Alexandci'. private. Company "C," Niueteenlli In- 
fantry, Portsmouth, Va., October 3, 1862. 

Miller, Alexander, private, Companj' "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Rome, Ga., October 10, 1864. 

]\lills, Elias. private. Company "D,'' Twenty-fifth Infantry. 
Paducah, Ky., August 18, 1863. 

Alills, Eli, private, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, Hos- 
pital Boat, July 25, 1863. 

]Minor, AVm. II., private. Company ''D," Twc^nty-fiftli Infantry. 
Padueah, Ky.. October 9, 1863. 

a\Iorrison, AVm. A., private. Company- "D," Twenty-liltli Infantry, 
Goldsboro, N. C., April 1, 1865. 

]\Iusgrave. \Vm. P., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Snyder's Bluff, Miss., July 23, 1863. 

Mero, Fredrick, private, Company "E," Twenty-fifth Infanti-y, 
Hospital Boat. July 28, 1863. 

Nicliols. Edward, private. Company ^'C." Tliirly-sixlli Infantry. 
Salis])ury, N. C., November 27, 1864. 

Owens, Lewis E., private. Company "D," Tw(>nty-fifth Infantry, 
Helena, Ark., September 10. 1863. 

Rottenstetter, Simeon, private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth In- 
fantry, Helena. Ark., October 27, 1863. 


Randless, James AY., private, First Battery, Light Artillery, 
Young's Point, La., March 9, 1863. 

Rogers, Jacob, private. Company "H, " Twelfth Infantry, Nash- 
ville, Tenn., February 5. 1865. 

Rathbun, Dewey, private. Company ''D," Eighteenth Infantry, 
Leon, AYis., March 26, 1862. 

Smith, Gilbert, private, First Battery, Light Artillery, New Or- 
leans, La., August 3, 1864. 

Spooner, Edward. J., private. Company "E," Sixth infantry, 
Arlington, Yh., March 4, 1862. 

Stanley, Lewis, private. Company "H, " First Cavalry, Bowling 
Green, Ky., February 14, 1865. 

Spooner, Charles AY., private. Company "H, " Tenth Infantry, 
Annapolis, Md., May 10, 1864. 

Seepry, Edward, private. Company "D," Eighteenth Infantry, 
St. Louis, Mo., June 8, 1862. 

Sanderlin, Isaac S., private. Company "K, " Eighteenth Infantry, 
Annapolis, Mel., April 3, 1864. 

Sawyer, Peter E., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Helena, Ark., October 27, 1863. 

Shaw, Wm. F., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Memphis, Tenn., April 17, 1863. 

Snow, George M., private, Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Louisville, Ky., June 9, 1864. 

Sour, Cyrus, private, Company ''C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, Madi- 
son, AYis., April 17. 1864. 

Stevens, John E., private, Company ''C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, 
Salisbury, N. C, November 28. 1864. 

Stranthan, Rodolphus A., private. Company ''I," Forty-ninth 
Infantry, Rollo, Mo., March 25, 1865. 

Teed, Truman, corporal. Company "C," Sixteenth Infantry, 
Providence, La., July 6, 1863. 

Thompson, James AY., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth In- 
fantry, Paducah, Ky., August 26. 1863. 

Thomson, Allen, private. Company ''D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
St. Louis, Mo., October 15, 1863. 

Ustick, Jacob Y., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
Paducah, Ky., August 30, 1863. 

A^aughau, George AY., private, Company "G," Nineteenth In- 
fantry, Yorktown, A^a., August 14, 1863. 

AYeaver, Hiram 0., private. Company "H," Tenth Infantry, 
Andersonville, Ga., July 4, 1861. 



Wiiiegar, AVilliaiu. i)rivato, Conipan.y "F," Sixteenth Infantry, 

Keokuk, J a.. July 30, 1862. 
AVileox, Martin, private, Company "II," Sixteenth Infantry, 

Rome, Ga., August 28, 186-4. 
AVilson, Addison, private, Company "G," Nineteenth Infantry, 

Raeine, AVis., I\Iay 16, 1862. 
AYolcott, George L., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth In- 
fantry, i\Iemphis, Tenn., October 11, 1862. 
AYorden, Samuel, private. Company "D," Twenty-fiflh Infantry, 

^Marietta, Ga., September 16, 1864. 
AYolcot, Jerome B., private, Company "C," Thirty-sixth Infantry, 

Madison, AVis., April 6, 1864. 
Yomans, AYm. H., private. Company "D," Twenty-fifth Infantry, 

Memphis, Tenn., September 17, 1863. 


Conway, Thomas, private, Company "K," Sixth Infantrj^ at 
Gettysburg, July 1, 1863. 




In the summer of 1882 some fifteen or more of the ex-soldiers 
made application to Grand Army headquarters, department of 
AYisconsin, to muster a post of the G. A. R. at Tomah, Monroe 
county, Wisconsin. 

The department commander approving of such application 
the mustering officer detailed Commander James Davidson, of 
John W. Lynn post of Sparta, to go to Tomah with such com- 
rades as he needed and muster Henry W. Cressy Post No. 42. 
Commander Davidson detailed Comrade J. E. Perry as officer of 
the day ; Comrade Kerrigan, as S. V. ; C. AVhetstein, as J. V. C. 
All of said comrades being members of John W. Lynn post of the 
G. A. R. 

Said detail visited Tomah on the afternoon of August 26, 1882, 
and at 7:30 o'clock, at the Fireman's hall, proceeded to muster 
Henry W. Cressy post with the following conn^ades charter mem- 

J. B. Adams, Company ''B, " One Plundred and Fourth In- 
fantry, Pennsylvania; C. A. Adams. Company ''I," Fourth Cav- 
alry, Wisconsin ; William Alexander, Company " C, " Eleventh 
Infantry, Wisconsin; W. N. Alverson, Company "K, " Twenty- 
fourth Infantry, New York; E. L. Bolton, Company "E," Seven- 
teenth Infantry, AVisconsin ; H. S. Beardsley, Company ^'E," 
Twelfth Infantry, AYisconsin; A. D. Benjamin, Company "B," 
Second Cavalry, Ohio; AA^. T. Bristol, Company "E," Fourteenth 
Infantry, Michigan; J. H. Beardsley, Company "A," Thirty- 
eighth Infantry, AA^isconsin; D. F. Crandall, Company "B, " For- 
tieth Infantry, AYisconsin; E. L. Craig, Company ''I," First 
Infantry, Wisconsin; AY. H. Calkins, Company "I," Twenty-ninth 
Infantry, AYisconsin; C. A. Crawford, Company "K," Sixth In- 
fantry, AYisconsin; C. K. Erwin, Company "E," Forty-fifth In- 
fantry, Illinois; Charles Gilson, Company "I," Fourth Cavalry, 
AYisconsin : George Graham, Company ' ' G, " Thirty-seventh 
Infantry, AVisconsin; H. D. Hollenbeck, Company "A," Sixteenth 



Infantry. Wisconsin; Fred Johnson. Company 'A.'" Thii'd Cav- 
alry, "Wisconsin ; S. AiMustrong, A. AV. Alderman, .John Jiui'nliam, 

E. L. Bolton, n. S. Heardsley. A. 1). Henjamin, K. Bremer, C. F. 
Miller. E. X. l).-nsiuort. C. K. Erwin, P. Edner. W. H. Foote, 
]\I. Flint. •). Fairl)aiiks. JI. Fanninjr, J. Fitzsinger. 11. 1^'isli. -John 
Fryer. William Garland, Sam Gasper, Cliai'les Gilson. S. II. Gris- 
wold. George D. Ilollenbeek, 0. H. Hastings. H. D. Ilollenbeck, 
Thomas Hancock, A. B. Hoover. E. \V. Howard, S. A. Hudson, 
R. P. Hitchcock. A. E. Ilollister. A. 31. Ilickox. A. Z. Herring, 
G. 11. lluiidiii. .1. T. Beers, George Boyington. D. II. Bcii. 1). W. 
Bigelow. H. (). Bigelow, A. G. Bernie, F. K. Brown, A. C. Brooks, 
II. Lettingwell. H. L.-a. AV. Liseomb, H. Miller, Thomas McCanl, 
C(»n. ]\lerril. J. M. ]\lcCurdy. Z. 31. ^lorse. AVilliam ]\IcLean, 
A. N. 3Ialtbie. George Musson, J. 31cGinnis, E. B. ]Marvin. Z. G. 
Moore. S. F. Nice, R. Noble. G. Nelson, AV. B. Naylor, F. Nuss, 

F. Noth, AV. Olmstead, John Organ, AVilliam Plnnket. R. Parker, 
S. Pokrand, George Persons, D. F. Cleveland. \V. 1). Cassels, 
N. Calkins, Z. H. Crossett, E. Al. Cowles. AVilliam Curavo, G. 11 
Dobbins. J. AI. Decker. A. E. Logan. A. AV. Johnson. V. A. 
Thompson. AV. D. Stannard, II. C. Spaidding, D. H. Spoouer, A. L. 
Sherer, A. AV. Sowle. 0. T. Sowle, II. Street, AI. Sherwood, S. Sut- 
ton. J. J. Silken. R. Toond)s. D. Thompson. George AI. Trow- 
bridge. J. E. Fnderwctod. I. A^'audervort. C. A'andervort, J. A'an- 
dervort. Af. A'aiulervort, E. Alistle, L. A'anvoorhes, Fred AVise, 
J. AVilson. J. AVhitfield, AVilliam Ingham. F. Johnson. S. P. Janes, 
J. Jeffries, A. Jeffries, J. Kellogg, C. II. Kellogg. W. Kenyon, 
C. AV. Kenyon, E. G. Kinnie, B. Kennedy. R. King, E. 15. King. 
C. Kenhl. Af. Larkin. C. E. Loomer. John Little, L. Leech. J. E. 
Perry, I. Perry, J. Prescott, J. Peterson, C. J. Aldin, J. C. Quimby. 
Thomas Reikie. AI. Robertson, N. R. Richardson, O. Root. AVilliam 
Ramsey. G. B. Robinson. D. P. Hockwood. L. Richards. B. Rhodes, 
IT. Rogga, Con. Sullivan. L. Sweet, L. D. AVyatt. Jacob AVells, 
J. A. AVells. 11. C. AValrath, George AValtenburg, AV. II. AVright, 
J. G. Williams. E. AVimiie. A. D. AVoodruff, George AValker, 

G. AVoodard, C. G. Walk.r. B. Durham. I). R. Jones, L. E. A'au- 
loon. K. A. Ci-ockci". \V. II. Burlin. 


C. J. Alden, A. W. Alderman. C. A. Crawford, A. 1). Benja- 
min. .\. Cary, G. II. Dobbins. I. Fitzsinger. II. Fish, AVilliam 
Garland, Charles Gilson, H. Getman. A. Getnuin, II. Galloway, 
S. H. Griswold, R. P. Hitchcock, R. King, E. G. Kinnie, C. Bohn, 


Charles Bremer, W. T. Bristol, A. G. Beriiie, D. F. Cleveland, 

C. K. Erwin, A. Herring, J. H. Kellogg, W. Kenyon, C. W. Ken- 
yon, John Little, L. Leech, W. Liseomb, C. Keuhl, H. Leffingwell, 
F. Nass, F. Noth, G. S. Preseott, R. E. Bramen, George Boyington, 

D. W. Bigelow, H. 0. Bigelow, William Curavo, H. Fanning, 
AV. McLean, S. F. Nice, R. Noble, W. B. Naylor, C. H. Kellogg, 
Company "K," Forty-third Infantry, Wisconsin; Thomas 
McCcUil, Company "G," First Infantry, United States; C. W. 
Merril, Company "B," Second Cavalry, Colorado; S. F. Nice, 
Company "C," Twenty-fiftli Infantry, Wisconsin; John Organ, 
Company "D," Twenty-eighth Infantry, AVisconsin ; George Rob- 
inson, Company "B, " Thirteenth Infantry, Illinois; Cornelius 
Snllivan, Ignited States steamer Tuscarora ; W. D. Stannard, 
Company "F, " Second Cavalry, Michigan; II. C. Spaulding, 
Company ''H," Tenth Infantry, Wisconsin; J. A. AVells, Com- 
pany ''A," Twenty-third Infantry, AVisconsin; Jacob AVells, Com- 
pany "D," Thirty-sixth Infantry, Ohio; H. C. Walwath, Company 
"I," Fourth Cavalry, Wisconsin; L. D. Wyatt, Company "A," 
First Cavalry, AVisconsin. 

The officers elected and installed at tlie first meeting, August 
26, 1882, were : Commander, C. K. Erwin ; S. A^. C, George Gra- 
ham ; J. A^ C, E. L. Bolton; Q. AI.. J. A. AVells; surgeon, AV. D. 
Stannard; chaplain, II. S. Beardsley; 0. D., II. C. Spaulding; 
0. G., Thomas AlcCaul; adjutant, George Robinson; S. AL, J. B. 
Adams; Q. AI. S.. AVilliam Alexander; sentinels, Jacob AVells and 
John Organ. 


J. B. Adams, ( \ A. Adams, AVilliam Alexander, W. N. Alver- 
son, O. A^ Anton, AI. C. Alton, C. Bohn, AV. T. Bristol, J. H. 
Beardsley, C. C. Boomer, R. E. Braman, John Brecker, D. F. 
Crandall, E. L. Craig, AV. H. Calkins, C. A. Crawford, H. Camp- 
bell, N. Cary, A. N. Hickox, H. C. Spaulding. R. Toombs, E. AVin- 
nie, C. A. Adams, E. L. Bolton, J. H. Crossett. AV. H. Foote, 

E. N. Griswold, E. AV. Howard, N. Calkins, AI. Flint. I. Perry, 
B. Rhodes, 0. Root, H. Aliller, Con. Alerril, J. AI. AleCurdy, D. H. 
Spooner, D. Thompson, A. D. AVoodruff, AV. N. Alverson, H. S. 
Beardsley, John Fryer, B. Kennedy, A. AV. Sowle, 0. T. Sowle, 
Sam Sutton, Con. Sullivan, John Organ, AVilliam Plunkett, 
George Persons, AI. Robertson, G. B. Robinson, L. Richards, H. 
Rogga, George Waltenberg, D. B. Bon, C. G. AA'alker, John 
AVhitfield, Z. E. Underwood, J. G. AVilliams, G. AVoodard. 



M. C. Alton. J. liuniham, J. IT. Heardsley, ('. ('. lioomor, 
AV. B. Cassols, K. .M. Cowles, B. Durliain, E. xV. Crockrr. George 
Graham, O. II. Ila.stings, L. Sweet, C. Vaiidervort, L. Van Voorhes, 
L. D. AVyatt, Thomas Hancock, A. B. Hoover, D. R. Jones, S. P. 
Janes, C. 11. Kellogg, A. E. Logan, M. Lafkin, C. E. Loonier, 
II. Lea, George M. Trowbridge, J. Vandervort, L. E. Vanloon, 
J. A. AVells, V. .Alistle, C. F. ]\liller, Thomas MeCaiil, A. X. 
]Maltbie, R. Parker, S. Pokrand, J. Peterson, Thomas Reikie, 
D. P. Rockwood, 1. Vandervort, M. Vandervort, F. AVise, George 


Commander, J. R. Burnham ; S. V. C, C. II. Kellogg; J. V. C, 
B. Durham; surgeon, Thomas Reikie; chaplain, Robert Parker; 
adjutant, E. M. Cowles; Q. :\I.. D. P. Rockwood; P. I., George 
Graham; 0. D., E. A. Crocker; 0. G., C. Vandervort; S. M., AV. B. 
Cassels; Q. M. S., A. N. Maltby; delegate, C. H. Kellogg; 
alternate, AV. B. Cassels ; trustee, Robert Parker ; color bearer, 
George Trowbridge. 

The post has a present membership of forty, and as the years 
roll on its members are growing steadily less, and the value of 
its associations greater to the comrades. 


The following i^aper was read by .Mr. llollister before the 
Henry AV. Cressy post, February 11. 1888: 

"I was born ]\lay 26, 184."), in the county of Livingston, state 
of New York. My parents moved to Cass county, Alichigan, when 
I was three years old. 1 lived on a lanii until 1 enlisted. In August, 
1862, I enlisted in Company A, Nineteenth Alichigan Infantry. 
Being only seventeen, my lather demanded my release of the cap- 
tain wlio enlisted me, which was readily granted. Among the 
mnnber of our neighborhood was a cousin whom I will call Frank. 
AVe had been brought up together and had enlisted together, and 
T did not want to go honu> unless Frank did. So, rather than go 
home, I hired out to work on a farm. After working for a few 
days I took a 'lay-off' to visit camp and see the boys. After 
thinking the matter over 1 came to the conclusion that I was not 
to blame for being too young, and as I was older than Frank 
was, I would not stay at home and let him go. After staying 
around camp awhile, I offered myself, but the captain who 
enlisted me before, and in whose company Frank was, would not 


take me again. We soon found a lieutenant whose company was 
not full and I offered myself. He asked my age and I told him 
eighteen. He told me to go with him up to the captain's office. 
The first inquiry of the captain was, 'How old are you?' 'Eight- 
een, sir,' was my answer. 'When will you be eighteen." was 
his next question. 'Last IMay, sir,' was my reply. "I don't 
believe it, ' he said. Here Frank thought he would help me a 
little and said to the captain, 'He is older than I am.' 'AYere 
you there when he was born?' asked the captain. As I was ten 
weeks older than Frank he had to admit he was not there. 

"After a short consultation with the lieutenant, he concluded 
to take me, and accordingly I was enlisted in Company H and 
assigned to quarters. The only incident for some time in which 
I was in any way more interested than the rest of the boys hap- 
pened about two weeks after my enlistment. An acquaintance of 
mine came into camp one day and picked up my gun. After 
looking at it a moment he made a motion as if to stick the bayo- 
net into my foot. I thought he would not strike and stood still. 
He thought T would .jump and struck. Then I jumped. I was 
mad and he was badly frightened. 'My G — I' he exclaimed, 'I 
thought you would jump. Take off your shoe.' Taking off my 
shoe I found my foot bleeding, but not seriously injured. My 
father, hearing that I had been gone for some time from where he 
supposed I was. came to camp to look for me, but after finding 
that I had enlisted as eighteen, and as he thought that I was 
unwilling to leave, went home and left me. In a few days we 
were mustered into the United States service. 

"After we broke ranks and went to our (piarters I went to 
see Frank. He was but seventeen and could not be mustered. 
I was in a fix. I did not want to go unless Frank Avent. He tried 
another company but they would not take him. What would I 
do? I thought of a number of ways to get out, but did not want 
to be laughed at. All Frank could do was to go home. All 
I could do was to stay. I thought I would stick to it as it was my 
fault that I was so old. That night I could not sleep. The next 
day I did not see anything around camp to interest me. I felt 
pretty sober. In a week I did not have a grain of sand left. 
The first time my father came to see me I told him I would go 
home with him if he could get me out. He went to the colonel 
and was referred to the mustering of^cer. That official said they 
could not hold me if my parents objected to my going. The 
colonel swore at me for making so much trouble until the muster- 
ing officer told him to stop, as hundreds of boys were doing that 


every day. ]\k'ii were inori' Avilling to enlist at that time than a 
year or so later, or I could not have got out of my scrape as 
easily as I did. 1 went liome. I luid been a soldier long enough, 
so I thought at that time. 

"I stayed at home about a year. ]My regiment, or tlic regi- 
ment in which I had enlistinl, had all been captured, and wc would 
occasionally hear whei'e they Avere. They finally brought up in 
Libby prison. Soon thej' were paroled and some of them came on 
what they called 'French furlough.' After listening to their 
accounts of the battle in which they Avere captured and bidding 
them good-bye as they started back after lieing exchanged, I 
began to feel more patriotic. Soon the Xintli ]\Iicliigan cavalry 
began recruiting in our neighborhood. I concluded to go. I 
went to see Frank. He Avould go. but not in the cavalry. He said 
if I would go as a recruit in the Nineteenth, himself. Deacon 
Grinnell and Kev. Gilbert would go with me. In February, 1864, 
we all enlisted and Avere sent to Camp Blair, at Jackson, ]\Iichi- 
gan. Here Frank had the measles, Avhich Avas the cause of his 
never doing any active service. "While there I, among others, 
Avas detailed to cook for the men in barracks No. 4. AVhile acting 
in that capacity the Rca'. Gill)ert and myself, through a misunder- 
standing of facts on the part of the ofificer of the day, Avere 
arrested and confined in the guard-house, leaving no one to get 
supper for the boys. By morning there had been men detailed 
to take our places, and about 10:00 o'clock they brought us our 
breakfast. About noon Ave Avere taken out under guard and y)ut 
to Avork scrub])ing offices and privies until about 4:00 o'clock 
in the afternoon, Avhen avc Avere released and returned to our 

'']\[ay 13 Ave Avere sent South. On our Avay avc made shoi-f 
stops at Louisville, Nashville, Chattanooga and Kingston. From 
Chattanooga to Kingston avc Avere obliged to ride on top of box 
cars. At llu' latter ])lace Ave found everything in confusion. The 
rebel General "Wheeler had made a raid and killed several negroes 
and one or two soldiers. ^My three companions Avere sick and lay 
doA\ n in an old barn. 1 Avas ordered to assist in haiding a couple 
of pieces of artillery to an elevation north of foAvn. Keturuing 
to my companions I found them as I had left them. ToAvard night 
Frank Avent Avith the other two to the hospital. Just after dark 
he returned and said he Avould go to the regiment if he did not 
live a day after he got there; l)ut by the next morning he Avas 
sick enough to go to the hospital Avithont being urged. He had 
eaught cold and the measles had settled on his lungs. I Avas 


alone again. I had to go on further South and they returned 
North. I was in excellent health and spirits and did not get 
homesick again. When I started for the front I had a knapsack 
well filled with A\hat I supposed were necessary articles. I had 
not marched more than half a day when I threw away my over- 
coat. Before night 1 left my blacking-brush, looking-glass, etc., 
on the corner of the fence. The next morning I changed under- 
clothing, and threw away what I took off. Before noon we heard 
the boom of artillery, and it Avas not the Fourtli of July either. 
In the afternoon we could hear the musketry. Soon we came to 
a hospital and here I found one of Company K. of my regiment, 
who was Avounded in tlie calf of the leg. I gave him my blanket 
and went on. The artillery was pounding away, but infantry 
was quiet most of the time. I got to the regiment just before 
night. Soon the 'Johnnies' made a charge, l)ut were repulsed. 
Here I was, on my nineteenth birthday, under fire for the first 
time. Comrades, most of you know how I felt. AVe were lying 
behind the line of light earthworks. During the night the enemy 
made another assault but were repulsed. I was asleep when the 
first volley was fired. Which side fired first I do not know. I 
sprang to my feet and looked around. To the left was one con- 
tinuous blaze. Around me I could hear the zip and whizz of 
bullets. I could see the smallest twigs on the trees. I was so 
confounded or frightened I did not know enough to li(^ down. It 
was not long before I could lie down as close to the ground as 
anyone, and lie down quick. I would rather lie down a half dozen 
times when it was not necessary than to nnss once when it was. 
I never could get over the habit of dodging when I heard the 
Avliizz of a ball. 

"June 15 found us near Lost Mountain, Georgia. Just after 
noon we were ordered to support the First Brigade, Third Divi- 
sion, Twentieth Corps, in an assault upon the enemy's works. 
The First brigade made the attack just as we moved out across 
a field. They were in the woods. The heavy clouds of smoke 
Avere rolling up among the trees and as Ave advanced the Avounded 
began to come to the rear. It seemed as though the smoke Avas 
full of Avounded men. There Avas no Avind and the smoke did not 
move off. Soon avc Avere in the Avoods. There Avas a battery in 
front of us that had been firing all the forenoon, and as Ave Avere 
to support a brigade I concluded Ave were moving to the support 
of the battery. AVe Avere ordered to lie doAvn. By this time 
it Avas dark. After lying doAvn for a short time Ave Avere ordered 
forAvard. Imagine my feelings as we came into an opening and 


found we were in front instead of the rear of the hattery. AVe 
could look iuto l!ic inoutlis of those guns at every discharge, and 
by the flash Ave could see their infantry standing behind llie 
Avorks. I was a recruit and not well posted in nioxcnu'nts, bnt i 
don't thiidv tbey knew where we were, for they were throwing 
their shells over our line and into a ravine some distance in our 
rear. AVe Avere not uuire than one-third the distance from them 
to where their shells were dropping. AVe lay down again in the 
rear of the First brigade. In a short time the line in our front 
rose upon their knees and Avaited until the discharge from the 
battery and all fin-d full at the gunners. Their infantry replied 
immediately but tlie artillery Avaited some iilth- time. Their 
musketry made it luipleasant for us. The line in front of us rose 
up and Avent to the rear double quick. AVe had to take it. They 
had got our position. They poured shell and canister or grape 
(don't knoAv Avhicli it Avas) into us. Our major Avas killed, the 
ball striking him in tiie breast. 'Oh. my Avife and l)oysI' Avere 
his only Avords. Several ])rivates Avere Avounded. 1 could hear 
their comrades telling them to keep still and not let the 'sons of 

1) knoAv Avhere to shoot.' Then a shell exploded in Company 

I and tore the limbs from the l^odies of tAvo sergeants, one of them 
dying in a fcAv moments. I heard the other moaning and saying. 
'Boys, I knoAv it is no use to make a fuss, but I can't help it. 
Give me some Avater. Good-bye, boys. Kiss me, George. Good- 
bye.' All this time Ave Avere merely lying there for them to shoot 
at, Ave making no reply. It uuist have been midnight or after 
Avhen things l)egan to be more quiet and Ave Avere ord(>red to the 
left and rear, the order being given in a Avhisper. Soon Ave Avent 
to building Avorks and Avere busy until it began to grow liglit. I 
had three pretty close calls Avithin less ihan five minutes. Soon 
a comrade Avas shot by my side. When 1 heard tlie ball strike 
I looked up and saAv him begin to reel and trend)] e. 1 tln"(>Av my 
arms around him and hi'lped him to lie down. Then Ave got a 
stretcher and undertook to carry him to a ])lace of safety. AVe 
had not gone far ])efore one of the men iielping carry him Avas 
shot. AVe got behind some trei's and Avent back. Soon one of 
my nu^ssmates Avas killed. Then Ave lost our lieutenant. The day 
before our company had thirteen men: noAv Ave had only nine. 
AVe Averc^ ordered to the rear and sent to guard supply trains. 
Our first ti-ip Avas to Big Shanty, Georgia. AVe stayed three or 
four days and as avc moved out Avitli loaded Avagons to return 
to camp Ave saAv a division crossing tlu^ open IcA'el plain betAvcHMi 
Big Shanty and KenesaAv mountain. They adA-niu-ed in s])lendid 


order for some time. Occasionally a man would fall and be left 
behind. Soon they began to stoop forward and quicken their 
pace, and finally began to double-quick for the woods. 

"About July 15 were were relieved by a detachment to the 
Thirty-third ^Massachusetts. Found our regiment on picket along 
the Chattahooche river. That night we moved with Sherman's 
advance and crossed the river on pontoons. We marched until 
near morning before we were permitted to lie down. It did not 
seem as though I could take another step. Some of the boys 
made coffee, but I spread my blanket and lay down. 

"July 20 found us near Peach Tree creek, with things looking 
a little strange. We were called up about 2:00 o'clock and got 
ready to move. "We would go a short distance and halt and then 
move on again. I noticed a number of orderlies in our front 
riding in every direction. I asked one of the boys of my company 

what was up. His reply w^as, 'We are going to catch h be- 

f or night ; if your gun is not loaded you had better load it. ' As 
we came to a halt again I noticed that about half of the men 
were loading their guns. As we came into an open field I could 
see the right of the Fourth corps already across the creek, and 
to their right the Twenty-second Wisconsin deployed as 
skirmishers. We crossed the creek, built shades and made coffee. 
Just as our dinner was about ready there was brisk firing in our 
front and our skirmishers fell back on the main line. We were 
ordered forward and just as Mi^jor Baker gave the order he 
clutched his thigh v\'ith both hands, threw up his leg and called 
Captain Anderson to take command. Before he let go of his leg 
the blood began to run between his fingers. It was but a flesh 
Avound, but I never saw him again. 'Guide left, guide left,' was 
the order as we moved across the open field. As we came to the 
top of a ridge the 'Johnnies' opened on us from the ridge beyond. 
Several men went down close to me. My knees began to feel 
weak. Soon one of Company G was shot and tried to start for 
the rear, but fell in front of me. As he fell he gave one of the 
most blood-curdling shrieks I ever heard. It made my hair stand 
on end. I could feel the wind blow on top of my head, under my 
hat. ]\Iy back was cold as ice ; I shook all over. How I kept up I 
don't know, Init as soon as we fired the first volley I had no more 
fear. I could see some of the boys turn their guns and club them. 
We would break them and they would reform and charge again. 
For some time all I could see of them were their legs below the 
smoke. I think it must have been at least two hours before they 
began to fall back as though they had got enough of it. The 



conirade wlio told iiic in tlie inoriiiiig what we were going to 
eatc'h before night swung his hat and said, 'Let's go for them; 
come on I' Gaining the top of the ridge we eonld sec them some- 
thing like a half-mile away, forming as if to charge again. They 
would move out from the timber and then go back again. We 
could see the otficers riding in front, but they did not come near 
us again, not even to look after their woundcnl. The next )norn- 
ing I took a look over the tield. In three i)laces I saw fifty-one, 
twenty-seven and thirty-two Confederate dead. Guns, sabers, 
cartridge boxes, canteens, etc., were scattered in every direction. 
Now let me describe scenes that would move the most hardened 
to tears. The first is a colonel Avith his horse lying near liini. 
Next, a man Avith a gaping wound in his forehead, still alive. t!ie 
brains oozing out and lying doAvn over his eyes. Next, a dead 
man with a letter in his hand — the last kind words he Avill ever 
receive from the loved ones in his far-away home in ^lississippi. 
Then several with Bibles in their hands. Knowing their hour 
had come, they had sought to obtain consolation and relief from 
their suffering from the word of God. The next was lying on his 
back, his cartridge-box under his head. In iiis hands he was 
holding tile ])liotograph of a womnn and child. He had died gaz- 
ing on the features of those who were as dear to him. and he to 
them, as any from our Xoi'thern homes. Th'" tliought Avould come 
to my mind: Did T fir;' the fatal shot that made a widow and an 
or]>lian .' Perhaps: but this is war. This was tlu^ last b;it11f in 
whi'-h 1 was actively engaged. 

"August V.) I Avas near Atlanta. Ai)out 4:00 o'clock p. m.. as 
I Avas getting some supper. 1 suddenly found myself trying to get 
up off the ground. This Avas the first notice 1 had that anything 
was wrong. I had no feeling, Avas in no ]iain. but knew 1 Avas 
shot. I tried several times to rise, but would fall bai-l<. 1 gave it 
np. I could hardly get my breath. Soon 1 bci:an to spit blood. 
Then the boys j)oiutcd to my breast. T saAV my shirt bosom Avas 
covered Avith blood. I opened my shirt. I thought my time had 

come. '^ly G .' said one of the boys, 'see Avhere it canu^ out.' 

I asked him Avherc Tlicy told me 1 had been shot clear thro\igh. 
I began to feel faint and thought surely 1 Avas going to die. I 
Avanted Avater every fcAV miniTtes. T gave my watch to one of my 
comrades and asked him to send it home if he could. An ambu- 
lance came and I bade the boys good-bye, as I had heard nmny 
do before. I certainly ncA'er expected to see them or my home 
again. T Avas taken to the field liospital. The first question of the 
doctor Avas. 'Have aou bled fr^elv!' Tf a'ou liaA'c there is a fight- 


ing- ehanee for you. If you have bled internally I can't save you.' 
He called several men to his assistance and dressed my wound. 
Next morning- as I w^oke up alive I began to have some hopes. 
The next day I felt quite encouraged, and, thanks to kind nurses, 
a strong" constitution and good morals, after running the chances 
of gangrene and small-pox (both of which I was exposed to), and 
after having a run of lung fever, T am thankful to meet you, my 
cpmrades, here today." 

By Fred Noth. 
I was born INIarch 6, 1889, State of Lippe, Germany. At the 
age of twenty I emigrated to New Orleans in the fall of '59. 
Shortly after the election of Abraham Lincoln, preparations com- 
menced for the war. Not willing to fight for slavery, I took pas- 
sage on a steamboat to St. Louis. During May and June I 
served in a company of militia in St. Charles county to guard 
railroad bridges. On the 21st day of July, 1861, I enlisted in 
Company E. second Missouri Volunteer Infantry. I was ap- 
pointed a sergeant and color bearer of the regiment. Part of 
our regiment was ordered to Potosie to gimrd the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, returning to St. Louis for mustering in September. The 
regiment in October was ordered to Jefferson City, Tipton and 
Sedalia. Returning to Tipton, preparations were made for a 
march to Springfield, ^lo. Arriving at Springfield, tlie Fremont 
Hussars having the lead, they encountered the enemy, about 
2.000 strong, and made a brilliant charge, scattering the enemy 
in all directions. Late in the fall Ave marched to Rolla, a station 
on the Pacific branch, for winter quarters. Early in February, 
'62, our march was again for Springfield. Two new two-pounder 
howitzers mounted on mules and used on the enemy's flank caused 
a great deal of fun. After a lively skirmish. General Price va- 
cated Springfield and retreated to Fort Smith. Our army fol- 
lowed close after him, into Arkansas, going into cam]) at a place 
called Pea Ridge. Being 240 miles from railroad communication, 
our provision train failed to come in time. One ear of corn was 
issued for a ration for a day ; next day orders for foraging were 
given. A place where about 500 bushels of apples were piled 
was found, and before night came none were left. My regiment 
was ordered to a flour mill in the corner of Indian Territory, or 
the so-called Oklahoma. Taking possession of the mill, we found 
about 400 bushels of good winter wheat and ten ])arrels of lard 
in a store. 



About ton days later, one night at eleven o'clock, the l)uo:le 
sounded, tents down, marching orders. The advance of the 
enemy was reported within one-half mile of our camp, ^[arching 
during the night we reached General Sigel at noon, at Benton- 
ville, where we waited the approach of the rebels. Our regiment 
was ordered one mile further, there to await his orders, when 
all at once about 2,000 Texas Rangers stepped in between us and 
cut General Sigel oflf. Tlie Rangers made an attack on my regi- 
ment, killing captain of Company A and a number of men. Gen- 
eral Sigel with a battalion of Benton Hussars cut a gap through 
the Rangers and we all marched to the main part of the army, 
the rebels following close behind. Arriving at Sugar Creek val- 
ley, the rebel army was about 30,000 in numl)er and was com- 
manded by Generals INIcCollough and Mcintosh. The battle of 
Pea Ridge began next morning. Our army, numbering about 
14,000, was commanded by Generals Curtis, Sigel. Arboth and 
JeflP. C. Davis. The fighting on the 7th was mostly with musketry. 
The rebels had about 2,000 Indians on their side who were led on 
to a l)attery, but they soon retreated, yelling "Huh! hull I big 
gun." On the 8th at daybreak, our artillery commenced the fire. 
General Sigel was ordered to report to the Department of the 
Potomac. About three weeks later we came marching over the 
Ozark mountains to Cape Girardeau, crossing the Corinth and 
AVhite rivers. Three and Five Forks and some other rivers. About 
half-way, on Sunday, we had a day of rest. An officer and some 
recruits had arrived and presented a ncAv silk flag to my regi- 
ment from the German ladies of St. Louis. From this place part 
of our troops marched south in the direction of Island Xo. 10, 
while our brigade marched to Cape Girardeau. About a week 
later we embarked on steamboats down the ^Mississippi, up the 
Ohio and Tennessee rivers and landed at Pittsburg Landing. In 
marching over the battlefield of Shiloh to Corinth, General IL^l- 
leck had a well organized army. After a little skirmish a few 
days later, the rebels during one night vacated Corinth. From 
there our brigade marched to Riance, JMiss.. where we remained 
during the summer. Early in September, 1862, we received or- 
ders to go to Cincinnati. Arriving at Cincinnati we marched to 
^Market Hall. About a Aveek later we embarked on steamboats 
for Louisville, wliere our army was reorganized by General Buell, 
and Pliilip Siieridan was assigned to the command of our First 
Division, Fourteenth Corps. 

On the evening of October 7th, we arrived in front of Perry- 
ville. General Bragg had prepared for a battle. At sunrise on 


the morning' of the 8th, my regiment was ordered to make a 
charge on some Arkansas troops in double quick, and after about 
an hour of hard fighting, the rebels retreated. My regiment had 
lost twenty-three killed, including our major, and fifty-six 
wounded. In the afternoon General Hardy made an attack on 
our division, formed in line on a ridge in a half circle. The 
rebels were badly beaten in this fight. The most of them were 
left dead or wounded on the field. The next day General Bragg 
evacuated Perryville. As we marched on to Perryville we passed 
a stack of arms about a mile long. It appeared as if half of Gen- 
eral Bragg 's men had left for home. From here we marched to 
Nashville, passing Mammoth Cave. Fourteen miles south of 
Nashville we went into camp. Being on picket duty one day, 
thirty volunteers were called, officers and non-commissioned to 
ascertain the position of the rebel pickets three miles off. AVe 
reached them just at dark. A sergeant from my camp shot the 
rebel sentinel and at the same time he received a shot through 
the lungs and died the next morning. Some days later my regi- 
ment and a battery was ordered out on a scouting expedition. 
We encountered the enemy about five miles from camp. After 
a little skirmish the rebels retreated. In the latter part of 
December we marched for Murfreesboro. On the last day of 
December, early in the morning, when our artillery had taken their 
horses to water. General Longstreet unexpectedly attacked our 
Fourteenth Corps. Our right wing was entirely repulsed, hard 
fighting going on all day. As soon as we reached the railroad 
embankment Longstreet 's forces were checked. The colonel com- 
manding our brigade at this place was shot through the throat and 
died. The next day, January 1st, General Rosecrans pushed his 
left wing, the Twenty-first Corps, across Stone river and the rebels 
commenced to evacuate Murfreesboro. At the place where 
the fighting had commenced eighty comrades of our division were 
buried in one grave. 

During the spring of 1863 ]\Iurfreesboro was fortified. A 
pioneer brigade had been organized, and I was detached to the 
Second Battalion, called the Pontoon Battalion. On the 25th day 
of June, 1863, our army commenced to march to the Tennessee 
river. General Rosecrans from here moved on to Chattanooga, 
remaining at Bridgeport some time. In October we moved on to 
Chattanooga over the Cumberland mountains. Just before we 
reached the mountain General AVheeler had destroyed a supply 
train of about 150 wagons. Arriving at Chattanooga we con- 
structed another pontoon bridge. One da}^ the rebel artillery sent 


;i til'ly-|i()iiii(l shell iiitu oni' cami) i'roiii Lookout mountain, but it, 
exploded higli in ihe aii'. October 16th General Koseerans was 
rplieved of his conuuand. and Gen. U. S. Grant took command. On 
the (n-enino; of Novembei' 22nd we were ordered to march on the 
north side ol' the Teiuiessee river, a distance of three miles. Dur- 
ing' the night we passed a bi i^ade of Sherman's troops across the 
river. P'arly in the nu)rning a i)ontoon Ijridge was laid for General 
Sherman to cross the Tennessee. About 10 o'clock the bridge was 
coinjiK'ted and the signal sergeant signaled to hoadf|uarters. Gen- 
eral Shernuin uu)ved over the i)ontoon ])ridge and an(»ther corps 
from the Tennessee army started from Chattanooga and .ioined 
General Sherman in the afternoon. We returned to Chattanooga. 
In the evening a division of General Hooker's corps was moved 
di»\vn. ])artly on boats, to storm Lookout mountain during the 
night 1).\ moonlight. About 12 o'clock the firing ceased and Look- 
out was taken next day. General Sherman on the left. General 
Hooker on the right, and General Thomas in the center, the army 
of the Ciunberland made a charge on ^Mission Ridge, and before 
night .Mission, was taken. Sixty-eiglit ])ieces of artillery and 
11,000 prisoners, including two brigadier generals, were captured. 
Next day the rebel prisoners marched over the pontoon bridge to 
go north. xVs they formed into line on the north side of the river 
one of our l)ands of nuisic i)layed the "Star Spangled Banner." A 
hurrah for the Union followed from all the camps near by. 

In Deceiubei- I and sixty other mechanics were sent to Nash- 
ville to make new canvas pontoon boats, returning to Chattanooga 
in IMarrli. On ]May 5, 1864, our army started for Dalton. On 
the (ith m\ battalion Avas ordered Avith our canvas pontoon train. 
Arriving at a river north of Resaca, on the right wing, a regi- 
ment of rebels were in a good position in a lot of heavy timber, 
disputing our right to cross the river. AVe crossed a battalion of 
sharpshooters to dislodge the rebels, and a nunihei- of our boys 
Avere killed and Avounded. From here Ave marched with a division 
to Rome. (}a., on a point betAveen tAVO rivers. Crossing on a pon- 
toon bridge Ave took possession of Rome. AYe crossed the Yazoo 
river on the south side, Avhere on a little mountain the rebels had 
some fortifications, but as Johnson "s army had fallen back to 
Atlanta by this time they eA'acuated the place and avc marched on 
to ^Marietta and remained in camp at this place for some time. The 
lattei' ])art of June Ave Avere ordered back to Chattanooga. In 
•Inly 1. Avith my detachment, Avas ordered to Bridgeport, Ala., to 
take charge of a pontoon bridge, and Ave remained at this place 
until September 20, 1864. 



The adjutaut from our regiment ordered us to get ready to go 
to St. Louis to be mustered out. Arriving at St. Louis with about 
two hundred and twenty men left in our regiment, we marched to 
Washington liall. On the 29th day of September my regiment was 
mustered out on expiration of term. 

I respectfully remain, FRED NOTH, 

Sergt. Co. E, 2nd Mo. Vol. Inf. 


John W. Lynn Post No. 30, Department of Wisconsin, Grand 
Army of the Republic, was organized jMay 8, 1882, at Sparta, 
county of Monroe, and state of AVisconsin, with fifty-seven charter 
members as follows, to-wit : 

James Davidson, lifty-seven years, okl, formerly major of the 
Fifth New York cavalry, afterwards department commander of 
the Department of AVisconsin, and died at AVichita, Kansas, 
]\Iarch 16, 1891, a native of the state of Ncav York. 

Samuel Hoyt, sixty-three years of age, served as sergeant of 
the First Wisconsin battery over four years, was honorably dis- 
chai'g'cd :ui(l died ;it Sparta on tlie tliird day of June, 1898. 

Edwin W. Olin was born in the state of New Y^ork ; aged 
thirty-nine when the post was organized; served as first lieuten- 
ant of Company "E," One Hundred and Twenty-first regiment, 
New York infantry volunteers, and was finally nnistered out at 
Sparta, AA^is., on the 27th (I;iy of January, 3907. AVas post com- 
mander and quartermaster. 

L. C. Herrick was sixty-two years of age, was a private of 
Company "D," Eighteenth AVisconsin infantry, and passed out 
of this life on the 22ik1 day of Alay, 1898. Held the ..flicks of 
cha]ilain and musician. 

William H. Blyton iiatl arrived at the age of thirty-nine years, 
born in New A^)rk state, served in Company "C." Nineteenth 
Wisconsin infantry, as quartermaster sergeant and as first lieu- 
tenant and <iuartermaster of the Fourth T'nited States infantry. 
Has served in the i)()st as j)ost commander several terms and as 
adjutant and quartermaster. 

Alonzo E. Howard was forty-four years of age, born in New 
York state, served in Company "A." Ninety-second New Y''ork, 
as first sergeant and lieutenant, and in Company "K," Ninety- 
sixth New York infantry, as first lieutenant. lias held tlie offices 
of sergeant, major, adjutant and post commander. 

Hugh T. Hogue was born in Pennsylvania, enlisted October 
21st, 1861. in the Third AA'isconsin cavalry, Company "A," served 



three years and three months. Was a valued member of the post, 
always taking an active interest in its proceedings, but died in 
Big Creek, May 16, 1896. 

Alfred Dunbar had reached the age of fifty-three years, a na- 
tive of New York state, was a private of Company ''C," Thirty- 
sixth AA^isconsin infantry, the snare drummer of the post, a very 
active member on all memorial days, but departed this life on 
the 10th of September, 1903. 

William Waste, forty-eight years old, was from New York 
state and was a member of Company "I," Twenty-third Ohio in- 
fantry ; served four years and two months and was badly broken 
down on being discharged ; died many years ago, but the date was 
not entered in the post records. 

William Kerrigan, another New York state man, fifty-one 
years of age at the organization of the post ; Avas a member of 
Company "C," Nineteenth AVisconsin infantry, serving about 
three years and six months, and during his membership in the 
post was its chief musician and fifer. Died June 29, 1897. 

Charles A. Hunt, another New York boy, fifty-three years old 
at the organization of the post, was first lieutenant and captain, 
Company "K," TAventy-fifth AVisconsin infantry, was one of our 
strong and active members, adding strength and interest to the 
organization. He was finally mustered out at Melvina and his 
remains interred in the Melvina cemetery. 

James E. Perry, forty-four years old, at the time a native of 
New A^ork, served in the army from September 22, 1861, to June 
23, 1865, as corporal of Company ''I," Twenty-seventh Alassachu- 
setts infantry. Removed to Tomah and joined Heni-y AA". Cressey 
post of that city. 

George A. Fisk, captain of Company "C," Thirty-sixth AA'is- 
consin infantry, Avas a gallant soldier and a good Grand Army 
man, but only remained Avith us to August 10, 1886, AAdien he 
joined the majority. 

George Graham, of Tomah, joined the post but commenced 
immediately to aid in the organization of the post at Tomah. 

George W. Shepherd Avas a charter member and served in Com- 
pany "C," of the Nineteenth AVisconsin infantry. He has passed 
the Dark riA'cr. 

Sylvanus Holmes Avas born in Ncav York and sixty-seven years 
old at the date of organization. He enlisted as priA'ate in Com- 
pany "I," Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania infantry, and Avas mustered 
out a captain. He Avas one of the strong members and serA^ed as 


senior vit-c c-ouunantlor and commander of the post, and moved 
beyond on the 3rd of January, 1895. 

William J. Siimmerfield, forly-fivc years old, a charter member, 
was a sergeant iu the First Wisconsin battery, serving from 1861 
to 1865; was an active comrade for ycais. Imt on account of in- 
firmiti(^s of age has withdrawn. 

DeWitt C. Beebe, forty-four years old and a native of W-rmont. 
was surgeon of the Fourth New York cavalry, served till the close 
of the wai'. Dr. Beebe was many years the surgeon of the post 
and held the office of post commander; one of the faithful mem- 
bers, but he jiassed over the river on the Fourth of July. 1908. 

Ira A. Hill was forty years old, born in New Ilamjjsliire, and 
served as sergeant of Company "A," Nineteenth New Hampshire 
infantry. He was the first quarteriuaster of the post, was for 
many years one of its trustees, and served as post comnmnder one 
term. Comrade Hill was always interested and did much to pro- 
mote the welfare of the organization. He was mustered into the 
larger army beyond on the 20th day of March, 1904. 

E. W. Robie was a native of Vermont, forty-four years old; 
served three years and two months in the Third Vermont infantry, 
a faithful Grand Army man, but died February 23, 1894. 

M. J. McOmber, aged thirty-seven, was a native of New York, 
was adjutant of the post for two years, served in the Sixth Penn- 
sylvania reserve corps, lost a leg at the battle of (rettysburg. died 
in Sparta on the 3rd of February, 1890. 

Lucian A. McWithy, fifty years of age, was born in New York 
state, was an efficient member of the Third "Wisconsin cavalry. 
Company "A," and though suflt'ering from inability to see has 
been one of the most persistent and regular attendants at the post 

John Burk, forty-four years old. Avas born in Ti-eland. but gave 
assurance that he was a faithful American citizen by serving the 
country three years and one month in the Tenth AVisconsin in- 
fantry, in Com])any ''D," but he is with us no more. 

John Winters, a native of Germany, was a member of Comi>any 
"D," of the Eighteenth Wisconsin infantry, the service and his 
continuing to serve the state making good his claim on the nation. 
William Shepherd did not furnish us his full record, but he was 
a member of Company "C," of the Nineteenth AVisconsin infantry, 
for many years a resident of the town of Ang(^lo and one of its 
good citizcMis. 

James O'Connor, forty-two years old, a native of New Y'ork 
state, served four vears and three months in the Second Michigan 

' I 


Infantry, Company "D," was for many years one of the best 
known citizens, but after removing from Sparta withdrew from 
the post. 

Joseph Jones, a native of England, enlisted September 7, 1861, 
in Company "D," of the Eighty-fourth Pennsylvania infantry, 
and was mustered out December 24, 1864, thus proving his loyalty 
to his adopted country. He has joined the majority on the other 

Franklin Campbell, aged thirty-eight, was a native of Wis- 
consin, was a member of the Tenth Wisconsin battery. He with- 
drew from the post after a few years and has since been reported 

Michael McPeak, forty-one years old, born in Ireland. His 
service was in Company "E," First Michigan volunteers; still 
residing in Sparta. 

Chauncy Bunce, fifty-two years old, born in Connecticut, en- 
listed Januar.y o, 1864, in the Twelfth Wisconsin infantry. Com- 
pany "E," and was mustered out July 15, 1865, but on account 
of age and residence at a distance from the city withdrew after a 
time and he has passed to the other shore. 

Charles Slaver, thirty-eight years of age, another acquisition 
from Germany, was a member of Company "I," Forty-eighth 
AVisconsin irifantry, proved his right to citizenship by his 

Nathan B. Aldrich, a Vermonter, was forty-eight years old, 
was a meml)er of Company "D," Twenty-fifth AVisconsin infantry, 
from August 8, 1862, to May 10, 1865; a good citizen of Sparta, 
])ut died July 22, 1902. 

Joseph W. Potter, ])orn in Ohio, was forty years old, was a 
corporal of Company "C," Thirty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry, 
from February 29, 1864. to June 10, 1865. Served with the post 
as its bass drunnner until disabled, and left us to be mustered 
in the new army Alarch 2, 1910. 

Edward J. Hodgkin enlisted July 2, 1861, in Company "I," 
Fourtli Wisconsin infantry, and was mustered out July 18, 1865, 
a member of the First Wisconsin battery. He withdrew from 
the post as he resided too far out to meet with it, and has since 
left this life. He was born in New York and was thirtj^-nine years 
old at the organization of the post. 

William J. Jordan was forty-one years old and served in the 
Fiftieth New York engineers from August 31, 3861, to June 13, 
1865. He died on the 16th of March, 1891. 

Adelbert E. Bleekman was a native of New York state, served 


in the Fifth Ohio cavalry, Company ''A." AVas tlie post coin- 
maiidi r in 1888 and 1S84. lie removed to LaCrosse and became 
a mcniher of the post there. A good Grand Army man and a 
successful attorney. He has gone to his reward foi- all the activi- 
ties oi an earnest life. 

Bruce E. McCoy was fifty-one years old. born in New York 
state, and served as captain of Company — , Forty-third Wiscon- 
sin infantry from its muster in to the end of its term, and con- 
tinues a valued member of the post. 

Rufus S. Dodge .served as sergeant of Company "K," Six- 
teenth New York infantry, during the entire term of its service, 
was a native of New York state. For many years lie was trustee 
of the post and passed away July 31, 1008. 

Ulrich Wettstein was thirty-four years old. a native of Ger- 
many, was a member of Company ''C." P'ifty-third AVisoonsin 
infantry: has gone out but date is not recorded. 

Charles A. Bunce was forty years old and a native of Con- 
neeticut. He served in Company "K," Eleventh Massachusetts 
infantry; Avas discharged at his own request. 

Lucius M. Stevens, forty years old, a native of New Y^ork, was 
a member of Company "I," One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New 
York infantry, was post commander in 1885 and has removed to 

John W. Carter was a native of Ohio, a member of Company 
"D,"" Kighteenth Wisconsin infantry, was thirty-seven years old 
at his muster in the post, and was the first death after our organ- 

William A. DeLong', thirty-nine years old, a native of New 
York state, was a corporal in Company ''A," Third Wisconsin 
cavalry. He withdi-ew from the post. 

Chauncy K. Kennedy, aged fifty-eight, a New Yorker by birth, 
was a member of I'ompany "A," Nineteenth "Wisconsin infantry, 
but lie lived only a short time after joining the post. 

John Jarrett, forty years old. a nati\'e of rennsylvania. Serv- 
ice was in Company "D," Seventh Pennsylvania cavalry. He 
removed from the city and Avithdrew from the post. 

Jeremiah Van Kirk, a native of New York state, was a mem- 
ber (if Company "'I)."" Tweiity-tifth AVisconsin infantry, Avas 
thirty-seven years of age and is still with us. 

E. Crocker, born in Oliio. Avas thirty-seven years old, a mem- 
ber of Company "D," Eighteenth AVisconsin infantry, Avas 
Avounded and discharged. Has moved aAvay and Avithdrawn from 
the i>ost. 



Henry T. Bell, a native of New York, served three years in 
Company "K, " Seventh New York heavy artillery, has been an 
efficient officer of the day of the post, and is still doing duty 
Avith it. 

Robert Rathbun did not furnish his war record and withdrew 
soon after joining. 

W. H. Washburn was forty-one years old and a native of New 
York state, was a member of Company "C," Thirty-sixth AVis- 
consin infantry, was transferred to the George A. Fisk post at 

Walter A. Wodd, forty-three years old, a native of New York, 
was corporal of Company "A." Tenth AYisconsin infantry, serv- 
ing four years. He removed to Oakland, California, and was 
transferred to a post in that city. 

Byron M. Dunham was forty-one years old, born in Michigan, 
served in Company "D," Fourteenth Wisconsin infantry four 
years; died January 6, 1902. 

William N. Wilcox furnished no record of service and with- 
drew after a short time. 

S. F. Ketcham was thirty-six years of age, born in Pennsyl- 
vania, was a private in Company "L," Sixth New York heavy 
artillery, withdrew from the post soon after its organization. 

Abram Heath, thirty-eight years old, born in New Hampshire, 
a member of Company ''G, " Twelfth AYisconsin infantry; re- 
mained a member but a short time. 

Edward Busby, forty-seven years old, a native of Ohio, served 
nearly four years in the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth in- 
fantry; has continued a member and is, and has been, for many 
years entirely blind. 

James P. Larry was forty-five years old, born in Ohio, a mem- 
ber of Company '"I," Forty-second AYisconsin infantry, and died 
April 17, 1902. 

Of the above fifty-seven charter members, thirty-seven have 
passed into larger ranks and have been mustered beyond the 
dark river ; eleven remain in Sparta and nine have moved away. 

One hundred and eighty-two have been mustered into our 
ranks since, of whom eighty-six died and forty-six have with- 
drawn, some to move to other states and some for their own 
reasons not known to us, and there remains in good standing in 
the post at this writing sixty seasoned veterans, many of them 
so feeble and weak from age and infirmities that they are not 
able to meet with us, especially those living at a distance in the 


The executive officers of the post since its organization have 
been : 

In 1882 James Davidson, post commander, and AVilliam II. 
Blyton, adjutant; in 1883, Adelbert E. Bleekman, post com- 
mander, and AVilliam II. Blyton, adjutant ; in 1884, Adelbert p]. 
]51eeknuin. post comnumder, and IVIichael J. ]\IcOmber, adjutant ; 
in 1885, Alojizo E. Howard, ])0st commander, and Miehael J. 
McOmber, adjutant; in 1886, Lucius M. Stevens was post com- 
mander, and Alonzo E. Howard, adjutant; in 1887, John A. Sholts 
was the chief executive officer, and Alonzo E. Howard has held the 
office of post adjutant to the present time. Elorus "\V. Babcock 
served as post commander in 1888, AVilliam H. Blyton in 1889, 
Arthur L. Page in 1890, AVilliam P. :\Ieyer in 1891, Sylvanus 
Holmes in 1892, Russell Brownell in 1893, David C. Hope in 1891, 
Edward E. Olin in 1895, Ira A. Hill in 1896, N. J. Kemp in 1897, 
Thomas Hobson in 1898, DeAVitt C. Beebe in 1899, A. R. Benzie in 
1900 and 1901, John A. Sholts in 1902-03, Andrew C. Cole in 1901, 
Russell Brownell in 1905, and AVilliam II. Blyton in 1906-07-08-09- 

Immediately on the organization of the post active opera- 
tions were inaugurated to suitably decorate the graves of all 
deceased comrades of all wars for the preservation or defense of 
the nation, and in 1886 there was added to the by-laws of the post 
one requiring the quartermaster of the post to place a memorial 
tablet at the head of the graves of all defenders of the country 
buried in the several cemeteries within our jurisdiction, and at 
the head of the graves of all such who should thereafter be in- 
terred in such cemeteries. 

The post has so far as its means would alloAV assisted and 
cared for the sick and needy soldiers, attended to the proper 
burial of all its deceased nuMubers. carried out faithfully its duty 
of ('el('])rating Alemorial Day l)y decorating the graves and pro- 
viding suitable patriotic nuMuorial addresses and by jiatriotic 
Sabliath services on Tne Siuulay jjreceding Alemorial Day, has 
procui-ed the erection in the city park of a beautiful soldiers' 
monument, dedicated to "Our Nation's Defenders," has for years 
held ])atri<)tic services and addresses in oui- public schools to 
instill ]>atriotism in the minds of our coming citizens, has co- 
operated with the national order in ])romoting the welfare of 
those who faithfully served the country aiul suffered, ami has 
by every means in its poAver jiromoted good citizenship and love 
of countrv. 

(■\I"I'. M. K. IJ'.ON" AKP 



Captain Leonard's service to his country began as a recruit- 
ing" officer, which position he held for several months. The gov- 
ernor, appreciating his fitness to command, appointed him captain 
and through his services in that capacity did valiant duty. He 
enlisted in July, 1862, in Company " D, " Twenty- fifth Wisconsin 
regiment ; was mustered in in August the same year, and his 
regiment was first stationed in Minnesota, near New Ulm, where 
they participated in the frontier Indian massacre. This company 
was in charge of Captain Leonard, who guarded the thirty-eight 
Indians who were now in ]\Iankato. ]Minnesota. Prior to this 
they were ordered to scout through Big Cottonwood and Little 
Cottonwood to West Mankato, and January 1st were ordered to 
report at Madison, next to Columbus, Kentucky, where the sub- 
ject was appointed port officer by General Asbeth. Captain 
Leonard at this time was first lieutenant and his regiment was 
ordered to Helena, Arkansas, where they were reviewed by Gen- 
eral Beauford, down the Mississippi river to Vicksburg, being in 
charge of the subject, the trip being accomplished without acci- 
dent. It was the season of what was known as th(^ winter of deep 
ice and it was with the greatest difficulty that the trip was made. 
The gunboat was ordered to Helena and returned to Vicksburg 
in February for Sherman's march through ^Mississippi to Ala- 
bama, then returning to Vicksburg, thence up the river to ( 'airo, 
Illinois; thence to Moorsville and to Decatur, Alabama. Thence 
to the foot of Lookout mountain to Chattanooga, to Tunnel Hill, 
flanking recours on the right, thence engaging in the severe three- 
days' fight of Sugar Gap, following which was the battle of 
Eosackie; to Calhoun's ferry, crossing the river to Kingston; 
thence to Dallas, Texas, engaging in the battle of Dallas; tlience 
to Altoona. to Kenesaw mountain, to ^Marietta, Georgia, to Chat- 
tahoochee at night through dense darkness. Next to Decatur. 
Georgia, thence six miles to Atlanta, with constant fighting dur- 
ing this trip. It was during this time that the regiment lost 
heavily from the enemy and the wounded and dead were left at 
Decatur. The balance of the regiment whipped around to the 
right and entered the siege of Atlanta after wbipping General 
Hood, in which the loss of the men were heavy. The regiment 
then made a retrograde movement to AVest Point and over the 
mountains to the extreme right, and marching during the night 
to Lovejoy's station, and from there to West Point, to camp. 


Then folloAVod Ilond to Altoona, thence to Alabama, Kingston, 
to Atlanta, moved on to Savannah, fighting and tearing np rail- 
ways nntil they reached King's bridge, fifte<Mi miles from Savan- 
nah, -where they remained luitil the time of surrendei-. Then the 
subject became aide to Colonel Rusk and the regiment was or- 
dered to Thunder Boat bay. Next demonstration was made on 
Savannah, leaving General Foster's command moving on u]) the 
line tearing up the railway between Augusta and Charleston and 
to the river of seven l)ridges, fording swamps, until Columbia 
was reached, extending their line of march to Bentonville. being 
the scene of the last battle, after running to Goldsborough and 
Raleigh, N. C, through Virginia, and marched to Grand river, 
where the captain's service ended. 

The regiment was mustered out June 1, 1865, he having given 
nearly three years to the service. 


The movement which culminated in the final completion, erec- 
tion and dedication of the Soldiers' Monument which now stands 
in North Park originated on the 9th day of August, 1895, when, 
at a regular meeting of John W. Lynn Post No 30 Grand Army 
of the Republic, twelve comrades of the Post were unanimously 
elected a committee to consider whether or not it was feasible 
or desirable to erect at Sparta a Soldiers' Monument, and if so 
to consider the ways and means for its accomplishment and report 
at the next meeting of the Post. This committee consisted of 
Edwin E. Olin, chairman; Ira A. Hill, David C. Hope, Martin R. 
Gage, John A. Sholts, Alonzo E. How^ard, William H. Blyton, 
Charles A. Hunt, Rufus S. Dodge, William P. Meyer, N. J. Kemp 
and E. W. Babcock This committee met at the office of Tyler 
& Hill on the 13th day of August and elected Alonzo E. Howard 
chairman of the committee ; after a careful and thorough discus- 
sion, the committee decided that such a monument was desirable 
and a sub-committee consisting of Martin R. Gage, Rufus S. 
Dodge, Ira A. Hill and AYilliam P. Meyer were appointed to devise 
ways and means ; at a ineeting of the committee on August 22nd 
of the same year, a fair plan for raising funds was proposed by 
the sub-committee and adopted and reported at the meeting of the 
Post held on August 23rd, and after some discussion this plan was 
adopted and the Post added to the committee Comrades DeAYitt 
C. Beebe and Thomas Hobson. 

At the next meeting of the committee the plan which has 
been outlined was carried out substantially and Ira A. Hill 
was elected treasurer of the monument fund and sub-committees 
were appointed for the following purposes : For soliciting among 
soldiers, among citizens, to visit other posts and interest them; 
a press committee to publish such matter as in the opinion of 
the committee would interest the public in the enterprise. Sub- 
scription lists were prepared by the secretary and delivered to 
the solicitors and work was considered then fully organized. 

A resolution was adopted by the committee that notes be 
accepted on subscriptions, payable on or before January 1, 1898, 



providing the subscriptions adopted including the notes amounted 
to $2,500. Several notes were made and delivered to the treasurer 
and cash subscribed and collected and in the treasurer's hands, 
but in less than the time limited for tlie payment of the notes, 
interest seemed to wane, and the iund grtw only by the inter- 
est on the certificates of deposit at 3 per cent, so that the notes 
given matured and Avere returned and canceled* as tlie fund at 
their maturity had not reached the sum of $2,500. 

But the project received new light, when, on November Kith. 
1897. a "Ladies' Auxiliary" to the post was organized with 
seventeen charter members; as soon as this organization became 
strong enough they took up for their special Avork the raising 
of fuiKls for the proposed monument; they gave socials with 
tlie usual refreshments and obtained sul)scription blaidvs from 
the secretary and solicited ;uiil collected funds; slowly and con- 
stantly the sum grew, owing to the hard Avork and with the 
perseverance of these few faithful workers, wliich could not be 
estimated and without whose work no monument would have been 
today in existence. After nearly five years of labor by these 
ladies a meeting was called September 19, 1902, to reorganize 
the committee for the special active Avork to complete all ar- 
rangements and secure the erection of the monument. 

DeWitt C. Beebe Avas made chairman of this committee, ha A. 
Hill, treasurer, and A. E. HoAvard, secretary; the other members 
of the committee were George D. Dunn and AVilliam (\ Hoffman. 
AfterAvards an organization knoAvn as the Soldiers" .Moiiuiueiit 
Association Avas formed, it having for its officers and members 
D. C. Beebe, president; A. E. HoAvard, secretary; AV. ('. Hoffman. 
George Dunn as the executiA'e committee ; other mendiers being 
W. :\IcBride, Mrs. L. A. :\rcAVith.y. Mrs. E. S. Denis, Mrs. :\Iary 
Cole, John A. Sholts. 1). A. :\lc\Vithy. :\rrs. D. Benzie, :Slrs. C. 
Foster, all of the above l)eing of Sj)arta and J. E. Perry and A. 
C. Cole of Tomas and also X. J. Kemji, of S])arta. 

A committee Avas appointed to confer Avitli the county board of 
supervisors Avhich endeaA'ored to iiuluee tlie board to give jier- 
mission to place the monument on the court house grounds, haA'e 
the county assume permanent care of it and if possible obtain 
an approi)riation foAvards the expense of its construction, luit 
these efforts met Avith no success Avhatever. This liaAing provc^l 
an entire failure the committee ajipealed to the city council of the 
City of Sparta for aid. The council ordered a special election 
to be held upon the ])roposition as to the raising of the taxes on 
taxable property of th'- city of one-half mill on the dollar to 


aid in the laoniiment fuiul and at this election the citizens of 
Sparta voted the tax by a large majority ; it was levied and col- 
lected with the regnlar taxes of 1904 and amounted to $1,087.21. 

The treasurer of the committee, Ira A. Hill, died March 20, 
1!)01. and George D. Dunn was elected to fill the vacancy. In 
order to fulfill the legal requirements under the city appropria- 
tion, the mayor appointed Andrew J. Carnahan, William 11. 
Blyton, A. G. Welker and Wilfred McBride to represent the city 
on the committee. Plans and specifications were then procured 
and bids called for to erect tlie monument ; these were invited 
to be of different kinds of granite with the granite statue of 
the soldier and also with a copper bronze statue complete with 
foundation to be placed on a location to be designated by the 
committee. The successful bidder was Mr. Fred Schlimegan, of 
Madison, Wisconsin, whose bid was accepted, being one with 
the specification that the monument was to be of Barre granite, 
except the centre block for the inscription, which is of Montello 
granite, and the statue of the soldier which is made of copper 
bronze. The monument was completed and accepted on Decem- 
ber 4th and the contractor settled with and the total cost, in- 
cluding the monument complete, inscription, setting and ex- 
pense, being about $3,000. The statue of the bronze soldier 
stands facing the south and on the south side of the face of the 
monument appears the words "In Memory of Our Nation's De- 
fenders. ' ' 

This monument was formally dedicated and accepted on the 
30th day of May, 1905. Invitations were extended to all parts of 
the county and an elaborate program was planned and carried 
out, an extensive part of which was a march to the Woodlawn 
cemetery in the afternoon, where memorial exercises were held, 
and then proceeded, to North Park, where with due and appro- 
priate ceremonies the monument was unveiled and formally 
accepted on behalf of the city by Andrew Carnahan, then presi- 
dent of the city council. 

As a fitting ending of this chapter none can better be written 
than the address by DeWitt C. Beebe, whose untiring efforts had 
been largely instrumental in the successful completion of this 
project, whose words, patriotic and full of emotion w^ere delivered 
with that earnestness which was one of the characteristics of Dr. 
Beebe, and although this address was short, it had a .profound 
effect upon the assembled audience. It is as follows : 

"FELLOW CITIZENS-COMRADES: We have come to this 
quiet shaded place today to unveil this shaft of granite and 


bronzo and dedieate it with M])propriato ceremony to the memory 
of 'Our Country's Defenders." It seems eminently fitting and 
])roi)er that we come directly here for this hallowed purpose from 
the little silent city over yonder, Avhere we have tenderly strewn 
fresh, l)eautiful flowers upon the graves where lie our beloved 
dead. The two occasions seem so tenderly similar in sentiment 
that they should not be separated. Comrades, we have reason to 
rejoice that the Great Commander — the God of Battles — has 
spared our Wwh and health that so many of us are enabled to see 
this day and this hour. AVe have reason for congratulation that 
so many wives, widows and daughters of the veterans of the Avar 
of 1861-65 are also permitted to be here today and enjoy the 
consummation of their long, persistent, loyal labor, but for which, 
my friends, Ave avouIcI not be here today for this purpose. The 
memorial here which we shall unveil and dedicate today is the 
result of several years' labor and growth, a short sketch of Avhich 
Avill be giA'en later by Adjutant Howard. Comrades, it will mat- 
ter A'cry little to us in a few years when Ave shall have been nuis- 
tered into that great army over the river Avhether or not SAveet 
floAvers from loyal, loA'ing hands Avill be strcAvn upon our graves 
in the springtime of the returning years, or that a memorial has 
been erected in some beautiful spot to our memory, but the senti- 
ment that is kept burning in the breasts of those Avho folloAV us, 
Avhich prompts the doing of these offices is of momentous impor- 
tance, for it is this that makes loyal heroes and a nation invincible 
in times of danger. 

"Sad Avill be the day, and may it never come, Avhen this great 
American people shall become so absorbed in cold business, 
crazed in finance, or so drunken Avitli the |)leasures of the day 
that they shall forget to recognize^ the services of their nation's 





The Spanish-American war, whih' aeeomplishiug the great 
result in the freeing of Cuba, annexing of Porto Rico, the Philip- 
pines and consequent turning to civilization and education of the 
l)eople of those tropical regions, did another thing — it gave to the 
ndlitary authorities of this country the long-needed lesson, which 
could not be too well learned, that army methods in this young 
and lusty republic were way behind the times ; demonstrated that 
in the mobilization, equipping and feeding of troops in the field 
there was plenty of incompetency, plenty of antiquated red tape 
methods — and the army began to wake up. For a long period 
after the civil war, in fact, not really until the Spanish-American 
war, was there little, if any, attempt to mobilize troops in larger 
bodies than a regiment for field practice. The experience in the 
Spanish-American war brought about the iiecessity of frecpient 
mobilization not only of regular troops, but also national guard 
organizations, for field maneuvers, and the field maneuvers now 
held in ditferent parts of the country every other year are the 
result. ]\Ianeuver camps becanu^ a necessity and the war depart- 
ment began acquiring large tracts of land in different parts of 
the country for that purpose, under the provisions of various 
acts of congress. 

The State ^Military Reservation at Camp Douglas, so admirably 
situated and equipped for rifle practice and maneuver ground, 
had years ago attracted the attention of the officers of the regular 
army, particularly of the then Department of the Lakes ; and all 
reports sent the department gave praise to tlie location and nat- 
ural advantages and ecjuipment provided by the state, it being in 
almost every case described as one of the finest rifle ranges in 
the United States. Its fame grew and a number of years ago a 
department competition was held there, and later two batteries of 
artillery were sent up from Fort Sheridan for summer practice. 
The officers of the Department of the Lakes became strongly de- 
sirous that the government might acquire the reservation, 
especially for artillery practice, and offers were made through 




Colonel AVagner to purcliase the property, but the state refused 
at all times to ]iart with control of it. 

Way hack (]ui-iii<i- tiic time when the establishment of a range 
at Cam{) Douglas was heing considered, the tract of land near 
what was then the station of LaFayette, in this county, on the 
Chicago, ^lilwaukee & St. Paul railway, lying principally in the 
towns of LaFayette and Angelo, was suggested to Gen. C. 1*. 
( lijipiiian, then adjutant general of this state, by Col. George 
Graham, tlien liic i-aptain of Company K. and interested strongly 
in the establishment of a state camp ground. Owing, however, 
to the distance from the cities of Tomah and Sparta and to the 
better railway facilities at Camp Douglas, after looking over both 
tracts the latter was decided upon and became subsequently the 
state property. 

The idea still o])tained, however, that the LaFayette tract was 
suitable for military purposes, and attention of the war depart- 
ment was called to it by Congressman John J. Eseli a few years 
ago. As early as 1897 Col. George Graham again called the atten- 
tion of the officers of the national guard at a convention in 
^Milwaukee to a tract of land lying between Tunnel City and 

Hon. W. 11. Taft. then secretary of war, in 1906 advocated the 
establishment of four large military maneuver camps, to be used 
jointly l)y tlie regular army and the national guard of the several 
states, one to be located in the east, one in the south, one in the 
west, and one in the mitldle north. Congressman Escli at that 
time commenced a movement to locate the northern camp at 
Camp Douglas, Wis., by the purchase of land adjacent to the 
AVisconsin Alilitary Reservation. Other sites suggested were in 
Pennsylvania. Texas and California. None of these large camps 
projiosed by Secretary Taft had been provided for by congress. 
I)u1 as incidental thereto ]Mr. Esch was successful in securing an 
api)ropriation of $150,000 to purchase land adjacent to the mili- 
tary reservation at Cami) Douglas for the use of the regular 
army and an artillery range, a i)urpose entirely distinct from that 
of a maneuver camp. 

During the ])endency of this legislation a board of regular 
army engineei- officers, with Gen. A. IL Ernest at its head, visited 
Cam}) Douglas under orih'rs to make a toi)ograhpical survey, and 
while in AVisconsin were invited to Sparta, and accompanied by 
General Boardnuin. Colonel Salsman and Colonel Graham were 
<lriven over the lands l)etween Sparta and Tuiniel City. General 
Ernest ill his I'eport to the war department on Camp Douglas, in- 


eluded a reference to the Sparta site. The summer work of the 
United States tield artillery is comprised of long practice marches 
and a target practice. Very few places are available for this 
latter purpose, and artillery officers during this part were sent 
over the country looking for location for an artillery range. 
Maj. Samuel Allen, commanding the artillery at Fort Snelling, 
Minn., in 1905, while searching for a place for target practice, 
came to Camp Douglas during the encampment of the Third regi- 
ment that year. Adjutant General Boardman suggested to him 
the availability of the Sparta site, and called Colonel McCoy in 
consultation, with the result that an invitation was extended to 
the battalion commanded by Major Allen to go into camp on the 
McCoy ranch. Colonel JMcCoy having gradually, during a long 
series of years, acquired title to about 4,000 acres of this land. 
Major Allen accepted the invitation and the battalion of artil- 
lery came from Fort Snelling and camped for sixteen days during 
the month of September, 1905, testing the various ranges which 
might be available for artillery practice, and his report upon the 
possibilities of the Sparta tract called the attention of the war 
department very strongly to it. 

Meanwhile the passage of the appropriation of $150,000.00 
proposed by Congressman Esch for the purchase of land near 
Camp Douglas, caused land owners in that vicinity to raise the 
price of land from $3.00 an acre to about $30.00, or thereabouts, 
and the war department found it impossible to deal with them, 
with the result that the attempt to purchase any land at Camp 
Douglas ceased and the appropriation remained in the hands of 
the Avar department unexpended. 

This situation brought the attention of the war department 
back to Sparta and resulted in the sending of a board, consisting 
of Major Mott and Captain Overton, to report upon the advisabil- 
ity of purchasing lands at Camp Douglas or leasing lands at 
Sparta. In September of 1907 Battery C from Fort Snelling, 
under the command of Captain Overton, camped on the McCoy 
ranch, and was there when the board above mentioned, and of 
which he was a member, investigated the two sites of Camp 
Douglas and Sparta. They were accompanied by General Board- 
man, Colonel Salsman, Colonel McCoy, Major "Williams, and a 
part of the time by Congressman Esch. After a thorough investi- 
gation the board made a report to the war department disapprov- 
ing of the purchasing of lands at Camp Douglas because of the 
exorbitant prices demanded, and recommended that the lands at 
Sparta be leased, but the board did, however, go a step farther 



and reeommended the luirchase of 7,600 acres of land at Sparta. 

This recommendation to become effective required legislation 
l)y congress to enable the war department to use the Camp 
Douglas appropriation at Sparta or so much of the same as might 
be found necessary to purchase the Sparta site. This again 
opened the figlit between the people interested in the lands at 
Camp Douglas and Sparta. Congressman Esch was successful, 
however, in amending the bill, or law, Avhich had appropriated 
the $150,000.00 by having the words "Camp Douglas" stricken 
out and the word "Sparta" inserted, so tliat the appropriation 
became available for the purchase of this land. 

Colonel ]\Ic('oy, during the time that the board of investiga- 
tion Avas looking upon this site, prepared and presented strong 
arguments for the purchase of the property. The idea of leasing 
this land was given up and the war department finally decided 
to purchase a tract of 7.500 acres, and negotiations were com- 
menced and were pending for some time, it being found that so 
many of the pieces of land were acquired by tax title transfers 
that it would he necessary to condemn the lands in order to get 
a perfect title in the government, and proceedings were inau- 
gurated in 1909 for that purpose. 

Through the good work of Congressman Esch and others 
interested in the matter the department was finally convinced 
that it would be the best thing to buy the inner tract of 7,500 
acres, as it was called, and also to buy an outer tract or rim of 
land around this of about 7,500 acres more. Eventually negotia- 
tions were concluded through the efforts of Judge R. B. McCoy 
in the summer of 1909 whereby the government became tlie 
owner of a grand total of 14,206.65 acres, and tlie Sparta maneu- 
ver tract became a reality. 

In April, 1909, the Avar department announced tlie commence- 
ment of artillery practice, and during July and August sent a 
battalion of regular army officers, consisting of Captains AVilliam 
Brook, Albany. New York; C. K. Green, Chicago, 111.: AVilliam 
Cruikshank, Fort Sheridan, 111.; John J. Calerus, of Chicago, 
together Avith District Passenger Agent AV. AV. AVinton, of the 
St. Paul company; Trainmaster Ilenrichs, of Alihvaukee. and 
Roadmaster 1'. IT. Aladden, together Avith Col. R. B. McCoy and 
]\Iaj. D. AV. Cheney located the place for the temporary build- 
ings and for the camp grouiuls. The Avhole matter Avas gone OA'er 
tiioroughly and a maneuver camp selected on the north side of 
the raihvay tracks, and the artillery camp remained at the loca- 
tion Avhich had been previously occupied by Colonel Allen, near 


the artesian well, close to and on the south side of the tracks of 
the St. Paul company. 

Temporary galvanized storage buildings were provided for 
and erected during the summer of 1909. The St. Paul company 
provided a side track for unloading purposes near the artillery 
camps, and ran a spur into the maneuver camp grounds and 
placed there a large amount of side tracks so that troop trains 
could be handily unloaded. An artesian well was sunk at the 
maneuver camp ground in the summer of 1910, and a large steel 
elevated water tank erected and pipes laid to conduct the water 
throughout the camp grounds. A tank was also erected at the 
artillery camp which is supplied from the large flowing well, 
which had been running for several years. 

The war department having issued orders for artillery prac- 
tice, in addition to the regular batteries ordered to Sparta, bat- 
teries from the states of Michigan. "Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and 
Minnesota were, upon invitation, ordered to Sparta for artillery 
practice and instruction during the months of August and 

Three regular batteries of light field artillery, one from Fort 
Sheridan, one from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and one from 
Fort Snelling, Minnesota, arrived about the 8th of July, 1909, 
together with the regimental band of the Fifth artillery from 
Fort Leavenworth, being Companies E, D and F, of the Fifth 
artillery, under the command of Captain Cruikshank as camp 
commander. The camp was named "Camp Robinson" in honor 
of Colonel Robinson, at one time a resident of the city of Sparta, 
and the government military reservation known as the "Sparta 
Maneuver Tract," was duly inaugurated as one of the great mili- 
tary centers for field operations for the army and the national 
guard. The possibilities of it would seem to be far greater than 
was originally anticipated ; as the strategic location in the middle 
west, with the railroad facilities and the large acreage, makes 
it at once available as a point for the mobilization of large bodies 
of troops in the time of war and for conducting maneuvers on 
a larger scale than ever heretofore adopted in time of peace. 

On the 13th of July Company A, of the Hospital Corps from 
Fort Russell, AYyoming, consisting of 120 and ten officers, arrived 
and went into camp. They were under the command of INIajor 
Fauntleroy, and the officers of the corps in attendance were 
]\Iajor Purpiance, Major Pratton, Captain Whitcomb, Captain 
Bale, Captain Talbot, Lieutenant Jones, Lieutenant Leary, Lieu- 


t(^'ii;mt Docrr and Lioutciiaiit IJaylcy, all surgeons oi' the regular 

Soon after the anival of this eonipnny and the army surgeons 
a new feature to tlie regular army service was inaugurated by 
the establishment of a School of Instructions for National Guard 
]\Iedical Offii-ei's. The school conducted at ('ainp liobinson is one 
of three held during the year 190!), the other two being at Annapo- 
lis, ^Maryland, and California. In previous years the instruction 
Avhich the National Guard medical officers received was given 
at the encampments of the state troops by offirci's of tlic regular 
arni>- detailed for that purpose. 

Tlu» present system which l)rings tlic nu^lical officers of tlie 
various states under the instruction of a fully equijiped hospital 
corps becomes so evident that there is but little doul)t but tluit 
the medical school of instructions will, and practically has. be- 
come a part of the ])lans of the AVar Department for increasing 
the efficiency of the National Guard. 

The instruction given at this first school consisted in daily 
lectures given by the regular army surgeons concerning the 
various phases of practice encountered in connection with the 
army work. There was also given practical demonstration of 
field Avork by the members of the hospital corps, and the Avork 
througliout Avas made as realistic as it Avas possible to luivc it 
Avithout the actual presence of the Avounded. 

The first class of National Guard surgeons arrived on the 15th 
of July, and consisted of thii-ty-one officers from the states of 
Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, ]\lississiii]>i and "Wiscon.sin. 
After thcii- departure another class arrivctl as large. Avas estinui- 
bly from these various states, and remained for another period 
of ten days, and on the 12th of August, the Company A. of the 
Hospital Corps returned to its station at Fort Russell, AVyoming. 

Connected Avith the IMinnesota batteries Avhicii Avere in camp 
during the fore i^art of August in that year Avas >\Ir. P. Daley, a 
Avireless telegraph cxpci't, Avho had been co)ulucting experiments 
with the Avireless telegraph as a nutans of connnunication betAveen 
inland points. With the pci-niission of County Clerk Talbot. ]\Ir. 
Daley ci'cctcd ujtiMi the rool' of tlif ('uri-t Ibiuse a small wireless 
appai'atus. the oliject of which cxpcrimciil was to dciiionstrate 
the usefulness of the Avireless telegraph as a means of connnuni- 
cation betAveen troops so that in case of actual Avarfarc it Avill be 
possible for detachments to ci-cct stations at any i>oint and com- 
nuinicat<^ Avith each othei-. 

Alter lh(> apparatus Avas finally set uj) ^Ir. Smiih. a represent- 


ative of the St. Paul Dispatch, about 4:00 o'clock on Wednesday 
afternoon. August 5th, sent the following message to St. Paul, 
addressed to Judge Thomas Wilson, the oldest living resident of 
that city: "This is the first wireless message ever sent into the 
city of St. Paul, and in appreciation of the many things you have 
done to make it possible, it has been addressed to you." 

The message was received all right in St. Paul and the experi- 
ment was pronounced a success. In the history of the reservation 
the encampment of 1909 was made memorable by a visit of ]\Iaj. 
Gen. Fred D. Grant, commanding the Department of the Lakes, 
Avhich occurred on the 26th of August. 

The General arrived at Golvin station, which was the name 
given for the stopping place near the artillery camp, and Avas 
received by Captain Cruikshank and escorted to the headquar- 
ters tent. After breakfast the General was met by Congressman 
Esch and United States District Attorney George H. Gordon, of 
LaCrosse, and Maj. D. W. Cheney, of Sparta, and this party was 
taken by jMaj. Cheney in his automobile for a tour of inspection 
of the range. During the forenoon the distinguished visitors 
were shown all of the portion of the tract which could be reached 
with an auto, and in the afternoon the inspection was continued 
in an army wagon. The following day the General Avas taken 
over the more inaccessible portions of the range, including the 
many hills, on horseback. 

His inspection was most complete and at the end of it General 
Grant expressed himself as highly pleased, and stated that he 
found it in all respects superior to what it had been represented 
to him as being, and it Avas reported at this time that the General 
was in favor of extending the reservation l)y the purchase of 
additional land up to the amount of 20,000 acres. He afterwards 
in a rei)ort recommended that the range be converted into a 
general maneuver tract for all branches of the service, that small 
arms ranges be installed, and other extensiA'e improA'ements made. 
The General's visit Avas productive of much good and his report 
afterAvards resulted in further action by the War Department 
as to the installing of fixed distance ranges, and early in 
1910 in the army operation a bill passed by congress was in- 
cluded the amount of $40,000 for improvements on the military 
reservation near Sparta, and Avas the first definite step tOAvards 
the development of the tract for further uses, in accordance with 
the plans Avhich the War Department then had in a^cav, for it 
marked the beginning of a settled policy Avith regard to this 
reservation, and indicated that in the near future the national 


i-itlc contests would be liild upon tliis ground instead of at Camp 
I'ci'i-y. Ohio, wlirre these contests had been held fur scxci-al 

And the reasons for asking for these appropriations were sub- 
mitted to congress by the Secretary of AVar and originally made 
to the secretary- by J. B. Aleshire, quartermaster general of the 
Inited States army, and in a part of his recommendation with 
regard to military posts, has found the following, which is an 
extract from the same: "Target range, Sparta, AVisconsin : For 
the construction and equipment of a target range for the field 
firing of the artillery, cavalry and infantry branches of the 
United States army and for machine guns, including the con- 
struction of a concrete store house, portable railroad and im- 
])rovements on camp sites for water and sanitation on land 
authorized to be acquired near Sparta, ^Monroe county, AVis., as a 
site for target range, and for all other absolutely necessary ex- 
penses in connection herewith, to be immediately available, 
$40,000." (Note — The foregoing estimate is submitted in view 
of a report made thereon by Col. R. K. Evans, Twenty-eighth 
infantry. United States army, which reads in part as follows:) 

"Advisability of establishing a range for field-firing on the 
Sparta reservation for the three arms — artillery, cavalry and in- 
fantry — and machine guns: This reservation, on account of its 
size, 14,000 acres, and the character of the terrain, offers excel- 
lent facilities for field firing, in which the fire of artillery and 
small arms can be worked in combination against moving and 
disappearing targets at unknown ranges. This kind of field 
firing is the most advanced stage in the training of modern armies 
for battle. So far we have not fully equipped a single range for 
this kind of work, Avliile the other great powers have been busy 
in this direction for years. Our Small Arms Firing ^Manual, 1909, 
contemplates this kind of practice, but there is only one range in 
the United States wliere it is at all practical)le to init it into 
execution even for rifie and nmchine gun fire, viz., the one near 
Monterey, California, used by the School of I\Iusketry. ]More- 
over, as this range is not owned by the government it is not 
advisable to spend anything on permanent or extensive improve- 
ments or appliances. 

"If we are to keep abreast of the standard of progress set by 
other nations we sliould equip and use other field ranges as soon 
as possible. The Sparta range has a decided advantage over the 
one in California in that it is accessible to a much larger popula- 
tion. It might be valuable for the troops in the Department of 


the Lakes and Dakotas, and for the militia of four or five popu- 
lous states. In view of the fact that the most important feature 
of the practical training of modern troops for battle consists in 
practicing- the combined and supporting fire of infantry and 
artillery directed against a common objective, it is recommended 
that an ordinary, standard known-distance target range be estab- 
lished on the Sparta reservation, and also that the necessary 
appliances be provided for firing at moving and disappearing 
targets, the most important of the moving and disappearing 
targets to be arranged to run on light movable railway tracks. 

"Light portable railroads are now a recognized part of the 
necessary transportation equipment of modern armies for war. 
The leading military powers kept more or less material of this 
kind in store for war purposes. The Japanese used such roads 
extensively in Manchuria. Kuroki's march from the Yalu to 
Mukden would not have been practicable without the DeCauville 
railroad. AYe read and talk much about the use and value of 
DeCauville roads in war, but none of our officers have seen one 
in operation in our territory or know its practical uses and lim- 
itations from actual experience. 

"It is believed that this range offers an excellent opportunity 
for acquiring necessary experience in deciding on a type for 
such railroads, which up to this time is not definitely decided. 
Should an emergency arise requiring the use of such roads the 
material on hand at the Sparta range could be immediately 
shipped to the point required. In order not to lose a year it is 
necessary that some funds be made available for commencing im- 
provements on this reservation before the adjournment of the 
present congress. It is believed that at least $40,000 should be 
appropriated for this purpose. With this sum it is estimated 
that known-distance range could be equipped with 100 targets, 
$12,000 ; a storehouse of concrete built, $8,000 ; and the remainder 
spent on the portable railroad and on improvements on the camj) 
sites for water and sanitation generally. 

"The construction and equipment of this range Avas under 
consideration by the department prior to the submission of the 
regular annual estimate for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911, 
but the necessary data for the preparation of this estimate was 
not at hand in time to permit of its inclusion in the regular esti- 
mates. The submission of this supplemental estimate is deemed 
imperatively necessary in order that funds may be provided for 
the commencement of this work at the earliest possible date." 
The foregoing extract from the report of the quartermaster gen- 



eral of the army outlines the course wliieh is to be pursued in 
the futui-e in the development of all arms of the service in the 
army wi1li tlic cxcf^plion of the coast ailillery; and insures the 
t'Xtciisi\c use to wliicli llii> h\^ reservation will lie put in the 
future, and that for the tidd work of an army corps. 

On -May '■], lilld. lln' War I )epai1 iiicnt issued order Xo. Til, 
proxidin.u' lor 1lic military work on I lie I'ange for tin- summer. 
including' maneuvei-s on an extended scale. Early in June Bat- 
tery V from Fort Sheridan. P>attery K IVom Foi't Sncllin^'. and 
Battery 1) from Fort Leavenworth arrivetl at the reservation in 
advance of other troops and engaged in long-distance firing until 
the l)eginning of maneuvei- field instructions of state troops (lur- 
ing August. These batteries are all a part of the Fifth Field 
Artilh'ry, and in addition to them the headquarters field staff and 
l)and of the .Medical Battalion was also ordered into camp. 

Under oi-dei- Ti>. above referred to. the I'ltllowing troops were 
designated to attend the maneuvers, and arrived about the 1st 
of August, to-wit : Three troops of the Fourth Uavali-y from 
Fort Snelling; three troo])s of the 1^'ifteenth Cavalry from Fort 
Sheridan; headqimrfers and one l)aftery Fifth Artillery from 
Fort Sheridan; one baffei-y Fifth Ai-fillery from P'ort Sheridan: 
one battery Fifth Artillery from Fort Leavenworth; headquar- 
ters and eleven companies of the Twenty-seventh Infantry from 
Fort Sheridan: Iiead(|uai-tei's and ele\'en companies of the 
Twenty-eighth Inlanti-y i'l'om Fort Snelling; one-half of ('om- 
])any A. of the llosintal Corps, fi'om 1-^ort Kussell. Wyonnng. 

This oi'der required that all infantry troops must maridi at 
least 200 miles in I'eaching the city of Spai'fa or returning to their 
station, while the eavali'y and the artillery weiv^ recpiired to 
nuirch 2.')0 miles. In additioji to the fd)ove troops from the regu- 
lar army there were ordei-ed to the i'(\servation for artillery prac- 
tice National Guard batteries from different states as follows: 
Ohio seven batteries. Indiana three batteries, ^Michigan one bat- 
tei-y. Illinois fhi-ee batteries, fowa one battery. .Minnesota one 
battery, AViseonsin one; all of light ai'fillery. None of these 
organizations brought their own equipments, but for the purposes 
of instruction they were required to handle the regular arm\- 
e(pupmen1s of the batteries abovi' designated. This order also 
provided that to inirticipate in maneuvers several regiments of 
infantry were ordered to the reservation and arrived at different 
times during the month of August : AViseonsin sent the First 
Regiment and the Tenth Battalion, making sixteen companies; 
Iowa one brigade and three regiments, ]\Iinnesota one regiment. 


North Dakota twelve eoinpanies. South Dakotii twelve eouipauies, 
so that the troops which participated in the maneuvers during 
this month numbered about 10,000. 

The scheme of instruction resembled nearly as ])ossil)le the 
conditions to Ix- encountered in actual warfare, the ol).iect being 
to promote the field training of the troops. Accurate topograph- 
ical maps of the entire reservation had been previously made by 
the engineering department, and each day during the stay of the 
troops problems of varied characters were proposed ;iud the solu- 
tion of them wrought out on the field. Ceremonies Avere cut down 
to the lowest limit and the actual practice work was pursued with 
vigor and great benefit to the troops engaged in this maneuver. 

This encampment was under the command of Brig. Gen. 
Walter Howe, and in honor of Capt. Bruce E. McCoy, of Sparta, 
who with his son, Colonel ]\IcCoy, had been so instrumental in 
establishing the reservation. General HoAve on the ]st day of 
August issued an order naming the camp "Cam]) Hruc(^ E. 
IMcCoy." Captain ]\IcCoy was a captain in the Civil War, and for 
years was the OAvner of the old Lafayette mill property and of 
the laud on Avhich the maneuver camp itself Avas located. The 
folloAving named officers Avere detailed for service at this camp: 
i\Iaj. Sanmel D. Sturgis, General Stalf Corps; :\Iaj. AValter H. 
Gorton, Inspector general; Capt. Douglas Settle, counuissary; 
Lieut. Col. William B. Bannister, Medical Corps; Maj. Thomas C. 
Goodman, paymaster; Capt. Charles W. Castle, paymaster; ('apt. 
Dana T. ]\Ierrill, TAventy-eighth Infantry. 

During the month of August the range Avas visited by Gen. 
Robert ShaAV Oliver, Assistant Secretary of War, who gave it a 
thorough inspection. Governor Carroll, of loAva, also Adsited the 
maneuver camp on the 19th of August and revicAved the loAva 
Brigade on the afternoon of the 19th. The maneuvers of 1910 
Avere very successful and demonstrated beyond question that this 
big reserA'ation Avas Avell adapted for the purpose, as the range 
used by the troops around the maneuver camp did not extend 
more than four miles, so that there is ample room for the camping 
of several brigades on different portions of the reservation 
Avherever Avater may be provided. And the best of Avater is ob- 
tained by sinking artesian Avells, from Avhich a fioAV of Avater is 
obtained at a A^ery moderate depth and easily carried to any 
distance by piping. 

Early in 1910 Lieutenant Gilmore of the regular service Avas 
detailed as constructing quartermaster and moved to Sparta Avith 
his family, Avhere he remained during 1910 and up until about 


August, 1011. He h;i(l lull charge of the constructing of the 
rifle range of tlic reservation, for Avlilch an approx)riation of 
!}>40,000 had been made by congress. The work was very tlior- 
oughly done niid thei-c is now constructed rifle i)its built of con- 
crete with ample stoi'c rooms sunk into tlie embankment of hills, 
Targets and various supplies, and the range is equipped with 
something like two hundred of the most modern targets to be pro- 
cured. A large concrete office building ami storehouse has been 
constructed, ami the grading and seeding of the tiring points 

All effort was made to secure the national rifle competition of 
this range in 1911, and the "War Department was entirely friendly 
toward the proposition providing the range was in condition for 
holding such a contest, and a board of officers Avere ordered here 
early in the summer for the purpose of inspecting and looking 
the range over thoroughly. They finally decided it would be 
best not to attempt to hold the competition on the range that year 
in order to allow the seeding to take root and be in good shape 
another year. 

Through the eflforts of Colonel McCoy the town board of Angelo 
during the month of January and after considerable contest have 
laid out a road through the town of Angelo to the range, which 
Avill shorten the distance from this city considerably, and 
that road will, undoubtedly, be completed and in good shape for 
travel by the time this history is published. The only disadvan- 
tages have been the poor roads, as they go through sandy country, 
but with that remedied the great benefit which Avill be received 
to the citizens of Sparta and the city of Tomah and vicinity, 
through the purchase of needed supplies, cannot be very well esti- 
mated, as the benefit Avill, undoubtedly, grow greater as the 
ef|nipment on the reservation is perfected. The railroad facilities 
are now very ample as the North AVestern railway has con- 
structed a spur track leading directly to the rille range, and 
there is also placed a track constructed liy the St. Paul company 
to tile same place, and aiiijile sidetrack facilities are in existence 
at the point where the main storehouse is located. The St. Paul 
company has constructed a new station known as "McCoy," and 
built a tasty little depot not far from the artillery camp. The 
North AVesttM'ii company has also erected a small depot on the 
line of the Alilwaukee, Sj)arta & North Western Railway (^ompany 
so that during the existence of maneuvers railroad facilities are 
now provided for. 

This chapter would not be complete without mentioning the 


indefatigable work of t'ol. R. B. jMcCo.y, which has been mainly 
instrumental in the establishment of this great enterprise. While 
interested somewhat personally in some of the land which was 
bought by the government, yet in addition to that. Colonel McCoy 
spent a large amount of his time in acquiring options on the 
entire tract, using a diplomacy and patience which was indeed 
remarkable, and bringing to a successful conclusion a task whicli 
looked almost impossible. His energy and perseverance have 
brought great results, such as only a man of his ability can bring 


CIRCinT jrDGP:s. 

Fitting indeed it is to spread upon these pages the tributes of 
respect Jind aft'eetion froni his brothers of the legal i)rofession, to 
tlic itieniory of "Joe" Morrow; for "Joe'' he was. The name 
was used not in the sense of familiarity, but in that sense which 
so strongly indieates the friendly respect wliich a good-hearted 
man i-eceives from his fellows. Tniformly kind, courteous and 
gentlemanly, mild of manner and speech, yet his personality was 
one which attracted attention wherever he wenl. His strong 
face, full of character, his straightforward method of dealing 
with the mailer in hand, commanded attention and gave weight 
to those things which in others nuglit have seemed coiiimonplace. 
Always kind and helpful to Ihi' your.ger members of tlu^ l)ar. a 
generous opponent in any case, he licld tlie fi'iendship of his 
fellow attorneys to the end. 

Oil Ihe loth of October, IS!*!), at the fall term of the CiiTuit 
Court, -ludge O. B. AVyman ])residing, memorial exercises were 
held and the courl adjourned for that day as a mark of respect. 
A resolution signed by liie members of the bar of ^Monroe county 
w;is introduced and adopted as follows: 

"On motion of llie bar of ]\Ionroe county, the Circuit Court of 
this county has set apart this day to be devoted to memorial 
exercises in honor of our deceased brother. Tlon. J. ^\. ^lorrow. 
formei-ly -Judge of this Circuit. 

■"In his (k'atli the members of this bar share with the bar of 
the state of AVisconsiu a loss that is great, but to us the coni- 
panioiis of his daily life, his death was a sliock and a loss that was 
irreparable. Stri(d\eii down in the ripe \igor of his intellectual 
manhood in the noon of his ])rofessional activit.y, and ;it a time 
when his moral intluence with us, his associates, was most potent 
for good, for us bis i)lace cannot be filled and our sori'ow is daily 

""We bis brothers of the bar of ]\Iouroe county, desii-e to i)lace 



permanently upon the records of this court and to have it entered 
as a part of the proceedings of this term the following: 

"We admire in him the industry, learning, wisdom and ability 
that placed him in the front rank of lawyers of this state. We 
honor in him as a lawyer and hold up for emulation to those who 
come after him, an integrity, zeal and devotion to his client's 
interests that made his good faith beyond suspicion, a professional 
honor that made his word and his implied obligations better than 
written stipulations, a courtesy to his associates and antagonists 
alike that softened any asperities of legal conflict, a sunny temper 
and genial humor that robbed defeat of its sting and bound 
closer in friendship his antagonists, and above all, that delicate 
sense of personal integrity that kept his professional zeal within 
those limits that hold the gentleman. 

"We reverence in his career on the bench in an eminent 
degree, the cjualities that have adorned th(^ judicial office of this 
circuit since its organization, reinforced, ripened and broadened 
by an experience at the bar exceptional in its scope. As an 
official he brought to the discharge of his duties the same great 
zeal and alnlity that marked his professional life. As a citizen 
he had the respect and esteem of all, and his advice was sought 
in all important afifairs. As a man w'e loved him. Geo. Graham, 
C. M. Masters, Sev. Button, D. F. Jones, H. C. Spaulding, R. B. 
Graves, Chris. Maxwell. AVm. B. Naylor, Jr., R. A. Richards. R. B. 
McCoy, H. C. Altizer, H. B. Clark." 

The remarks were made by several members of the bar from 
different counties as follows : 

H. AV. Barney, of Mauston, said — "May it please the Court: I 
have no set speech to make. . Brother Hughes and myself come 
here to represent Juneau county — one of the counties in the .judi- 
cial circuit over which Judge MorroAV presided — at this me- 
morial service. I am here to say that the people and bar of 
Juneau county entertained the greatest respect for Judge Morrow 
as a lawyer, a .judge and a man. He had an extensive practice in 
our county and for more than thirty years he attended nearly, 
if not all, our terms of the Circuit Court. He attended many 
cases there in justices' courts. The day before he died, July 
27th last, I nu't him in Elroy, where we adjourned several cases 
over into September — engagements that death prevented him from 
fulfilling. It seems to us that he belonged to our county as much 
as he did to this county. 

"When our court meets in November he will be missed as 
much (u- more than ar.y of oui' resident attorneys, and the loss 


"will be felt in Jiuicau county as keenly as in any locality in the 
state. Jnneaii coiinly seconds the adoption of memorial pre- 
sented and endorses all that has been said here today in eulogy of 
Judge ^Morrow." 

Remarks of A. E. Bleekman. of LaCrosse — "]\Iay it i>lease 
the Court: 1 have not come with a prepared speech for this occa- 
sion. Yet if I do not respond to these resolutions and speak 
somcAvhat of my feelings, I shall be derelict in my duty to the 

"I knew our brother, and I knew him well. I first became 
acquainted with liim tliirty years ago the coming winter, at the 
office of the Hon. George Graham, of this l)ar, where I was then 
a student. He came to Tonuih in tlie interest of a client, Mr. 
John Maxwell, one of the oldest settlers of the county. I remem- 
ber that meeting as well as if it were yesterday, even the clothes 
he wore, for he Avas not a man of the passing hour, hut made an 
impression upon those he met. He was thou the same mild, 
gentlemanly, even-tempered nmii he always Avas. I next heard 
of him at Tunnel City in his professional duties, Avhere, Avheu 
presented Avitli a decision of our oaa'u Supreme Court, exactly 
opposite the position he Avas contending for, he arose and gravely 
asked the court if he Avas going to make a fool of himself because 
the Supreme Court had — and Avon his ease. 

"As the years pased on and our business relations extended, 
Ave met oftener in the trial of causes and our acquaintance 
ripened into strong personal friendship. He Avas the soul of 
honor, aliove euA'y and jealousy, one of the fcAV Avho possess the 
ability — almost a genius — to surpass and subdue and not have to 
look doAvn upon the liate of those beloAV. For over eleven years 
Ave practiced side l>y side Avithout a Avritiug betAveen us. all tlu' 
interests of our clients and our individual interests resting upon 
the Avord of each. In all that time he never hesitated — he never 
forgot liis Avord. AVhen he said lu^ Avould do so and so at such a 
tinu', that Avas the end of it. and he did it Avithout having to be 
reminded of his agreement. He h)\ id liis profession and he clier- 
ished liis honor. He Avas genial and happy in the labors of that 
profession and in his intercourse Avitli his felloAvmcu. 

"At his otTic(> he Avas industrious, studious and thoughtful in 
his Avork : ])]ain. kind, just ami consci(Mitious Avith his clients, and 
at the bar a strong, able, sagacious, courteous and eloquent advo- 
cate. I sometimes thought he did not grasp legal ]>ropositions as 
easily and clearly as some, but required more study and deeper 
thought to arrive at correct conclusions, Avhich he usually did. 


but in the gathering, accumulating, selection and presentation of 
facts he was a master. He despised technicalities and went to 
the very merit and root of his cause. As a lawyer he seemed to 
be a connecting link between the old and the new, possessing the 
honor, the integrity and the love of the profession which marked 
the old school lawyer, and he regarded the commercialism, as I 
have often heard him call it, that seemed to be usurping and 
taking the place of these high ideas in the new, with disfavor. In 
his social life he thoroughly believed in a part of that counsel of 
Polonius to Laertes, 'The friends thou hast and their adoption 
tried grapple them to thee with hoops of steel,' but he cast to the 
wind the remainder of that counsel, 'but do not stop to dull thy 
palm with each new-hatched unfledged comrade,' and few men 
were nearer and warmer to so many people as he. I know of no 
other attorney at the bar in this state who, going where he might, 
alighting from the train where he would, would meet so many 
warm hearts and have his hand clasped by so many warm hands 
in kindness, in friendship and in respect as he. And yet all was 
not sunshine with him. He had his gloomy hours as well as others. 
I remember well of a time when he and I took the train at the 
depot here in the morning, went to Kendall, tried a law suit all 
day and into the night, returning early the next morning to Nor- 
walk, then going by team to Ontario and trying a lawsuit all that 
day and into the night. AVhen he retired we occupied the same 
room, with separate beds. In the morning as we were preparing 
for breakfast he turned to me and said: 'This is a hard life; is 
it worth living?' And yet no one thought more of his life, en- 
joyed it or desired to continue it than he. 

"I was with him in that memorable contest of Judge Newman's 
for the Supreme Bench, both before Judge Newman became a 
candidate and subsequently. I had an opportunity to test his 
loyalty, fidelity and breadth of mind. He was no mere partisan, 
although a Democrat. He was as attentive and Avatchful of the 
interests of his friends as of his own. There are none of us but 
know how faithful and attentive he was to those dear ones at 
home, and how, during the later years of his life, he managed his 
])usiness affairs when away to reach home as speedily as possibU 
We know full well how attentively and affectionately he watched 
over them, and hoAV solicitous he was for their welfare. 

"The bar of this state has lost one of its strongest members. 
Especially is this true of the bar of this district, and at his home, 
the place where he lived, for he was indeed a loyal Spartan. His 
death caused us universal sorrow. A half century Avill not pro- 


ducc nnotlicr wlio will fill the pliirc lie filled. Some of tlie bright- 
est and the luippicst hours of my life have been spent in eonverse 
with him. As the years roll on and time dims this hour, I expect 
to live over these hours I passed with him, and say as Burns said: 

" 'Still o'er these scenes my nicnioi-y wak(^s. 
And fondly broods witii miser eare, 
Time but the imi)ression deeper makes, 

As streams their channels deeper wear.' " 

Remarks of AVyatt II. Graves, of LaCrosse county — "]May it 
please the Court: The custom in accordance with which we are 
today assembled, is appropriately and wortliily observed, only 
when the surviving associates of the tmc whose \irtues are to be 
commemorated, in a S])irit if candor and truth record their testi- 
mony to his worth. It is with feelings of sincere sadness that I 
come on this occasion to pay humble tribute to the memory of the 
lamented dead. To me it is a sad and sacred pleasure, but the 
burden of the duty is nuide lighter by the consciousness that it 
can be best discharged ])y simple, truthful reference to the char- 
acter of him in whose honor I would speak. It seems fitting that 
we should turn from active duties of the hour and pause during 
tlie all-absor])ing cares of life to pay our respects to one who 
honored us by his presence as a mend)er of this bar and won our 
respect and admiration by liis iioble life. 

"AVlien the announeement was made that the summons, Aviiich, 
sooner or later, must come to us all, had called from our midst our 
friend and brother, Hon. Joseph I\I. ]\Iorrow, it ])rought with it a 
shock inexpressibly sad. The sun, Avarm and bright, was pouring 
his flood of life and glory on field and laughing brook, on the aii* 
was the smell of roses, and in the trees the songs of birds, and 
all the Avorld was beautiful, when the darkness canu^ — a quick, 
sudden, endless eclipse, just after no(Uitide. Though we often 
bend over the bier and look on the face of the dead, yet the de- 
])arture of our friends at an unexpected moment shocks us indccil 
and overwhelms us with sorrow, and when our good and our 
loved ones die, the memory of their just deeds, like moonbeams 
on the stormy sea. liglits u|) oui- darkened hearts and lends to the 
surrounding gloom a beauty so sweet and sad, that we would 
not if we could dispel the darkness that environs it. 

"I hardly know of one whose death could suntU-r mon- or 
dearer ties: one who could leave so much behind him and a path- 
way lighted ])y a fairer radiance. A more modest, unassuming 
man; a finei- iuid a truer gentleman, a better and a nobler friend 


I never kneAv. The more I saw and knew of him the more warmly 
I loved and honored him for his many noble traits. I will not 
indulge in what might be construed to be fulsome adulation; I 
Avill speak of him as he actually was. He was in its truest and 
fullest sense a 'born gentleman.' He was conscientiously and 
thoroughly honest, honorable and candid in all his dealings and 
transactions with his fellow men, personally, financially and po- 
litically. He won the admiration and respect of his professional 
brethren by the open fairness of his contests. He attached him- 
self to his client and his cause with a loyalty that knew no 
shadow of turning. He threw his whole soul into the case on trial. 
He abandoned no cause when it lacked numbers. He deserted 
no friend in the minority. He feared no opposition when he be- 
lieved himself right, and he espoused no cause that he believed 
unjust. His manliness and fairness not only won clients, but 
commanded the respect of adversaries, the confidence of judges, 
and the admiration of the public. He was a wonderful advocate, 
armed with eloquence so enchanting that jurors became his cap- 
tives. Always frank and candid, he was utterly free from even 
the appearance of demagogy. He hated shams and despised pre- 
tensions. He never disappointed a friend ; he never ignored an 
obligation ; he never forfeited a confidence. His will was in- 
vincible ; his motives pure. His purposes were definite, but 
exemplary and lofty. His self-respect was intense ; therefore he 
strove for justice to others. He sought no mean advantage, being 
jealous of his own honor. 

" 'To thine own self be true. 
Thou canst not then be 
False to any man' 

"When I say, as I do with all my heart, that our dead brother 
whose life we commemorate today, illustrated this simple but ex- 
alted philosophy to which I have made reference, in all his rela- 
tions to life, I have said everything that need be spoken, even for 
the lam.ented dead, by the partial lips of sincere affection, and 
have paid to him the proudest tribute which honest merit ever 
won from unobsequious homage. He was a model in all the tender 
relations of domestic life. As a husband he was exemplary — 
faithful, loving and tenderly devoted to his noble and worthy 
invalid companion in life. In him the living have lost a kind hus- 
band, a tender father and faithful friend; his state a true son, 
but he has left them that richest of all treasures, a spotless repu- 
tation, the memory of earnest deeds well done. This much have 


1 felt impelled to say of Joseph M. ]\Iorrow. I feel exalted that I 
knew him; 1 revere his memory; I rejoice tliat he was my coun- 

Kemarks of G. AV. AVoodard, of LaCrosse county — "^May it 
please your honor: But little can be added in commemoration 
of Judge Joseph ]\Iorrow to what has already been said, but in 
view of my long acquaintance Avith him it is proper for me, in 
l)ehalf of the bar of the county of LaCrosse and of the circuit, to 
join with others in moving the adoption of the memorial which 
has been read. 

"In 1857 I made the acquaintance of ]\Ir. L. AV. Graves, then 
young, but a leader of the bar of this county, in trial work, and 
within a year or two thereafter I met i\Ir. IMorroAV, his student, 
and from that time on we were always firm friends. Among ilie 
elements entering into the early settlement of this part of the 
state, one of the strongest and most potent was the intiuence and 
power of the lawyers who gave tone and character to the bar of 
the circuit and of the state. Among these were Daniel Reid 
"Wheeler, Mr. L. AV. Graves, AVilliam Denison, James I. Lyndes, 
Alonzo Johnson. . Hugh Cameron, Angus Cameron, AVilliam II. 
Tucker, P^dwin Flint and George Gale. These men were then in 
the vigor of their maidiood, Avell equipped for their labors, dili- 
gent and faithful in their duties, and loyal to the principles and 
traditions of their profession. Among such men at the bar of 
this eourt, and contemporaneous with many of them, and as one 
of them ]\Ir. Morrow (then very young) took his place, and for 
many years as a trial lawyer was regarded and recognized as one 
of the ablest and shrewdest who ever practiced in the circuit. 

*'AIr. ]\IorroAv became the legal adviser of many business men 
in this and other connuunitics, and I venture to assert that no 
man ever went from his office with advice to do anything which 
when done would reflect on his lionor and integrity, or on the 
lionor and integrity of the man to whom he gave it. In tlie ]ier- 
formance of his duties as a lawyer he was honest because he 
believed in it. and not because of policy. The spring of success 
in liifi work was the perfect control he exercised over his powers, 
his complete understanding of himself, and his limitations, his 
minute and thorough perception of cause and effect in the art of 
trying cases, and his consummate skill in so presenting his case 
as to hide its defects and make what bore for it conspicuous. He 
tried a case with the ease of second nature, which makes jurors 
and courts oblivious to the effort and skill which can produce 
such effects. lie was successful in his profession because of his 


knowledge of men, liis tact, his honesty to his client, his fairness 
to his opponent, and the impression he made that he fully be- 
lieved, and was sincere in liis belief, that his client should pre- 
vail. He was powerful in his profession and never struck a blow 
without leaving his mark. lie was an acute and sound lawyer. 
He possessed good common sense. His amiable and unassuming 
deportment, and his uniform courtesy made him popular and well 
liked. His kindness and courtesy to all was a part of himself. 
His industry was most untiring, and his zeal in behalf of his 
clients deserving of the highest praise. No man was ever found 
quicker than lie to appreciate merit and to forgive frailty, or 
palliate a defect. It was part of his nature. His impulses were 
sympathetic. His temper was good. 

"After practicing in the county and circuit courts for more 
than thirty years, he was called to the bench by the practically 
unanimous consent of the members of the bar of the circuit. They 
knew him and recognized his merit. He occupied the bench for 
a period of about eighteen months, scarcely time to give him an 
opportunity to show fully what has capabilities as a .judge were, 
but his judgment was clear and calm, and his decisions gave gen- 
eral satisfaction. As judge he bore in mind the doctrine of 
Socrates: 'Three things belong to a judge; to hear courteously, 
consider soberly, and give judgment without partiality.' He was 
a man of his w^ord and kept it absolutely on all occasions. In 
his home he developed that highest of human virtues— self-sacri- 
fice — and his devotion to an invalid Avife was touching and beauti- 
ful. His first and greatest impulse was sympathy. This displayed 
itself in a constant solicitude for the comfort of those around 
him, and in a thousand courtesies adorning his conduct. The 
work of the advocate is not enduring. It too often perishes with 
the occasion. Judge Morrow rests from his labors, l)ut his mem- 
ory will live while the people who knew liim live, and in the 
hearts of those Avho loved him." 

Remarks of D. F. Jones, of Sparta — "May it please the Court : 
AVhile my acquaintance with Judge Morrow does not extend over 
as wide a period as many of his professional brethren, it never- 
theless covers nearly twenty years of time, and was marked with 
some degree of intimacy. Comencing as a law student in his 
office I had unusual opportunity to observe his manners and 
method as a lawyer, his habits as a man, and his standard of pro- 
fessional ethics and conduct ; and thereafter in the active practice 
of the law, in almost daily intercourse, both within and without 
the courtroom, I observed him closely, and he w^as to me a con- 


staiit inspiration and an object of admiration and esteem. Ilis 
natnral ability, his skill as an advocate, and his engaging per- 
sonality ^von him a large clientage and made him easily one of the 
recognized leaders of the Wisconsin bar. For more than a qnarter 
of a century his services were in almost constant demand, covering 
a large field of activity. For many years he -was identified with 
nearly all imi)ortant litigation in the western AVisconsin courts. 
It is speaking within bounds to say that during his long career 
at tiie bar he tried as many, if not more, cases, and tried them as 
well as any attorney within this state. Ilis presence in an action 
was a toAver of strength to his client and often brought hope to 
the despairing, and nerved the arm of the weak. To him life 
was a legal warfare and the courtroom his chosen field of action. 
There, amidst the clash of contending reason, he seemed to find 
his greatest pleasure and made his most enduring fame. 

"Though eminently successful in the conduct of civil actions, 
trying Avith equal facility damage suits for railroad corporations, 
questions involving the complexities of tax title, and simple action 
of replevin for personal property; while apparently engaging 
with equal zest in an argument in the Supreme Court, in a trial 
to a jury in Circuit Court or a general scramble in justice court, 
it was as a criminal lawyer he made his greatest reputation. In 
the practice of the criminal law his triumphs were many, and 
there his greatest victories Avere won. 

■"While it could not be said of him, as AYendcll i'liillips once 
remarked of Rufus Choate, 'that the murderer, as he sharpened 
his knife for the fatal blow, first paused to inquire for the health 
of Rufus Choate,' yet it may be said that many an unfortunate 
malefactor trembling Avithin the shadoAV of the penitentiary 
turned to him for helj) and found succor in the hour of need. 
Paradoxical as it may seem, hoAvever, even as a criminal laAvyer, 
his reputation rests not so nuich upon the cases he Avon as the 
cases he lost. And for the same reason, doubtless, given by Jus- 
tice Ryan to Judge Dixon, in ansAver always sought the highest 
order of talent. To my mind his principal characteristics Avere 
fertility of resources, tenacity of purpose, unfailing good nature, 
and abounding common sense. Though not learned in the bnv. 
in the sense of the great jurists of the past, and not gifted Avith 
the charm of eloquence that Avarps the judgment, ravishes the 
ear, he nevertheless possessed a knoAvledge of legal principles, an 
intuitive sense of equity, and a mastery of the practice and pro- 
cedure, born of his enormous experience in the court, that 
frequently extricated him from desperate situations and snatched 


victory from the very jaws of defeat. And as he marshalled his 
reasons and massed his argument, he sometimes seemed over- 
poweringly eloquent to the opposing counsel in the case. 

"His tenacity in the trial of a case is a matter of common 
knowledge to us all. I can almost see him now, I can almost 
catch the echo of his voice as he stood before the jury, pleading 
for the righteousness of his cause. And when he appealed to the 
court for the exercise of its discretion, or contended for a de- 
batable principle of law, he reminded one of Jacob wrestling with 
the angel, refusing to let go until he had received the blessing. 
He evidently proceeded upon the theory that courts, like the 
kingdom of heaven, were sometimes taken bj^ violence. 

"His serene good nature impressed everyone with whom he 
came in contact. It was the same qualitj^ that endeared Lincoln 
to the people and was the predominant trait of his character. 
With charity toward all and malice toward none, he seemed to 
regard the faults and foibles of his associates with good-natured 
tolerance, and to pity even while he condemned. His heart was 
void of envy and hate. We can all recall instances in the trial 
of cases when the relation between counsel and court was strained 
to the point of breaking, and the atmosphere of the courtroom sur- 
charged with threatening storms, how by a timely word, a ges- 
ture, or a quick repartee, he cleared the air and scattered all ill 
feeling in a general laugh. Many times have I heard him say that 
he gave his client his skill and experience, but he gave no man his 
personal feelings. This principle governed his conduct. His 
quarrels he left in the courtroom, while his friendship he carried 
with him everywhere. And thus it happened that when he died 
his professional brethren felt a sense of personal loss and mourned 
his death with unfeigned sorrow. 

"To some men are given talent, to others genius, but to few is 
given the saving grace of common sense. This he possessed in 
an uncommon measure. It marked his words and actions, and 
gave him broadness of mind and catholicity of spirit. This 
quality was impressed upon his work as a lawyer, and every case 
initiated and prosecuted by himself was sure to have elements 
of merit in law or in fact. It left its mark upon his administra- 
tion as district attorney of this county, an office he held so many 
years, and his sound judgment made him not only an ideal prose- 
cuting officer, but the trusted advisor of the county board. It is 
no disparagement of others to say that his conduct of this office 
is the standard whereby the people may measure the excellence 
of his successors and ascertain their worth. This same equality 


stamped his brief career upon tlic bench, and had lie coiitiimed 
to enjoy its honors, there is littk' d()id)t that his distinction as a 
jurist would have rivaknl his fame as an advocate at the bar. 

"But he Avas not alone a lawyer. The same qualities that gave 
his success at the bar made him a conspicuous figure in the field 
of politics, and for many years he was hioh in the councils of his 
party. lie was honored Avith the nomination for attorney general, 
was chairman of its state conventions, and collector of internal 
revenue. And it is safe to say lliat had his lot been cast with 
the dominant political party he wonh! have graced the halls of 
congress and left the impress of his ability upon our national life. 
As a citizen his life was worthy of emulation. He felt the duties 
and responsibilities of citizenship, and had a keen sense of civic 
pride. In all public enterprises making toward the betterment of 
the people and the progress of his city, county and state, he made 
his intiuence felt. He served the village as its president, and 
gave seven years of his time to the schools as a member of the 
board. He was not above holding the office of supervisor of his 
ward, and at times sat upon the county board as one of its trusted 
members. And to his influence in a measure is due the beautiful 
edifice wherein we connnemorate his virtues this day. 

"In this city and county he had passed his life and among 
his own peo])le he passed away. His name was known to all its 
people, and by all he was well 1)eloved. His form was a familiar 
iigure on the streets, and when his death was announced it came 
as a shock and moistened many a cheek with tears. The com- 
munity was in mourning, his family in tears, and the shadow of 
death settled over all like a pall. For of him, as of another 3,000 
years ago, could it be said, 'There was sore lamentation for a 
great man had fallen in our midst that day.' 

"The Persian writer Laasi tells the story of three sages — a 
Greek, an Indian, and a Persian — Avho once discussed before the 
Persian monarch, the (juestion, 'Of all the evils incident to hu- 
manity, which is the greatest?' The Greek answered, 'Old age. 
o])pressed with poverty.' The Indian said, 'Pain without con- 
tentment,' while the Persian answered, bowing low, 'The greatest 
evil I can imagine, youi- majesty, is tiie couch of death without 
one gooil deed of life to light the dai'ksome way.' None of these 
evils were incident in his life. His age was not oppressed Avith 
poverty. He was not afflicted with jiain and discontent. And 
knowing him as we do, we may confidently l)elieve that the many 
noble deeds of his life, unrecorded and nidvUOAvn, made luminous 


his path, even in the darkness of the valley of the shadow of 
death, through which he made his solitary way." 

Remarks by Judge 0. B. AVyman: "In the death of the late 
Judge Joseph M. ^Morrow the profession has lost a learned, a 
skillful, a successful and an honest lawyer; the people have lost 
a prominent citizen and a safe counsellor and an able advocate ; 
this beautiful city, that he delighted to call his home, whose 
streets lie traveled for the greater part of his active life, and 
whose people he loved and served so well, has lost a warm friend, 
his neighbors have lost a genial associate, an enterprising and 
leading citizen ; his family has lost a kind and devoted husband 
and loving and "considerate father; this court has lost one of its 
prominent practitioners at the bar of justice, an attorney of 
recognized ability and integrity, possessed of extended experi- 
ence and of acute legal knowledge and perception, and the senti- 
ments expressed in the memorial presented and in the eulogies 
pronounced by the gentlemen who have just spoken of his char- 
acter, life and memory are endorsed by the court. From a pro- 
fessional as well as from the popular standpoint, he was a suc- 
cessful laAvyer. 

"The masses usually judge of a lawyer's capability from his 
ability to make a pleasing address to court and jury, or from his 
readiness at retort in the trial of cases in the forum of justice. 
The members of our profession judge of a lawyer's ability not 
from his use of language alone, but from his knowledge of the 
law, the great system of jurisprudence that has grown through 
the centuries past, formed in part from long-established custom 
and usage, in part from legislative exactments and in part from 
judicial decisions, for the purpose of guarding and securing the 
protection of life and property to all the citizens of the common- 

"The profession judge of a lawyer's ability from his knowl- 
edge of the intricate rules and precedents of this system by which 
individual rights are maintained, and wrongs are redressed by 
his ability to draw correct pleadings, to make briefs, and to prop- 
erly prepare for the trial of his case, his ability to examine wit- 
nesses and direct the testimony towards the controlling issues 
which determine the decision of the ease at the trial, by his 
ability to eliminate from his pleadings, and from the testimony, 
the irrelevant and unimportant elements, and to clearly state and 
make prominent only the essential facts which pertain to the 
cause of action or to the defense, by his ability to concentrate his 


mind, his mental strength and vigor upon the case in hand, so 
that his client may never sutfer from inadvertance or failure to 
fully protect his legal rights, by his abilit}'^ to advise his client 
fully and properly before he engages in litigation, as to his legal 
riglits and the proper course to secure the same. 

"From all these considerations, as well as the ability of the 
lawyer to make a pleasing address, is he judged by the members 
of his profession in considering the question of his qualifications, 
al)ility and success as a practicing attorney, and from all these 
standpoints it can truly be said that the late Judge Morrow was 
a capable and successful lawyer. It is a matter of common ex- 
perience with all attorneys that they do not gain all the cases 
witli which they are connected. In their contention for their 
client's cause they may sometimes censure courts and juries when 
the decision is adverse, still no client has just cause for complaint 
towards his counsel, when he has done his full duty in the man- 
agement of the client's case. 

"In Judge ]\Iorrow's extended career as a practicing attorney 
he did not always succeed in gaining his client's contention. 
Sometimes a client after the trial had ended would have to hear 
the bars of the prison door grate behind him, and be shut in from 
freedom of life for a term of years. But such unfortunate clients 
had the satisfaction of knowing that all legal and honoralile 
means had been employed for his defense during the trial as 
conducted by industrious, competent and efficient counsel. 

"Sometimes in the defense of civil actions after the legal pro- 
ceedings were ended, a judgment for damages would be entered 
against the client for a legal liability shown to exist between the 
parties, but in such cases the client, if intelligent and fair- 
minded, wellknew that the cause had been ably defended with 
legal talent and ability of high rank during the litigation of the 
case and that the facts and law entitled the recovery against him. 
In the practice of his profession numy legal A'ictories were won 
by liis untiring industry, his knoAvledge of the law and his wide 
and extended experience in the trial of cases. 

"lie was ever known to be faithful to Iiis client's cause, 
faithful 1o his client in the office as counselor, faithful to his 
client and to the court during the trial of the ease, faithful in 
ni^holding the dignity nnd high standing of the profession of the 
law. ITo was successful in winning many a legal contest when 
ojiposed l)y able and eminent counsel, as the court records, the 
trial courts and our Supreme Court fully shoAV. From a profes- 
sional point of view, he was truly a successful attorney. He is 


known to the legal profession and to the entire people oi his ex- 
tended acquaintance, not only to have been a skilled and success- 
ful pvacticing attorney, but he is known to have possessed the 
judicial temperament, the legal knowledge and ripe experience 
which, combined, eminently fitted and qualified him to preside 
over the court of this circuit to the general satisfaction of the 
entire bar. 

"He was quick to grasp the controverted points in issue in the 
trial of causes as a judicial officer. He was ever kind, courteous 
and attentive to counsel at the trial of cases during his term 
upon the bench, and was ever governed by that high sense of 
honor and fair dealing that marked his career as a lawyer at the 
bar. He preserved and maintained the dignity and high standing 
that the court has theretofore long sustained, during the terms of 
his eminent predecessors upon the bench. He was an honest, con- 
scientious, impartial and worthy judge. He possessed and culti- 
vated the qualities of integrity and industry in the study and 
practice of his profession, cfualities which, more than any others, 
marked his success as an attorney at the bar and a judicial officer. 
It is a mistaken idea, sometimes entertained, that lawyers suc- 
ceed by tricks and artifice in the practice of their profession. 

"The truly successful lawyer is as high above such devising 
schemes as the noonday sun is high above the horizon. Judge 
Morrow's marked success in the profession was gained by his 
continued practice of fair legal methods, by honest, upright deal- 
ings with his clients, with opposing counsel, and with the court. 
Such was liis character, and be has left the rich heritage of an 
honorable career in the practice of his profession, extending to 
the day of his death over a third of a century in the courts of 
this state. 

"In his family — ever kind and attentive to a loving wife and 
an atfectionate daughter. In the church of his choice — a frecpient 
attendant and attentive member and a liberal supporter. In the 
city of his chosen home — always among the leaders in advancing 
popular education, joublic interests and public improvements. He 
was public spirited on all occasions. He w^atched with pride the 
erection of this beautiful courthouse. With others, advised with 
the authorities having the same in charge, and on its completion 
was master of ceremonies at the formal opening. 

"In reply to a remark made to him concerning the substan- 
tial manner in which the building was built with fireproof vaults, 
complete in all their parts and of sufficient capacity to safely 
keep the records of the county for years to come, he said: 'Yes, 


this ])nil(lin«r will outlive us all.' The statement is likely true, 
but "\ve little thontjht then that in so short a time he would be 
stricken down by the angel of death in the strength of his mature 

"lie was ever kind and eonsiderati' lowards the unfortunate 
and his liand was often opened towards the relief of distress. 
Ilis neighbors and friends in tlie eomnuinity Avhere hi- lived, llic 
stranger whom he chanced to meet in the pathway of life, all 
learned to admin> and esteem him foi- his genial social qualities, 
his kindly good nature, his sympathy for distress and his good- 
ness of heart as a citizen. He will long bo missed by his many 
friends — there will be a vacant chair at the sessions of this court 
— and in honor of his memory we here commemorate. 

"It is ordered that the memorial presented by the connnittee 
of the bar be approved and spread ui)on the records of the court. 
The clerk is requested to present a copj^ of the same to the family 
of the deceased and to the local press for publication. Further 
ordered that court be now adjourned in respect to the memory of 
the late Judge Joseph 'M. ]\forrow." 


Judge Bunn Avas born in Otsego county. New York September 
24, 1829. He studied law at Elliottville, New York and was 
admitted to the bar at that i)lace in 1853. He w^as married in 1854 
to Sarah Purely, of Rome, Ncav York, and came to AVisconsin in 
September of the same year. 

He stopped for a few months in the very small new town of 
Sparta, going from there to Trempeleau county Avhere he entered 
a quarter section of government land. After living on this claim 
six months he moved to Galesville, then the county seat. He was 
elected mend)er of assembly for Trempeleau county in 1850. 

In 1861 he formed a law partnership with Carlton E. Rice, an 
old New York friend. He Avas soon after elected district attorney 
for Slonroe county, lii 1868 he was elected Circuit «Tudge of the 
then Sixth Judicial Ciiciut. comprising the counties of ]Monroe, 
La Crosse, Jackson, Clark, Trempeleau. Buffalo and Vernon, be- 
ing re-elected in 1874 by unanimous endorsements of the bar of 
the district. This i)osition he held until 1877 when he was ap- 
pointed United States District Judge for the AVestern District of 
AVisconsin, succeeding Janu's C. Hopkins, who died September 8, 
of that year. He held this position for almost thirty years, retir- 
ing January 6, 1005, at the age of seventy-five. During this time 
a vast amount of important litigation came before him, both in 


his position of district judge and also as associate justice of the 
Court of Appeals; his duties in the latter position taking up a 
considerable portion of his time. 

Judge Bunn took a leading position among the federal judges 
of the country. He occupied the bench during the period when 
federal jurisprudence was developing, and new and important 
questions were constantly coming up for decision. His opinions 
have been widely quoted and followed by the courts of other 
circuits, and successful appeals were taken from but a small 
number of his decisions. In the court room he was quick and 
decisive in his rulings, grasping the true point at issue and giving 
his decisions on that point alone. At the time of his retirement 
from the bench. Judge Francis E. Baker of the Court of Appeals 
said of him: — "He has shown the patience to hear with fulness 
and impartiality and the comprehension to understand the issues 
in all their bearings and the wisdom to find the right and the un- 
faltering honesty to declare and enforce it — not the common 
honesty that may have regard for what is the best policy, but the 
fearless honesty 'that dares to be knowingly nnpolitic — these, 
I take it, are the attributes of a great and just judge." 

Judge Bunn was for several years professor of federal juris- 
prudence in the law school of the University of Wisconsin, and 
for two years was special lecturer on the same subject in the 
law department of Northwestern University at Evanston, 111. He 
was a member of the Madison Literary Club, and frequently con- 
tributed to its programs. He was a lover of the English classics 
and a remarkably strong Shakespearian scholar. 

His death occurred at his home in jNIadison, AYis., on the 
twenty-fifth of January, 1909, in the eightieth year of his age. 



It took a good many years of experience and the efforts of some 
farmers more progressive than others of the general run to l)ring 
to the fore, as a commercial proposition, the dairying industry. 
Cattle, almost from the earliest settlement down to within the last 
fifteen years, were raised mostly for beef, with occasionally a 
"cheese factory" which would spring up and flourish for a time 
and then quit business, for the well developed farming of the East 
could more than successfully compete with the ^Middle West in 
"cream cheese;" every farmer who kept cows, made more or 
less dairy butter, usually a department presided over by the good 
wife, who presided at the churn and had her regular days for 
turning out butter for the market ; but with the development of 
this section and the steady increase in population of villages and 
cities came the demand "more butter;" and with this demand 
from the markets developed the raising of better cattle, the 
establishment of creameries and the application of scientific 
modern methods to the making and marketing of butter. 

]\Ionroe county farmers have more than kept ]iace with other 
sections of the state, and the very profitable dairy induslry has 
been highly developed in almost all parts of the country ; farmers 
are and have been studying the breeds of dairy rattle; they 
send their sons to the university, some of them taking the short 
and some the long course in agriculture, and come out fitted to 
manage stock farms successfully. There are one or two associa- 
tions of men Avho breed a certain kind of dairy cattle, and stock 
farms Avith modern sanitary barns and apparatus for handling 
milk and cream are Fountl in every toAvnship; and not only that, 
but nearly every township has its creamery, generally a cooper- 
ative concern, owned and operated by the farmers in its vicinity, 
where butter fat is innicd into cash with scientific regularity, 
and from this oik> industry alone has come a great increase in 
land values all over the county. 

The early eflforts in this line were isolated in different sections 
.Tud no record is available of the amount of money invested in 
this great industry and its results, and not until 1908 was there 


if' t ■ '• ^ 





any system in use for collecting information on the subject, but 
since that time the county clerk of each county is required by 
law to get certain information as to general agricultural matters 
and dairying and these reports for Monroe county are given in 
detail in this chapter. They show also an astonishing amount of 
progress in general farming lines and exhibit a most satisfactory 
condition, one which is alluring to the invester in farm lands, 
for beyond a question this county is rich in lands suitable for 
dairying and diversified farming and is fast developing into one 
of the richest counties in this great state, offering many opportu- 
nities to the farmer of pluck, intelligence and perseverance. 

One glance at the foUoAving tables tells of progress and profit. 
For the year ending April 30, 1911, it will be seen that the total 
amount received from the dairy business alone was the enormous 
sum of $1,071,086.52 ; over a million dollars in cash. With eight- 
een creameries, Avorth nearly $50,000, in operation the year 
around, using the product of 25,871 cows, a record is made that 
established the county well to the front in this industry in com- 
parison with other counties of the state. 

Following are given the official tables covering this industry 
and farm products and property generally for each year, begin- 
ning with 1908: 



1908— Number of creameries, 19 ; value, $39,950 ; number of 
patrons, 2,817 ; number of cows, 24,407 ; number of pounds of 
milk received during the year, 18,424,772; cream, 12,992,607; 
luunber of pounds of butter or cheese made of condensed milk 
produced during the year, 3,655,615 ; number of cheese factories, 
2; value, $800; number of patrons, 33; number of cows, 460; 
number of pounds of milk received, 1,504,500 ; number of pounds 
of butter or cheese made, 14,000. Amount of money received for 
products sold during the year, $1,020,207.68 from creameries, and 
from cheese factories, $1,350. Number of pounds made on farms, 
butter, 60,800; value, $12,612; number of gallons sold other than 
that sold to creameries, cheese factories and milk condensing 
factories, 2,000. 

1909 — Number of creameries, 19 ; value, $48,331 ; number of 
patrons, 2,546 ; number of cows, $23,840 ; number of pounds of 
milk received during the year, 12,261,492. Cream, 12,330,556; 
number of pounds of butter or cheese made during the year, 
4,188,145. The amount of money received for products sold dur- 
ing the year, $1,090,695.08. Number of cheese factories, 1 ; value, 


.$500; number of patrons, 1(1: nunilx'r of cows, 180; number of 
pounds of milk, 523,099 ; number pounds of butter or clieese, 
47,000. Amount of money received, $4,067.92; number of pounds 
of butter nuide on farm, 39,303; value, $8,379.40. Number of 
gallons sold other than that sold to creameries, cheese factories 
and milk condensing factories. 259,901. 

1910 — Xundjer of creameries, 19; value, $42,590; numlxT of 
patrons, 2.483 ; number of cows, 23,820 ; number of pounds of 
milk, 10,964,774. Cream, 7,581,792; number of pounds of butter 
or cheese made or condensed milk produced, 3,518,668. The 
amount of money received during the year, $959,763.19. Number 
of pounds of butter made on the farm, 86,350. Value, $22,274. 
Number of gallons other than that sold to creameries, cheese 
factories and milk condensing factories, 18,650. 

1911 — Number of creameries, 18; value. $46,795; number of 
patrons, 2.791 ; number of cows. 25,871 ; number of pounds of 
milk, 8,846,256. Cream, 27,819,573 ; number of pounds of butter. 
3,728,634. Amount of money received for products sold during 
the year, $1,071,086.52. Number of ])()unds of butter made on 
farms, 20,929; value, $5,068.50; number of gallons sold other 
than sold to creameries, cheese factories and milk condensing 
factories, 2,931. 



Number of bushels— AVheat, 43,862; corn. 463,275; oats. 1.028,- 
704; barley, 170,809; rye, 51.893; tiax seed, 62; potatoes. 192,447; 
beans 66; cranberries, 6,587; apples, 15,319; strawberries, 21.051; 
raspberries, 2,744; blackberries, 3,868; currants. 15; grapes. 192; 
clover seed, 507; timothy seed, 91. 

Xuiuhei' of tons — Sugar beets, 183; hay. 54.205. 

Xumbcr of pounds — Tobacco. 648.8()9 ; hops, 300. 

Acres hai-vested for seed — Clover, 264. 


Xuiiilx-r of bushels — AVheat. 4ti.527 : corn. 512,469; oats. 
1,153,803: barley. 263.475; rye, 50,397; flax seed, 180; potatoes, 
167.109; beans, 233; cranl)erries, 2.989; apples, 10,789; straw- 
berries, 19,840; raspberries, 2,043; blackberries, 3,396; currants, 
2; grapes, 1.540; clover seed. 4,963; timothy seed, 308. 

Xumbcr of tons — Sugar beets, 310; hay, 65,726. 

Xumber of i)ounds — Tobacco, 555.700. 

Acres harvested for seed — Clover, 3,004; timothy, 126. 




Number of bushels— Wheat, 50,727; corn, 394,988; oats, 1,397,- 
192; barley, 333,888; rye, 57,899; flax seed, 360; potatoes, 230,238; 
beans, 88; cranberries, 12,845; apples, 42,583; strawberries, 16,- 
051; raspberries 1,915; blackberries, 4,031; currants, 16; grapes, 
26; clover seed, 1,762; timothy seed, 186. 

Number of tons — Sugar beets, 347 ; hay, 64,386. 

Number of pounds — Tobacco, 519,700. 


Number of bushels — AVheat, 55,619 ; corn, 458,482 ; oats, 
791,673; barley, 186,777; rye, 64,566; flax seed, 145; potatoes, 
263,429; beans, 748; cranberries, 4,905; apples, 326; strawberries, 
6,652; raspberries 520; blackberries 1,109; grapes, 1; clover 
seed, 881 ; timothy seed, 3. 

Number of tons — Sugar beets, 82 ; hay, 33,450 ; cabbages, 2. 

Number of pounds — Tobacco, 203,260. 




Number of acres— Wheat, 3,036; corn, 22,795; oats, 42,987; 
barley, 9,720 ; rye, 5,056 ; flax seed, 117 ; potatoes, 2,165 ; sugar 
beets, 50 ; cranberries, 92 ; apple orchard, 555 ; strawberries, 334 ; 
raspberries, 58 ; blackberries, 369 ; grapes, 4 ; hops, 4 ; tobacco, 
227 ; hay, 44,857 ; growing timber, 68,691 ; number of growing 
apple trees, 21,035. 

Number and value of livestock — IMilch cows 22,010, value 
$483,505; all other cattle 16,139, value .$151,592; horses of all 
ages 9,343, value $627,369 ; sheep and lambs 13,251, value $39,- 
495; swine four months old or over 11,387, value $55,007. 


Number of acres— AVheat, 2,906; corn, 21,557; oats, 45,092; 
barley, 13,154; rye, 5,166; flax seed, 83; potatoes, 2,604; sugar 
beets, 62; beans, 13; cranberries, 153; apple orchard, 591; straw- 
berries, 334; raspberries, 63; blackberies, 76; grapes, 8; flax seed, 
3; Tobacco, 244; hay, 46,172; growing timber, 77,605; number 
of growing apple trees, 22,044. 

Number and value of livestock — Alilch cows 22,164, value 
$483,076; all other cattle 16,883, value $190,939; horses of all 


ages ] 0.065, valuo ij^711,671 ; sheep and lambs 14,222, value $50,- 
070; swine four uioiitlis old or over 8,190, value $52,327. 


Nuiulier of acres — AVlieat, 3,98G; corn, 22,464; oats, 47,lti7; 
barley, 10,751; rye, 6,878; flax seed, 15; potatoes, 2,573; sugar 
beets, 34; cranberries, 149; apple orchard, 685; strawberries, 692; 
raspberries, 72; blackberries, 70; grapes, 2; flax, 20; tobacco, 153; 
grasses cultivated for hay, 43,328; growing timber, 82,892; num- 
ber of growing api)le trees, 28,303. 

Number and y;\]\u' of livestock — Milch cows 23,752, value 
$555,229; all other cattle 16,307, value $190,273; horses of all 
ages 9,96], value $721,956; sheep and lambs 11,603, value $54,782; 
swine four months old or over 8,217, value $79,172. 


Number of acres — Wheat, 5,074; corn, 27,584; oats, 45.820; 
barley, 10,656; rye, 11,608; flax seed, 23; potatoes, 2,495; sugar 
beets, 10; beans, 182; cranberries, 110; apple orchard, 696; 
straw'berries, 448; raspberries, 76; blackberries, 90; grapes, 5; 
tobacco, 270; grasses cultivated for hay, 41,562; growing timber, 
89,678; number of apple trees, 33,680. 

Acres harvested for seed — Clover, 564. 

Number and value of livestock — ]\Iilch cows 22,7] 1, value 
$524,861 ; all other cattle 14,178, value $165,265 ; horses of all ages 
10,366, value $803,882; sheep and lambs 10,559. value $34,074; 
swine four months old or over 8,815, value $61,203. 


A great many years ago attempts were made in some portions 
of the county to raise apples with some measure of success, but 
the farmers of that period did not have the advantage which 
those of this day have in the benefit of scientific learning and 
instruction from the Agricultural college in connection with the 
University, which has investigated all sorts of subjects which 
are related to agriculture in any way, and a great deal of atten- 
tion has been paid to the subject of apple raising, and as to 
whether or not the soil and climate conditions in this part of 
the state will permit of apples being raised on a large scale. In 
the earlier days alluded to, occasionally was found a small 
orchard which was planted by some farmer and just allowed to 
grow without any particular attention, except that in some 
instances the science of grafting was gone into when, perhaps, 
some man who has been familiar with the growing of apples in 
some eastern state knew the method of grafting apple trees; 
but that in no locality in the county was a determined effort made 
to raise apples as a commercial proposition, although many 
varieties were in fact raised of good quality and flavor, but with 
the lack of attention these little orchards gradually went into- 
decay and the trees died off, more for the want of proper care 
and attention than on account of any conditions in the soil or 

With the awakening all along the line in agricultural subjects 
has come a movement in this county in the last few years to 
experiment with the growing of apple orchards, and with the 
great assistance which has been rendered by the agricultural 
department of the University, and also the officials of the State 
Horticultural Society, we are able in this chapter to record the 
result of experiments which prove beyond any cpiestion that 
within the limits of ^lonroe county there is just as good fruit 
lands as can be found anywhere in the United States for the rais- 
ing of certain varieties of apples. The authorities of the Uni- 
versity and of the Horticulture Society had their attention called 
a year or two ago to the orchard maintained by Mr. Fred Mueh- 
lenkamp upon his farm in the town of Wells, where this gentle- 



man has seven acres of as fine apple trees as can be found 
anywhere. Some of the trees in this orchard were more than 
thirty years okl and it originally was a small orchard, planted 
just as farmers iilaiited twenty or thirty years ago; but for 
many years Mr. Muehlenkamp has made a study of the problem 
of fruit culture, paying particular attention to the raising of 
varieties of apples best adapted for profitable culture in this 
climate, and he is today a recognized authority on this subject. 
Particularly so with regard to tree grafting, and the result of 
his study and experiments are shown in his orchard, where there 
are many trees bearing more than one kind of apples, and some 
producing four or five different varieties. 

Working in conjunction with the ofiRcers of the State Horti- 
cultural Society this veteran apple grower opened his home. 
Avhich, by the Avay, is a fine brick mansion, upon his farm and 
invited all who desired to come to attend a field day fruit dem- 
onstration and meeting at his farm on August 23, 1911. Secre- 
tary Cranefield, of the State Horticultural Society, was present, 
together with D. E. Bingham, president of the socity; \V. II. 
Hanchett, of Angel o, and a commission merchant by the name of 
Merrill, of Chicago, were present, together with about two hun- 
dred people from a number of different towns in the county. At 
this meeting addresses were delivered by the gentlemen named 
and by ]\Ir. IMuehlenkamp, and it was demonstrated not only ])y 
tile orchard upon this farm, but in the addresses delivered at 
the meeting that there were no better lands and no better condi- 
tions anywhere in the United States for successful cultivation 
of apples than exist in Monroe county, especially on the ridge 
lands, which are well adapted for that purpose. It was shown 
that an average orchard ten years old, which is properly culti- 
vated and cared for, could be depended upon to yield an annual 
income of $250 per acre, which is better than can be done with 
iuiy ordinary crop at this time. 

It is generally agreed that the most profitable varieties of 
apples to grow in this county were the jMc^Mann, Northwestern 
Greenings, AVealtiiy. Salome and IMalinda; and as a matter of fact 
it had ])vvn shown that winter apjiles could be raised in this 
county and in various othei' poitions of the state at ]ii-ici's Avhich 
would more than successfully (•omi)ete with the New York 
apjih's. This meeting gave to this industry a standing which 
was to the great satisfaction of those who were present, and 
U7idnubtedly tlie future will see good results from it. As the 
cominereial advantage of having an orchard of several acres 


properly cared for is so evident that the farmers, in the ridge 
country especially, will undoubtedly, in the future, give special 
attention to this branch of horticulture. 

If anything else was needed to complete the demonstration 
and to establish beyond any question that apple growing in 
Monroe county can be successfully accomplished, and not only 
apples, but grapes, plums and cherries, it has been most con- 
clusively furnished in the results accomplished by J. "W. Leverich 
at his fruit farm in the town of Angelo. ]\Ir. Leverich, who now 
is acknowledged one of the authorities on small fruits, started 
in 1904 an experimental orchard of five acres, which he planted 
in May of that year. In order to demonstrate to his own satis- 
faction whether these fruits, apples, grapes and cherries could 
be successfully raised if handled scientifically, his trees were 
selected with the greatest care and planted upon a piece of land 
which was carefully selected for the purpose, and his long expe- 
rience in small fruit raising gave him the knowledge necessary 
to select the particular land which he did for this orchard. The 
tract is protected on the north and west by growing timber from 
the winds ; to the south and east are hills which protect the trees 
from wind blowing from that direction. There are sixteen rows 
of fruit trees and two rows of grapes. The trees are set twenty- 
two in a row, and the two row^s of grapes about four hundred feet 
in length each, in which there are seven distinct varieties. 

At the time of setting this five-acre tract into an orchard in 
the spring of 1904, Mr. Leverich placed between the rows of 
trees either raspberries, red raspberries or blackberry brush. 
These berry brush have been thoroughly cultivated and cared 
for, as the trees and vines of the orchard were, and as a conse- 
quence there has been a crop of berries each year commencing 
with 1905. In 1906 the first returns from the orchard proper 
were secured, being ten baskets of grapes. The plum trees com- 
menced bearing in 1907, and the apples in 1908, while the first 
cherries were secured in 1911, and it is the opinion of IMr. Lev- 
erich that this locality in the town of Angelo is not adopted to 
the culture of cherries. But his experiment has demonstrated 
beyond a doubt that the valley soil of Monroe county, as well as 
the ridges, is suitable and just as well adapted naturally for the 
culture of fruits as the ridge lands. It only needs the intelli- 
gence, industry and perseverance, which are, of course, all 
necessary in an industry of this character to put into a paying 
proposition an orchard bearing apples, plums and grapes. During 
the fall season of 1911 IMr. Leverich exhibited in one or two store 


windows in tlie city of Sparta baskets containing the varieties of 
fruit and grapes raised in this orchard, and they made a tempting 
picture, indeed, and we here have tlie record which was kept by 
him from the time beginning with the ])hinting of the orchard 
up until the market of 1911, showing in detail the number of 
l)askets, eases or bushels, as the case may be, of fruit Avhich was 
raised upon this five-acre tract of land from ]\Ia.v. 1004, up lo 
and including the crop of 1911, giving tlie total amount realized 
upon the entire tract : 


am. 24 cases. Jj^l.i:) per case, $28.50; 190(), 152 cases. .^1.47 per 
ease, $223.44; 1907, 207 cases, ^l.Gl per case, $405.69; 1908, 288 
cases, $1.59 per case, $557.92; 1909, 239 cases, $1.54 per case, 
$368.06; 1910, 124 cases, $1.93 per case, $239.32; 1911, 155 cases, 
$1.64 per case, $254.20. Total, 1,190 cases; total, $2,077.19. 


1905, 54 cases. $1.21 per ease, $65.34; 1906, 421 cases, $1.46 
per ease, $614.66; 1907, 305 cases, $1.60 per case, $488; 1908, 235 
cases, $1.89 per case, $445.25; 1909, 145 cases, $2.05 per case. 
$297.25; 1910, 76 cases, $1.95 per case, $148.20; 1911, 111 cases, 
$1.56 per case, $173.16. Total. 1.342 cases: total, $2,231.86. 


1905, 10 cases, $1.21 per case, $12.10; 1906, 154 cases, $1.47 
per case, $226.38; 1907. 125 cases, $1.68 per case, $200; 1908, 215 
cases, $1.75 per case, $376.25; 1904, 54 cases, $1.85 per case, 
$99.90; 1910, 10 cases, $1.98 per case, $19.80. Total, 568 cases; 
total, $934.43. 


1906, 10 baskets; 1:)()7. 100 l)askets; 1908, 200 baskets: 1909, 
20 baskets; 1910, 10 baskets; 1911, 175 baskets. Total, 505 
baskets, at 25c per basket, $126.25. 

Cherries — 20 cases, $1.50 per case, $30. 

Apples— 1908, 5 bushels; 1909, 10 bushels; 1911, 75 bushels. 
Total, 90 bushels, at 75c per bushel, $67.50. 

IMums— 1907, 5 cases; 1908, 30 cases; 1909. 50 cases: 1911, 
130 cases. Total, 215 cases, $1.25 per case. $268.75. Plants sold, 
$500. Grand total of all sales, $6,235.98. 

These figures are for cases of 24 jnnts each of l)lackl)erries 
and l)hick and red raspberries, and 16 quarts of plums and 


This tract being largely in the nature of an experimental 
orchard, ^Ir. Leverich has set in a greater variety of trees than 
he probably would have if he was to now set it out with the 
knowledge he now possesses after seven years of experimenting. 
Some of the varieties have done better than others, but it is not 
the object of this article to specifj^ particularly in regard to that, 
but to tell of the orchard as we found it. It consists of the fol- 
lowing trees, vines and berry brush : 

Apples — 88 Northwestern Greening, 44 Wealthy, 11 Tolman 
Sweet, 11 Mcintosh Red, 11 Milwaukee, 11 Wolf River, 11 Scott's 
Winter, 11 Longfield, 11 Patten's Greening, 11 McMahan. 11 
Duchess, 11 Plumb Cider. 

Plums— 22 Wyant. 22 Cheney,. 1 Grittlewood, 11 Surprise, 11 
Hawkey e, 11 Forest Garden, 11 DeSoto. 

Cherries — 11 Early Richmond. Total number of trees set, 

Grapes — 20 Moore's Early, 10 Campbell's Early, 10 Brighton. 
10 Concord, 10 Moore's Diamond, 10 AVorden, 10 Wilder. 

Berries — 1,584 Eldorado blackberries, 2,575 Gregg black rasp- 
berries, 1,957 Cuthbert and Marlboro red raspberries. Total, 

The handsome returns of over $6,000 upon five acres of land 
certainly places this industry upon the footing with the lands 
anywhere, as those in Oregon and AYashington, which sell as 
high as $2,000 per acre. The ciuestion arises as to how a person 
contemplating fruit growing should get anything out of his young 
orchard before it begins to bear apples, and the answer is here 
given most definite and positively, for between the rows of trees 
were raised bush berries to the value of $207.86 per acre, showing 
that the income begins almost at once wdth the very first year's 
planting by using the space between the rows, which should 
always be done for producing an income. 

AVhile at the time of the publication of this work this industry 
has not begun to develop to a great extent, there is no cpiestion 
but that this county is capable of supporting more than double 
its population, and that fruit raising and intensified farming 
will be in effect during the next decade, and will double and 
treble the varieties of fruit, and any farmer properly located who 
will study the question of apple growing will, undoubtedly, make 
it a success. But success will only come with study and the use 
of intelligent methods. Let us hope that the future generations 
may see Monroe county one of the garden spots of this country, 
rich in its products of apples, plums, grapes and other fruits. 



Wliilo the title '"War" may seem perhaps a little harsh, it is 
used in the sense that it is commonly used today to designate a 
contest or a struggle for supremacy; for all along the years, ever 
since the county was first organized, we timl running through 
the proceedings of the county board, cropping out at intervals, 
the disposition on the part of different portions of the county 
to remove the county seat from Sparta, and the disposition on 
the part of the inhabitants on the eastern side of the county, par- 
ticularly, to use every means in their power legitimately to have 
the county government located at Tomah. This has been a cause 
of more or less bitterness between the tAvo cities, but this finally 
has been allayed to a great extent during the last few years as 
the establishment of permanent buildings has almost made it out 
of the question that any move of the kind would now be con- 
sidered. But it has been purely from a sense of loyalty to tlie 
home location and to the interests of the home town that this 
spirit has been manifested. This is entirely right and proper and 
has furnished a good many exciting incidents, both in and out of 
the sessions of the county board, at various times. It Avas mani- 
fested at the very outset in the organization of the county. 
AVhile the bill was pending before the Legislature the citizens of 
Leon, which was then quite a little settlement, endeavored to 
have the county seat estal)lished there in the act wliioh organized 
the county, and that is where the "war" began. Sparta people 
were up in arms and representatives were undoubtedly sent to 
the Legislature by both sides in the interests of the two different 
villages, but the Legislature in its wisdom finally deeided tliat 
Sparta was the proper place for the county seat, and the law 
was passed making it such temporarily. But when it became 
necessary to spend money for county buildings the disposition 
to avoid erecting any permanent public buildings in Sparta, and 
undoubtedly with a hope tliat the future would l)ring some 
developments along the line of placing the county seat elsewhere, 
led members of the county board, particularly from Leon and 



from the eastern side of the county, to vote down appropriations 
for this purpose and to put obstructions in the way of any such 
move. At the session of the county board held August 15, 1857, 
the absolute necessity for a county jail being apparent, the fol- 
loAving resolution was introduced by Supervisor Esau Johnson, 
to-wit : 

"Resolved, That we appropriate a sufficient sum of money to 
build a jail at Sparta." 

Mr. Ringer, of Little Falls, offered the following amendment 
to the resolution, to-wit : 

"That the amount termed be $1,500." 

The amendment was lost by the following vote : Ayes — Hunt- 
ley, Ringer, Isham, Alice, Stacy. Noes — Foster, Johnson, Miller, 
Gibbs, Butterfield, Lyon. The original resolution was then taken 
up and lost by a vote of the supervisors present, all of the mem- 
bers voting "no." W. W. Jackson, of Adrian, then offered the 
following resolution, to-wit : 

"Resolved, That we deem the title to the ground on which 
the courthouse stands insufficient, and that we are unwilling to 
appropriate any money to the erection of any more buildings 
thereon," which was adopted by a vote of nine to five, and this 
ended the first round. 

On November 26, 1859, at the annual meeting of the board of 
supervisors the following resolution was introduced : 

"Resolved, That the sum of $1,500 be raised by the county to 
build a suitable jail for Monroe county, no part of said money to 
be expended until after a vote by the people of the county, be 
taken on a permanent location for county seat ; ' ' and this resolu- 
tion on being put to yea and nay vote was lost by a decisive vote. 

As has already been narrated elsewhere, the first county 
building was erected at the moderate cost of $600, in block 4 
of Damman's addition to Sparta, and that this site was after- 
wards deeded back to Mr. Damman and the present block was 
selected by the county board for county buildings. The necessity 
for doing something to provide a courthouse came up at the meet- 
ing of the county board, which began on the 13th day of 
November, 1860. A committee on public buildings was appointed 
consisting of Peter DeCoursey, J. A. Gillman and W. T. Stevens, 
and the following resolution was presented to the board by Mr. 
DeCoursey : 

"Resolved, That the sum of dollars be raised by tax on 

taxable property of the county, to be applied in building a suit 
able building for a courthouse in and for said county." This 


resolution Avas referred to the committee on public buildings 
and at a later date in the session the committee reported in favor 
of the resolution and J. E. Ensign moved that the blank in the 
report be filled by inserting $5,000. E. A. Rice moved an amend- 
ment striking out the figures $5,000 and inserting five mills on 
the dollar on the taxable property of the county. ]Mr. Rice's 
amendment was lost and after some parliamentary sparring ^Ir. 
Gillman offered an amendment that $4,000 be inserted in the 
blank, which was carried ; and then E. A. Rice moved the adop- 
tion of the report, and strange to say it was lost by the following 
vote : Yeas — J. E. Ensign, ]\lead, ]\Iathews, Gillman. Noes — 
Hanford, Campbell, Cole, W. T. Stevens, Tolls, Enderby, DeCour- 
sey, Baker, Gary, G. F. Stevens, Haywood, Rowen and Rice, and 
the committee was discharged. Thus ended the third round. At 
that time there were nineteen supervisors on the board and the 
votes in favor of the courthouse came from the towns of Port- 
land. Angelo. Eaton, Little Falls and the village of Sparta, and 
the votes against it came from Glendale, Wellington. "Wilton, 
Ridgeville, Leon, LeRoy, Tomah (town), Adrian, Greenfield, 
Lafayette and, strange to say, the town of Spai-ta. Tt will be seen 
by the distribution of this vote that several localities still hatl 
hopes and the combination was quite strong against the village 
of Sparta. But the need of a courthouse and jail became, as time 
passed, a great necessity, and a move was made in 186;^ to call a 
special session of the county board. A re(|uest having been 
signed by the majority of the board of supervisors a special meet- 
ing was called September 4, 1863, and met at the village of 
Sparta, at which the following resolution was presented by ]\Ir. 
J. Covey, who was then the chairman of the county board : 

"Resolved, That the district attorney be reciuested to report 
to this board in writing what title the county has to the site 
upon which the building now stands and which is used for a jail :"' 
and this resolution, upon a vote, was duly adopted, and it was 
subsequently moved and carried that the district attorney be 
instructed to put in no defense to the suit of J. D. Damman 
against the county of ]\lonroe to recover the site on which the 
jail now stands, and accordingly, as has been related, the county 
clerk was authorized to deed back the property, and at this meet- 
ing of the board a resolution was adopted by which the interests 
of AV. F. Bard in the public square, opposite the Warner house, 
were to be purchased and have the same conveyed to the county. 
Soon after providing for the reconveyance of the old courthouse 
square back to J. D. Damman and providing for the purchase of 


the public square, where the buildings now stand, the county 
board again adjourned without having made any provision for 
the erection of a l)uilding, but had gone to the extent of procur- 
ing a site. But at the regular session of the board that fall, which 
began on the 10th day of November, the matter was brought up 
and furnished anununition for considerable debate and parlia- 
mentary tactics. ]Mr. J. Covey again offered a resolution, which 
was as follows : 

"While the county of jMonroe for want of proper public build- 
ings has leased annually, at a large expense, a place for holding 
courts, and often to the very great annoyance of all parties con- 
cerned ; that for the punishment of criminals a still greater outlay 
has been necessary, the present jail being wholly insecure, un- 
wholesome and a disgrace to the age in which we have lived ; 

"Therefore, resolved. That there be levied on the taxable 

property of the county the sum of dollars for the purpose 

of erecting a suitable building or buildings for a courthouse and 

"Resolved, That in order to carry out the foregoing resolu- 
tion, lessen the burden of taxation that niust necessarily arise 
from it, the sum of thousand dollars be raised in the year 

1863, the sum of thousand dollars be raised in the year 

1864, and the sum of — thousand dollars be raised in the 

year 1865." 

It will be seen by the vigorous language used in this resolu- 
tion even in this day the spirit of "reform" was in the air, and 
"progress" was not to be denied. Supervisor Kendall, in order 
to settle things, moved to fill the first blank in this resolution by 
inserting the sum of $22,500. This was seconded by Mr. Covey 
and the yeas and noes were called for. It will be remembered 
that at this time the county board system had been abrogated 
by the Legislature and that the system of county commissioners 
was then established and the affairs of the county were governed 
by three commissioners or supervisors elected from the three 
supervisor districts in the county. The board at this time con- 
sisted of E. Kendall J.' Covey and J. Rood. The vote on this 
resolution was Kendall and Covey in favor and ]\Ir. Rood against 
it, so that it was declared carried, and then Kendall moved to 
insert the sum of $7,000 in the first blank in the second part of 
the resolution, and this was also carried by the same vote. Move 
was then made by Kendall to put the sum of $8,500 in the second 
blank in the resolution, which was carried by the same vote, and 
then also moved to put $7,000 in the last blank. Then the whole 


resolution was adoptod by tlio same vote: Kendall and Covey, 
yes ; and Rood, no. 

The raising of funds being tlius provided for the building of 
the tirst real courthouse in the county. A special meeting of the 
county board Avas called December 16, 1863, at which the bids for 
the erecting of a courthouse and jail were opened, the matter 
having been previously advertised. The contract was let to one 
W. AY. Allis for $20,848.50. 

The erection of the combined courthouse and jail, which was 
a substantial brick building, settled the county seat matter for 
some years. AYith the increase in population and consequent in- 
crease in the number of prisoners, at times, the attention of the 
county board members was called to the fact that the jail was too 
small, was "behind the times" in appliances; so that the old 
spectre which would not down, "Remove the county seat," again 
raised its head and the trouble began. In 1883 and 1884 there 
had been considerable fault found witli the oil jail by the State 
Board of Charities and Reforms, which correspond to the State 
Board of Control at the present time, and while no direct action 
has been taken to condemn the old jail portion of the building, 
still the situation became quite acute as far as the location of the 
county seat was concerned, and eastern IMonroe county realized 
that in order to accomplish anything it was necessary that a 
move be made to call a special election, as provided by the stat- 
utes, to remove the county seat from Sparta before any more 
expensive liuildings were erected, thus making it a permanent 
location. The citizens of Tomah in 1885 determined to make one 
grand effort towards getting the county seat removed to Tomah 
from Sparta, and a committee of citizens was appointed whose 
business it was to procure names to a petition addressed to the 
county board asking that an election be called, and tliat the 
question of the removal of the county seat from the city of Sparta 
to the city of Tomah l)e submitted to tlie qualitied voters of the 
county, as provided by law. This Avork was undertaken in the 
spring and sununer. A thorough canvas was made, particularly 
on the eastern side of the county, and feeling l)egan to run high 
with regard to the matter as the time approached for the meeting 
of the county board. The session in November was made mem- 
orable by reason of the fact that this contest was then to be taken 
up. The members of the county board were at that time as fol- 

Adrian, George P. Stevens; Angelo, E. AY. Babcock; Byron. 
George A. Boynigton ; Clifton, A. N. Anthony; Glendale, Leonard 


Johnson ; Greenfield, J. II. Gill ; Jefferson, A. Heiser ; Lafayette, 
George E. Hancliett ; Lincoln, L. N. Sweet ; Little Falls, H. H. 
Atchison ; Ncav Lyme, J. B. Scott ; Oakdale, H. Rogge ; Leon, 
Thomas Hobson ; Portland, E. M. Adams; Sheldon, D. M. Fulmer; 
Sparta, P. H. Moss; Tomah, AV. B. Cassels; Wellington, J. P. 
Rice ; Wells, James Wells ; AYilton, F. Gnewikow ; city of Sparta, 
H. H. Childs, N. W. Huntley, L. S. Fisher and W. E. Lee ; city of 
Tomah, L. S. Benjamin, E. Bartels and I. H. Fish. 

The session of the board opened with the lines tensely drawn 
upon this proposition, and it was not until Tuesday morning, 
November ITtli, in the second week of the session, that the peti- 
tion for the removal of the county seat was presented by L. S. 
Benjamin. It was as follows: 

"To the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Monroe county, 
Wisconsin : The undersigned legal voters of the county of Mon- 
roe, state of Wisconsin, whose names appear on some one of the 
poll lists on the last general election held in such county of 
Monroe, do respectfully petition your honorable body and ask 
that the county seat of Monroe county be changed from the city 
of Sparta to the city of Tomah, in said county ; and that the 
question of the removal of the county seat be submitted to a vote 
of the qualified voters of ]\Ionroe county, as provided by law." 
Dated September 1, 1885. 

This petition was signed by about 2,400 names, and was re- 
ferred to the committee on petitions and elections, Fred Gnewi- 
kow, L. S. Benjamin, E. Bartels, George P. Stevens and L. S. 

Prior to the session of the board the Tomah committee had 
circulated their petition over in the towns of Little Falls and 
New Lyme, procuring a goodly number of signatures. This paper 
mysteriously disappeared, or rather, was never presented to the 
board with the other petitions. A petition was also circulated in 
Glendale and Wellington and vicinity, under the charge of 
Leonard Johnson. AVhen Johnson brought it to the board session 
the paper had been badly water soaked, Johnson claiming he had 
fallen in the mill pond with it in his pocket. The names on this 
paper were in many instances undistinguishable, and the commit- 
tee, after working with microscopes, were compelled to discard a 
large number of names which were not legible. This, together 
with the petition that never was presented, discounted the num- 
ber of names to such an extent as to make the action of the board, 
which followed, possible. No report was made by the committee 
upon this petition until the next to the last day of the session. 


ami tlicn it came up for the final struggle in the shape of a ma- 
jority and a minority report. Tlic itia.joriiy i-('])(U't of the com- 
mittee was as follows: 

"To the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Monroe county, 
Wisconsin — Gentlenu'n : AVe, the connnittee to whom was re- 
ferred the petition for the removal of the county scat of ]\lonroe 
county, do report as follows: 

"That we have carefully examined therein the signatures of 
2,604 legal voters of Monroe county. 

"That of sucli number the names of 2.107 appear on some 
one of 1li(' ])oll lists of the last previous general election held in 
said county on the 4th day of November. 1884, being more than 
two-fifths of the legal voters of said county of ]\Ionroe as dctei- 
mined by the poll lists of said last previous election. 

"That under the law by reason of the said petition it is the 
duty of the county board of supervisors of Monroe county, to sul)- 
mit the question of the removal of the county seat of ]\Ionroe 
county to the city of Tomah, to a vote of the qualified votei's of 
said I\Ionroe county at the next general election, 


"Dated November 24, 1885. "Committee. 

) 5 

The minority of the committee, during Ihe lime whieli elai)si'd 
between the introduction of the resolution and the handing in 
of the majority report, had evidently l)eeii busy endeavoring to 
find a loop hole in the {)roceedings. The minority of the commit- 
tee consisted of one man, that doughty old warrior, L. S. Fislu^-. 
who nuide the minority report to the petition as follows: 

"To th(> Honorable County Board of Supervisors of .Monroe 
comity, AVisconsin : The minority of the committee upon The 
petition for the removal of the county seat would respectfully 
report that they have carefully examined the ])etition and find 
on it Ihe names of 2.107 persons whose names appear on the j)oll 
lists of the several towns and cities in Monioe county for the 
election oi" 1884. 

"Tlie minority of your committee would further report in 
favor of a postponenuMit of the subject of the removal ol* the 
county seat for the following reasons: 

"1. There are several petitions, whereas the law requires 
only one petition. 


"2. There are a large number of names appearing on the peti- 
tion which have been counted ])y your committee in order to 
make the total number 2,107, not less than 300 in all that were 
not signed by the persons they represent. 

"3. There are a sufficient number of names on the petition 
that have been counted that did not agree with the names on the 
poll lists to reduce the total number below the aggregate required 
by law. 

"4. That if an election is ordered it would be void for the 
foregoing reasons and subject the county to unnecessary costs 
and probably expensive litigation. 


"Dated Sparta, November 24, 1885." 

]Mr. Fisher then moved that the report of the committee on 
petitions and elections be referred to the district attorney, and 
it was so referred with the understanding that the district attor- 
ney should report on the following morning. 

The following resolution was then presented: 

''AVhereas the petition signed by 2,604 of the legal voters of 
Monroe county, of which number the names of 2,107 appear on 
some one of the poll lists of the last previous general election 
held in said county on the 4th day of November, 1885, said last 
mentioned number being more than tw^o-fifths of the legal voters 
of Monroe county, as determined by the poll lists of the said last 
previous general election, said petition asking the change of the 
county seat of IMonroe county from the city of Sparta to the city 
of Tomah ; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the question of the removal of the county 
seat of Monroe county to the city of Tomah be submitted to a 
vote of the qualified voters of said county at the next general 
election, to be held in said county on the 2nd day of November, 
1886." _ 

The board then adjourned until the next day and on the 
morning of November 25th the district attorney gave his opinion 
in writing upon the petition presented for the removal of the 
county seat. AVhile the records of the meeting of the board do 
not contain the opinion, it undoubtedly was in favor of the 
minority report, for we find that Mr. Fisher moved that the 
opinion be received and placed on file, and then came the tug 
of war. 

Mr. Cassels, of the town of Tomah, moved that the majority 
report of the committee on petitions and elections be adopted. 
Mr. Fisher moved that the minority report be substituted for the 


majority ropoi-t. and upon llic call of ayes and noes it was 
carried by the following vote: Babcock, Boyington, Ileiser, 
Hanehett, llohson, Atchison, Scott. Ilaimkee, Adams, Fulmer, 
]Moss, Wells, Childs, Huntley, Fisher and Lee, a total of sixteen 
ayes. Noes — Stevens, Anthony, Johnson, Gill, Sweet. Spooner, 
Rogge, Cassels, Rice, GnewikoAV, Bartels, Benjamin and Fish, a 
total of thirteen. ]\Ir. Fisher then moved the adoption of the 
minority report, which was carried by the same vote precisely, 
sixteen to thirteen. It will be noticed that the votes which were 
against the petition came from Angelo, Byron, Jeflferson, Lafay- 
ette, Leon, Little Falls, New Lyme, Portland, Ridgeville, Sheldon, 
town of Sparta, "Wells and city of Sparta; the votes in favor of 
the petition came from Adrian, Clifton. Glendale, LaGrange, Lin- 
coln, Greenfield, Oakdale, town of Tomah, AVellington, AVilton 
and the city of Tomah, so that the votes were lined up Avith 
regard to location principally, only that George A. Boyington, of 
the town of Byron, did not vote with the eastern side of the 

And after some other matters of business this board ad- 
journed, and thus closed another chapter of the struggle over 
the county seat. It does not appear that the citizens of Tomah 
attempted in any way to invoke the aid of the courts or to make 
any further move at that time in the matter. 

The proceedings were instituted under the provisions of sec- 
tion 655 of the revised statutes, and we tiiul in the session of the 
Legislature of the year 1887 an amendment to that section was 
passed known as chapter 35 of the laws of 1887, which was, no 
doubt, a part of the plan to for all time settle the controversy 
as to the removal of the county seat in this or any other county. 
The amendment provided that where the county seat had l)een 
established for a pei-iod of fifteen years or more and that the 
county has erected permanent buildings of the value of not less 
than $10,000, that the same should not be removed nor should 
any application for the removal thereof be submitted to a vote 
of the electors of the county unless a petition signed by at least 
one-half of the resident freeholders of the county, as evidenced 
by recorded deeds in the office of the register of deeds of the 
county, in favor of such removal shall be presented to the county 
board: and it furthei- provided that no election to change the 
county seat should be held for a period of five years after the 
year in which a courthouse or other county buildings costing 
$3,000 or more shall have been built and occupied for county pur- 
poses. In the provisions of this law it is not diflficult to see the 


"fiue Italian hand," to use a slang phrase, of that staunch friend 
of Sparta, Hon. J. j\I. IMorrow, who was at that time one of the 
"third house" in the Wisconsin Legislature and a prominent 
man in the affairs of the state. It can very readily be seen that 
a petition of this character cannot be obtained in the county of 
Monroe or any other county without great difficulty in searching 
records and procuring names qualified to sign such a petition. 

The old controversy, however, would not down, and in 1890 
the State Board of Charity and Reform, after considerable fault 
found heretofore with the old jail, issued an order condemning it 
as unsanitary and unfit for use for the purpose, and this caused 
the revival, somewhat, of the old feeling over the county seat. In 
order to bring it to a head a petition was circulated in the spring 
of 1890 and signed by a majority of the county board, calling a 
special meeting of the board on May 7, 1890. At that session the 
county clerk read a notice served upon him by the State Board of 
Charity and Reform regarding the jail, and on motion of Super- 
visor J. M. IMorrow, a committee was appointed consisting of 
Supervisor Morrow ; Earl, of Tomah ; Gill, of Greenfield ; AVells, 
of Wells, and Abbott, of Sheldon, and this committee on the fol- 
lowmg day rendered this report: 

"To the County Board of Supervisors of IMonroe County: The 
undersigned members of your committee, to whom was referred 
the official notice of the State Bard of Charity and Reform re- 
lating to the condemnation of the Monroe county jail, etc., have 
had the same and matters connected thereunto under considera- 
tion, and do report that in our opinion, and for the reasons stated 
in said notice, and the law in relation to the duties and obliga- 
tions of the county under such circumstances, it is necessary to 
provide for a new jail, and to accomplish such purpose in a 
seasonable, proper and economical manner we have prepared and 
report herewith an ordinance providing for the construction of 
a jail upon the courthouse square, and providing for the means 
to pay for the same with such other necessary details as seemed 
to your committee required to be provided for the action of this 
board, and we recommend the adoption of said ordinance, which 
is respectfully submitted. 

"J. H. GILL, 



Here again appears the same old split, but this time the ma- 
jority of the committee were in favor of the Avestern side of the 
county, and again we ha-ve the minority report by one man, 
"Watson Earle, of the city of Tomah, who made a minority report 
as follows: 

"The minority of your committee would respectfully report 
that in his opinion the effect of the improvements made in the 
jail last fall should be tried. The Board of Health, although they 
knew that the improvements were contemplated, could have no 
knowledge of what the effects of these improvements could be. 
That the condition of the jail is l)etter than it has been at any 
previous time in twenty years. That tlie present condition of 
the farming portions of this county makes it advisable not to 
increase the burden of taxation without absolute necessity. For 
a number of years the crops have been wasted by drought, and 
now in the fall the markets are almost worthless by reason of low 
prices. Under these conditions the addition of >1^5,000 a year on 
this county's tax for three successive years is a grievous burden 
that ought not to be lightly laid. That the course of the present 
hasty action in tliis matter is purely visionary, being based not 
on the present condition of the jail, but on the assumption that 
at some time in the near future, perhaps, eastern ]\Ionroe county 
may demand the removal of the county seat; and that the num- 
ber of prisoners Avhicli for the past year averages three and one- 
third per cent neither calls for nor justifies such expenditure." 

And again the old struggle was before the county board in 
this form, and again it was Supervisor Fisher who moved the 
adoption of the majority report this time. Supervisor AYood. 
from the city of Tomah, moved to substitute the minority report 
for the majority report, and this brought on a test vote. The 
motion was lost by the following vote : Ayes — Stevens, Reynolds, 
Swanets, Lyon. AYoodland, Coome, Rogge, Gehrke, Cassels, 
Gnewikow. Earle, Tormey and AYood, thirteen; and nayes, Lev- 
erich, Gill, liarry. Jones, Atchison, Hoard, Hannkee, Abbott, 
Beckler, Alarsden, AYells, Alorrow, Huntley, Fisher and Brandt, 
fifteen. The localities voting in favor of the minority report 
were these: Adrian, Byron, Clii'ton, Glendale, Lincoln, 
LaGrange, Oakdale, Ridgeville, town of Tomali. AYilton and the 
city of Tomah, and against it were Angelo, Greenfield, Lafayette, 
Leon. Little Falls, New Lyme, Portland, Sheldon, town of Sparta, 
AYellington, AYells and the city of Sparta, so that we find the 
alignnu'ut of this vote almost what it was as far as territory is 
concerned, when the vote on that famous county seat resolution 


in 1885 was taken, only that this time Greenfield on the eastern 
side seems to have changed places with Byron. 

Mr. Wood, of Tomah, then moved that the consideration of the 
majority report be postponed and an adjonrnment taken for two 
weeks so that the members of the board might have an oppor- 
tunity to confer with their constituents, and upon a call for the 
ayes and noes this motion was lost by practically the same vote, 
thirteen ayes and sixteen noes. This time H. H. Cremer, it ap- 
pears, voted with the noes. It was then moved to adopt the ma- 
jority report, which was carried by the same old vote, sixteen to 
thirteen. An ordinance providing for the building of the county 
jail was then passed by the same vote, sixteen to thirteen, and 
the following committee, on motion, was appointed by the chair 
as required by the ordinance passed, as the building committee, 
to-wit : N. AV. Huntley, of Sparta ; H. H. Atchison, of Little 
Falls; J. H. Gill, of Greenfield, and AA^illiam Hannkee, of Port- 
land. Subsequently the building committee carried out its in- 
structions in full, contracts were let and the present county jail 
and sheriff's residence w^as erected. As time went on the old 
courthouse building became more and more insufficient for the 
uses of the various county officers and courtrooms, and again the 
matter of additional county buildings was presented at a session 
of the country board. In 1894 an ordinance was introduced by 
Supervisor J. R. Lyon at the November session of the board pro- 
viding for the building of a new courthouse in the city of Sparta 
to cost not to exceed the sum of $50,000. It was apparently a 
hopeless task on the part of the supervisors from the eastern side 
of the county to prevent the passage of this ordinance, and it was 
carried by a vote of twenty-five to five. Supervisor Coome being 
excused from voting. Later in the session, under the provision of 
the ordinance, the chairman of the county board appointed the 
following building committee : Supervisors N. AY. Huntley, of 
Sparta; J. R. Lyon, of Glendale ; H. H. Cremer, of Jefiferson; H. 
Gnewikow, of AYilton, and D. AY. Sowle, of Lincoln. 

In pursuance of this ordinance the present Courthouse was 
constructed and furnished. The county was fortunate in having 
it erected at a time when building materials were cheaper than 
at any time since so that for the sum of between $50,000 and 
$60,000 it has a commodious and substantial building, completely 

The erection of these permanent buildings of such great value 
has probably ended for all time any effort to renew the '^county 
seat Avar." The eastern side of the county has now become 


reconciled to the situation, as was very appropriately expressed 
by a member of the board at the time the building of a new jail 
was voted, the boys in Tomah concluded that "they couldn't get 
the courthouse tlirough the Tunnel anyhow," so they gave up. 
]\rany interesting incidents undoubtedly happened outside of the 
recorded procedure in this famous struggle during all these years 
M'hich are now lost, but on the whole the record itself furnishes 
many dramatic climaxes which are lacking in the present day 
sessions of the county board. 




No history of the county would be complete that did not in- 
clude at least a few references to the only source of education 
that most boys and girls have access to, namely, the common 
schools. No attempt will be made to go into an exhaustive 
record of the schools since the establishment of the county, but 
rather to give the reader an idea of the first schools in the county 
and the progress that has been made through legislation and 
methods, etc., up to the present time. 


As soon as a few settlements were formed the people began to 
make preparations for schools. The settlements were far apart 
at first and pupils were obliged to travel long distances, three, 
and even four, miles. The first school buildings were usually 
crude, temporary concerns, designed to meet the immediate needs 
of the people until the settlements became more numerous and 
financially stronger. 

The following were among the early buildings which were 
more or less typical of the buildings throughout the county. 
District No. 2, town of LaGrange — School house, 12x16 feet ; shed 
roof. District No. 2, town of Sheldon — Small building made of 
unhewn logs of uneven length, some extending two or three feet 
beyond the end of building. This building was roofed with slabs 
to match the logs, that is, some of them terminated at the edge of 
the roof and others projecting downward three or four feet, and 
some even projected upward above the ridge of the roof. This 
building was banked with clay about two feet high all around, 
except at the door, to keep out the cold. In order to save labor 
the banking was allowed to remain during the summer months 
so that it would be on hand for the next winter. The door was 
home-made and so low that full-grown boys and girls were 
obliged to stoop to get in and out. It is not known why the door 
was made this size unless it was to teach the pupils to stoop so 



tht'V iniglit not forget to bow to tlic master on entering the build- 
ing, or perhaps it was to teaeli them that tliey must stoop in order 
to avoid many liard knocks in life's journey. No doubt some of 
the first school buildings Avere better than those above described 
and some worse in some respects. Generally the first school build- 
ings were small, cheap, poorly lighted, with no ventilation and 
little or no regard for appearances. 


The desks were made of Avhite pine and long enough to seat 
from twelve to sixteen pupils. In one school that the writjer has 
in mind there were only two long desks in the school house. They 
were about sixteen feet long, extending lengthwise of the build- 
ing, one on each side, with a seat in front of each desk for the 
little folks. The larger pupils occupied the seat behind the 
desks. Usually, hoAvever, the desks Avould seat from six to eight 
pupils, and extended crosswise of the room. Arranged in two 
rows, with one end of each desk against the wall, leaving only 
one aisle in tlie middle of the room. This arrangement made it 
very unhandy to get and out of seats, as the pupils frequently 
were obliged to pass four or five others in order to get out of 
their seat to go to the recitation and, of course, go through the 
same process to get back to their places. The desks Avere all of 
the same size, no alloAvance being made for different sizes of 

Later the desks Avere made to accommodate the various sizes 
of pupils. A fcAv samples of those desks may still be found in the 
schools, but most of llicni are factory made double desks, and 
eA'en those are giving Avay to the single desk. 


Reading. Avriting, aritlmicti.' and spelling Aveie carried l)y all 
of the pupils, and grammai-, geography and history by some of 
the larger ones. In teaching reading the A, B, C method Avas 
used, that is, the pupils had to go through the long, tedious proc- 
ess of learning the alphabet before they began to read. Spelling 
Avas mostly oral and at least two trials Avere given on a Avord. 
Since the pupils did not carry many studies they made up for 
this to some extent by reciting in reading and spelling four times 
a day. Some schools had reading of the Bible and prayer CA'ery 
morning. History Avas sometimes used as a reader, the teacher 
asking a few questions after the lesson Avas read. Pupils that 
read in the history Avere looked upon by the other pupils as being 


good scholars. There was no classification of the school by forms 
or grades, and as a rule no record was kept of the work done by 
the pupils, and of course no record left for the guidance of the 
new teacher. Not unfrequently the pupils were started in at the 
beginning of the books they brought with them the first day, 
regardless of what they covered the year before. This seems like 
a great waste of time, and it was, but there was one redeeming 
feature, namely, that some subjects were reviewed so often that 
they were firmly fixed in the pupils' minds. Perhaps manual 
training should have been added to the branches taught in those 
early days. 

This was pursued by the larger boys who happened to pos- 
sess good pocket knives, without the aid or consent of the teacher. 
The white pine desks being excellent material to carve in, pupils 
would sometimes cut the forms of horses and other objects in 
the desk and carve their names also. This, of course, was not 
sanctioned bj^ the teacher, yet it was common to find desks bear- 
ing such marks. 


The inside of the school buildings as a rule were in keeping 
with the outside appearance. There was no library or reference 
books of any kind. Webster's unabridged dictionary was the 
only book outside of texts, and that was furnished free by the 
state. There was usually a partial supply of maps, and occasion- 
ally a reading chart. The blackboard was composed of boards 
nailed together and painted. This was as a rule poor in quality 
and very insufficient in quantity. A piece 3x4 feet was all that 
some schools had. Ciphering and sometimes writing exercises 
were performed with slate and pencil. It was a rare thing to see 
a pupil using pencil and paper. 


During the first ten or fifteen years after the county was 
organized, the teachers boarded around, that is, the teacher 
boarded free of charge with the various families in the district 
that sent children to school. The teacher stayed with each fam- 
ily in proportion to the number of pupils that attended school, 
usually one M^eek for each pupil. Boarding around had some 
advantage over the present system, as it afforded the teacher an 
opportunity to get acquainted with the parents and home life of 
the children, thus enabling the various parties to understand 
each other better. The parents and pupils looked forward to the 


teaelier coming as an important event, and you may be sure the 
teacher got the best the family att'orded. But there was another 
side to the boarding ai'oiiiid lliat was not so pleasant for the 
teacher, namely, the accommodations were not always what was 
desirable and the teacher was expected to entertain or be enter- 
tained to such an extent that she had little time that she could 
call her own or devise plans for presenting the various subjects. 
The teacher was looked upon as the most important personage 
in the district, and no Avedding or other social event was consid- 
ered complete unless the teacher was present. The teacher was 
supposed to be tiie best informed person in the whole district. 
The following lines from the "Desertetl Village'' portrays the 
opinion of his knowledge held by the country folks: 

" 'Twas certain he could write and cipher, too; 
Lands he could measure, terms and tides presage, 
And e'en, the story ran, that he could gauge; 
In arguing, too, the parson owned his skill. 
For e'en though vanquished, he could argue still; 
AYhile words of learned strength and thundering sound, 
Amazed the gaping rustics ranged around ; 
And still they gazed and still the wonder grew, 
That one small head could carry all he knew." 


The schools of each town were in charge of a man known as 
township superintendent. The duties of the town superintendent 
were to supervise the schools and grant licenses to teachers. 
Those ofificers were usually paid $1.50 a day Avhen in service of 
the town. The teacher's examination comprised much fewer sub- 
jects than at the present time. The examination Avas mostly oral 
with enough writing to give the applicant an opportunity to show 
her writing. This .system was abolished in 18G2 and the county 
superintendenc}^ established. 


In those early days there were a much larger proportion of 
male teachers than at the present. The male teachers, as a rule, 
taught only the winter term and did not make teaching a busi- 
ness. The spring terms were usually taught by ladies. As a rule 
the teachers of this early period were not up in professional and 
academic knowledge with the t(>achers of the present tinu\ but 


from the standpoint of maturity they were ahead. They were 
men and women, as a rule, out of their teens. The frequent change 
of teachers and poor attendance were among the main obstacles 
to progress. "Wages varied very much as at the present time. 
They ranged from $1.50 a Aveek to $16 or $20 a month, and the 
teachers boarded around and taught every other Saturday. In 
some instances the wages were as high, or higher, then as at the 
present time, but those were exceptions. 


In the early history of the county school government was a 
much bigger proposition than it is today. This was due to sev- 
eral things, namely, to size of pupils, lack of sufficient employ- 
ment, and to the general attitude of the people regarding punish- 
ment. In those days boys and girls attended school, especially 
during the winter months, until they were grown up, eighteen 
and twenty years of age. Many of them carried only a few 
branches, and of course were not busy all of the time, and there- 
fore were harder to control. Then, too, many of the parents 
seemed to think that punishment was a necessary part of the 
child's education, and in some way a knowledge of the "three 
R's" should be seasoned and worked into the individual by a 
liberal use of the rod. The words: 

"Schooldays! Schooldays! 

Dear old Golden Rule days; 
Reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic. 
Taught to the tune of a hickory stick," 

were based on the methods and beliefs of those days. The 
schoolmaster that did not do considerable punishing was not 
thought to be doing his full duty. However, many of them 
measured up to the expectations of the district. As a rule there 
was plenty of timber near the schoolhouses and the teacher 
usually knew enough about foresting to be able to select the 
toughest switches, and he knew also that by laying them on the 
heated stove for a while it would add to their elasticity. Several 
of these w^ell-seasoned switches were generally on hand and 
placed in a conspicuous position, usually over the blackboard. 
Sometimes those switches would mysteriously disappear and no 
one could account for their whereabouts. However, a new supply 
was easily secured, seasoned and put up. Should the master's 
supply of switches become exhausted during the session periods 


of the day, he would souu'tiines send one of the small l)nys after 
a new supply. 

The prevailing method of punishment Avas striking witii the 
rod on the palm of the hand and on the finger tips. This was 
rather severe and much dreaded by the small and middle-sized 
boys, for the boys got most of the punishment. But to the lull- 
grown boys it was considered a game in which it was the teacher's 
part to strike, and the boy's part to catch the rod before the 
teacher pulled it back. If the rod was caught it was broken 
and then the stub was used, and the game went on till the rod 
became too short. It is only fair to say that the above methods 
of bringing the refractory pupils to time was practiced chiefiy 
by the male teachers, but w^as by no means unknown to the 
gentler sex. About the most dreaded punishment meted out to 
the boys was to have a boy sit between two girls for an hour or 
so. This would cause the bashful country boy to blush profusely, 
and usually it was not necessary to repeat the punishment very 
soon. The following lines illustrate this fairly well : 

"Some playful wight perchance was doomed to sit 
Between two girls, as retribution fit 
For his crimes; and so he learned e'en then 
The truth that comes in time to all young men : 
'Tis more than twice as hard for Adam's son 

•To sit with two girls as to sit with one." 

Other methods of punishment which were more or less gen- 
eral, were pulling the ears, slapping the face, and taking by the 
collar and given a shaking, etc. Corporal punishment seemed to 
be more freely used at home and at school than at the present 
time. Those having the training of children in charge have found 
out that it is possible to train children properly with little or no 
corporal punishment. Perhaps it should not be dispensed with 
all together, but should be rai'cly used. 

It is possible in most cases to keep a pupil under control 
through fear, hut that is not the proper way, for it destroys the 
confidence and affection the pupil should have for the teacher, 
without which it' is impossible to get the best results. The good 
teacher who possesses sufficient knowledge and ability to teach 
and whose heart is in the work will generally have no difficulty 
witli government. On the other hand the teacher who is una])le. 
on account of academic or professional knowledge, to interest her 
school will find government (juitc a problem. 



One feature of the eountrV school that has about gone out of 
practice is the old-fashioned spelling school. These spelling- 
schools were held frequently during the winter term, and were 
participated in by old and young alike. Sometimes one school 
Avould spell against another, but occasionally two persons were 
appointed to choose sides, regardless of schools, and everyone in 
the room was given an opportunity to spell, but only those that 
considered themselves good spellers accepted. Those in the con- 
test would take a position by the side of the leader and two lines 
were formed that would reach around the room. 

Those that missed took their seats and of course the one that 
stood last won. Usually the winner was expected to spell three 
M'ords after the others were down. After the spelling contest 
there were reading and speaking. The spelling school was looked 
upon as quite a social event and was attended by people for miles 
around. Another means of enjoyment and intellectual improve- 
ment were the debates which were usually held during the win- 
ter terms also. The questions were usually practical and simple. 

The men and large boys took part in the discussions. The 
interest taken in those discussions may be shown by stating t!iat 
it was common for people to walk three or four miles to hear 
and take part in the discussion. ]\Iany a farmer and town official 
will own today that the foundation for expressing his thoughts 
clearly, to think logically when standing before people, was laid 
in the old-fashioned debating society. A literary society in 
which debates receive a prominent part should be a part of every 
country school where there are a sufficient number to carry it 
on successfully. 


During the early history, as has been stated before. a])out 
the only book found in the school house outside of the text books, 
was Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. In 1887 there was 
enacted a township library law. This law provided that 10 cents 
should be reserved from the school fund for each pupil between 
four and twenty years in the district, the money to be used in 
purchasing books. But for the first eight years of this law it Avas 
optional with the town treasurer whether or not the money was 
set aside for this purpose. 

Many of the treasurers did not see fit to do tliis and for a 
while the growth of the district lil)raries Avas slow. In 189.5 tlie 
law was made mandatory and since then there has been a rapid 


additiun to the JiuiiihiT oL' l)ooks in llic libraries. I'nlil about 
seveu years ago the town elei-ks bad the i)Ower to select the 
books and since that official usually did not know just what books 
to select. Ju' did not alwaj's make the best selections and there 
were nuuiy duplications. 

The county or district superintendent noAV makes the selecr 
tion I'oi- ail the schools under his jurisdiction. He usually asks 
the teachers to recommend the books they desire and 1)y this 
method suitable books are generally ])rocured. At first the law 
provided that the books pass from one district to another so that 
all the pupils might get the benefit of the books. This was nice 
in theory but did not work out so well in practice for no one 
felt or could be held responsible for the books and the card cata- 
logue would be ineflt'ective. 

Now the books are selected for the needs and conditions of a 
particular district and are not changed. It is really a district 
system now, but the name township is still retained. "When the 
library books were first introduced in the schools, as a rule there 
were no book cases and the books were kept at the district clerk's 
home, a part or all of the time, which, of course, Avas not 

Now every district has a book case and the books are left in 
the school house. There is a card catalogue made of the books 
so that the material they contain is available. These libraries, 
besides being available for reference work in connection with 
various subjects, contain interesting and instructive stories for 
all grades of pupils and also for the adult population of the dis- 
trict. Under the township library law, ^Monroe county spends 
about $1,000 a year for library books. 

These books are distributed among the Ho districts of the 
county in proportion to the number of children between four 
and twenty years in each district. Each district has a library 
ranging from seventy-five to 200 books. The thing needed now 
is to make better use of these books, both for reference and gen- 
eral reading and develop in llie boys and girls a desire for good 



In 1005 there was a law enacted requiring each county 
superintendent to call a convention of the school board members 
of county annually. About every district in the county was rep- 
resented in those conventions, and in addition to the local pro- 


gram, the state educational department always sent a man to 
discuss one or more subjects chosen by that department. 

Those conventions have proven to be a very important factor 
in improving the rural schools. They have been the means of 
acquainting the board members more fully with their duties, 
powers and responsibilities, have increased their interest in the 
schools and emphasized the importance of sufficient apparatus, 
and the necessity of obtaining good teachers. These meetings 
were held in school buildings that were models with respect to 
seating, black boards, light and general apparatus, thus giving 
a good idea of suitable building and equipment. These meetings 
also helped standardize the schools of the county. At first some 
objected to the law on the ground that it was a useless expense 
without producing any good results, but time has proven that 
the objections were unfounded. There is no question whatever 
regarding the benefit of this law and the trifling cost of the dis- 
tricts is insignificant when compared with the benefits. 


For a great many years there has been a compulsory school 
law, but until recently it has been practically a dead letter, for 
the reason that the school board was to enter complaints against 
parents or guardians that were not sending their children. The 
board was not compelled to report and there was no penalty for 
not reporting, and for the further reason that the board did not 
like to make enemies of their neighbors l)y informing on them, 
they did not report. About five years ago the Compulsory Attend- 
ance Law was changed and made it the duty of the teacher to 
enter the complaint instead of the school board. It is man- 
datory on the part of the teacher to enter the complaint, with a 
penalty if it is not done. At present pupils between seven and 
fourteen years and not more than two miles from the school 
house by the traveled road are required to attend school at least 
six months. 

Pupils between fourteen and sixteen years must attend the 
same time unless they are regularly employed. The law, as it 
now stands, is quite effective and has been the means of giving 
many neglected children the opportunity of attending school. 

Yet the law is not enforced as rigidly as it should be, and 
many live over the two-mile limit and can not be reached. Dur- 
ing the time this new law has been in force many parents have 
been notified by the truant officer, the county sheriff, to send 
their children, but there have been no prosecutions. It is not 


clear to school people why any parent could be so indiflfereut to 
the future welfare of his children as to deny them tiie oppor- 
tunity of a fair chance in life by neglecting to give the benefits 
of the free common schools. 


There is quite a contrast between the old methods and those 
of the present time. For instance, the child was obliged to go 
through the slow and tedious process of learning the alphabet, 
A, B, C's, before beginning to read. These letters were to be 
learned in order, backward, and in a promiscuous arrangement. 
Then the pupil was taught to pronounce short words of one. two 
and three letters. 

This lacked interest also because the words were usually 
abstract and meant nothing to the child. Yet boys and girls 
learned to read by this unpedagogical system. Now the cliild 
begins to read by being introduced to a familiar word repre- 
senting an object as — apple, ball, etc., or perhaps the Avord is 
used in a sentence, as "Roll the ball," and the child acts it out 
by actually rolling the ball on the floor or on the teacher's desk; 
thus making the reading interesting and instructive from the 
start. The books for primary children, especially the readers, 
have been greatly improved and made more interesting for little 
folks. The old text books were written mostly on the question 
and answer plan, and if the pupils gave the answers, they were 
not usually asked to go into an explanation as to the meaning. 
There has been quite an improvement in text books as Avell as in 
the methods of teaching. 


Years ago the pupils' scholarsliip was dctci-niincd largely l)y 
the number of the "Reader" that he read in, and if a boy was 
asked how far he was in school he would answer, "Third Reader" 
or "Fourth Reader," as the case might be. Later there was a 
course of study gotlcii oul by ttie state which divided the work 
of the schools into three parts, called forms, and were known as 
the primary, middle and upper form. 

This was quite an improvement on the old way and led to a 
more definite classification of pupils and better records of the 
work done by the individual popils and was also the means of 
having the pupils take up more of the branches in the course. 
Li 1906 the graded system was introduced. This system divides 
the course into eight parts called grades, and it is supposed that 


an ordinary pupil, that is, a pupil of average ability, good health, 
that attends regularly and studies well, will be able to complete 
a grade in a year and finish the course in eight or nine years. 

This is more definite than the three-form system, because it 
marks off the course into years instead of bunching it into three- 
year parts. This system is the same as is used in state graded 
schools and in the grades below the high school, and is nothing 
new. The graded system works nicely in the country schools of 
the county. It is especially helpful to the young and inex- 
perienced teacher, and makes the work more definite for all, 
besides pupils moving from one district to another can readily 
find their place in the new school. The graded system is not 
yet generally adopted by the counties of the state. In fact, it is 
not known that any of them outside of Monroe county uses it. 
However, it is believed that it will be generally adopted before 
many years as the manual of the course of study outlines some 
of the work by years which is about the same thing. A year's 
work corresponding to a grade. 


Some twenty years ago a law was passed which permits pupils 
holding common school diplomas to attend any high school in the 
state free of tuition. That is, the pupil did not have to pay it, 
but the town in which the pupil resides pays the tuition, which 
is $2 a month. This free tuition law stimulated many 
country people that would not have done so if they had to pay 
the tuition directly, to send their children to high school. Thus 
it may be seen that many a boy and girl get a high school educa- 
tion through the merits of this law. 



About four years ago a law was passed off'ering each school 
$50 each year for three years on condition that the dis- 
trict would make certain improvements in apparatus, chief 
among them was to put in an approved heating and ventilating 
plant. It was claimed for this system that it would heat the 
room uniformly and keep the air fresh. 

Whether those plants will heat as quickly and as cheaply 
as the injacketed stove is a question that there is a difference 
of opinion on. However, it is certain that the ventilation is 
much improved and the room more healthful and conditions 
for study much better. Nearly every district in the county 
took advantage of the law which shows that board members 


were ready to make use of opportunities for llie betterment 
of the physical and nuMital development of the ehildren. While 
tliese plants are not doing all that was elaimed for them and 
the usual unfair means and misrepresentations were practiced 
in jnany cases in order to make sales, the law has proven very 
helpful for it lias been tlie means of supplying necessities to 
the school. 


One of tiie most important subjects and the one that has 
received the least attention or no attention at all is penmanship. 
Neither the time nor the attention has been given to this sub- 
ject that it inerits. There are several reasons for this but the 
chief one is that the teacher has received no special training 
in this subject and, of course, could not impart knowledge that 
she did not possess. Usually ten or fifteen miiuites was devoted 
to writing each day but as there was no system to follow, it 
was turned into a go as you please exercise. Yet in spite of 
lack of method of system, many developed into fairly good 
writers. For a couple of years this subject has received its 
share of attention at teachers meetings and institutes which 
has paved the way for the free arm movement whidi is being 
introduced, and it is hoped that the school will turn out easy 
legible writers. To be a good writer is quite an accomplishment 
and any one tliat has proper control of his muscles, can by 
careful practice under proper instruction come into possession 
of this art. 

The school of today compared witli the school of twenty 
years ago. 

The school year has been lengthened at least one fourth. 
The building, apparatus, and general equipment ai-e inucli im- 

The teachers on the whole are better prepared academically 
and professionally, although many of our teachers are too young 
to shoulder the great responsibility that they undertake; in fact 
some of them do not reali/A' the enormity of the undertaking. 
Years ago it was common to find young men and young women 
attending school especially in the winter months. 

Now if you would travel the county over, you would not 
find any full grown boys and gii'ls in attendance. The average 
pupil of 12 and 13 years of age today is as far advanced as 
the 18 and 20 year old pupil was 20 years ago. But where are 
those boys and girls 14 years of age and upwards.' They are 


not in the country school; some of them are in the high school 
but most of them are out of school altogether. It is to be 
regretted that the boys and girls leave the country school so 
early. Our Avhole school 'system has been severely criticized 
lately and the common schools came in for their share and no 
doubt it Avas coming to them. Yet the country teacher with 
her multiplicity of duties has more to do than any one person 
can do well. She must be janitor, nurse, disciplinarian, and 
mediator, besides teaching all the branches. 

The teacher that can do this fairly well is the best of teachers, 
and it may be said without successful contradiction that the 
country school gets better returns for the amount of money 
invested in education tlian any other school in the state. 



The cariiiii;' lor the poor and insane oi' any eounty is a problem 
to whieh sliould be brought to bear level headed business ability 
in addition to the mere fact of providing for the needs of such 
unfortunates; that this department of municipal atfairs in this 
founty has been managed with business acumen having in view 
the best interests, not only of the poor and insane people, but 
the welfare of the community at large ; and a policy inaugurated 
Avhich accrues to the benefit of the taxpayers is very apparent. 
In 1871 the condition with regard to the support of the poor 
liad become so hard to handle without a central home or place 
where some of these people could be cared for, that the then 
eounty board was compelled to consider the purchase of a farm 
to be used as a home for the poor, and as has been stated in a 
former chapter the farm of David Cole of two hundred acres, 
situated in the town of Adrian, Avas purchased in that year for 
the sum of $5,000, but as the county grew older and the popula- 
tion more dense the natural increase of the burden of caring 
for the poor, so developed the fact that this farm was in a 
poor location, being quite a distance from the county seat, 
and the buildings were too small for the accommodation of 
those requiring assistance; the county board finally authorized 
the sale of the farm and purchased one lying just north of the 
city of Sparta and in the town of Sparta, a very advantageous 
location with a' beautiful building site, upon Avhich was erected 
in 1900 a large brick home for the poor with modern con- 
veniences at a cost of about .$11,000. It l)ecame evident at this 
time, as the matter had been discussed eonsideral)ly before, 
that the mHul)er of insane with which this county was charge- 
able, ])eing cared for in otlier institutions including several county 
asylums, was rapidly increasing and the burden of expenses was 
growing quite rapidly; a committee had been previously ap- 
pointed to investigate the subject of a county asylum and its 
report created quite a strong sentiment in the county that it 
would be advisable for this county, hnviiig the approval of the 












State Board of Control, to build a county asylum for chronic 
insane. The proposal was made to change the poorhouse then 
erected, to an insane asylum, and to subsequently erect another 
home for the poor upon the same farm. After considerable 
agitation in which the two sides of the county were arrayed 
against each other the proposition finally was carried out and 
in 1902 another home for the poor was erected on another part 
of the farm near the asylum. The farm had been enlarged and 
improved since then by the purchase of an additional 120 acres 
of land and by the erection of a separate heating plant and 
also of a complete water works system Avhich Avas put in in 
1907; this system consists of a steel tower ninety feet high with 
an eighteen foot tank on the top with a capacity of 50,000 
gallons, standing on a solid concrete foundation, and from it 
run six-inch pipes for the asylum and for the poorhouse and 
and barns and out-buildings, and in connection with it is a power 
house having a large Gould pump of ten horse power and the 
AVestinghouse electric motor. The barns are all of the most 
modern construction and a herd of dairy cattle is maintained 
upon the farm which is kept in the highest state of cultivation 
and now produces a good income. Before the adoption of this 
system the county was compelled to pay $3 a week for the main- 
tenance of each person charged to it in any of the institutions 
to which they were committed, but, of course, a portion of this 
was returned by the state ; almost from the very outset it be- 
came apparent that the establishing of a county asylum was 
a good business venture, for not only were the patients coming 
from this county gradually sent here, but patients from other 
counties are committed to this asylum for which the county 
receives the regular amount chargeable by the law for the main- 
tenance of such patients. The income of the institution from 
the farm and from other sources has gradually increased, outside 
of the appropriation made by the county board, so that the 
receipts of the sale of produce from $79-1:. 71 in 1904 increased 
to $2,615.58 in 1911 and at the last report of the trustees for 
the year 1910-1911 made in November, 1911. it is shown that 
the permanent investment in and about the asylum is as fob 
lows: Farm, $23,000; buildings less 2%, $29,472.52; live stock, 
$5,715.50; tools and implements less 10%, $1,449.86; furniture 
and furnishings less 10%, $1,775.88; making a total of $61,415.76. 
The home for the poor is a comfortable brick building capable 
of housing thirty inmates; heated by steam and lighted 
by electricity, with modern conveniences, surely a home better 


fitted, by far, than the great mass of people of the county are 
al)le to afford; the asylum at the last report had a total popula- 
tion of forty-five nude and twenty-eight female patients. .Mr. 
F. J. ]Mooney, present superintendent, and his "svife the matron 
have conducted this institution very successfully for the last 
nine years, and under ]Mr. ^looney's management the farm has 
been brought to a high state of cultivation and is a model institu- 
tion ; some of the patients assist in carrying on the farm opera- 
tions and it is considered a good thing to have them busily 
employed Avhen they are able, under the proper supervision. 
During the years of the existence of this institution for the 
insane the amount of the appropriation which the county board 
makes has gradually decreased from j|^5,000 to about $2,500 and 
l)elow is given a little list of the receipts and expenditures, 
beginning Avith 1902, showing simply the gross amounts. 


Year ending October 1st: Receipts from the county board 
appropriation, $4,500; produce from farm to April 1, 1903, 
$108.69; error in invoice. $42.19; balance on hand in county 
treasury November 1, 1902, $165.63. Total, $6,301.51. Expendi- 
tures, total of $4,632.81 ; leaving a balance on hand October 1, 


Earnings from the state to July, 1903, $810; receipts from 
produce, $794.71 ; receipts from other sources, $1,869.67 ; total, 
$3,474.38 ; appropriations from county board, $5,000 ; balance in 
asylum fund, $85.34; making a total of $8,559.72; total of ex- 
penditures, $7,128.25; leaving a 1)alance of $1,431.47. 


Receipts — Balance of last i-eport, $1,431.47; earnings from 
state, $4,233.31 ; sales of produce, $548.25 ; collection from other 
sources, $575.01 ; balance in the poor fund for maintenance of 
the home for the poor, $1,434.41; making a total of $8,248.45; 
total expenditures, $6,850.90; leaving a balance on hand of 
$1,397.55. This report shows that tlie cost per capita of the 
innuites is $1.99i/:i a week. 


Receipts — Balance on hand from last report, $1,397.55; earn- 
ings from the state, $4,587.05: collection for district attorney, 
$244 ; sales of produce, $599.28 ; maintenance of poor home, 


$1,497.94; expenditures, $7,550.42; balance on hand, $775.40. 
This report shows a cost per capita of the inmates of $2,011/3 
a week. 


Receipts — Balance on hand from last report, $775.40 ; earn- 
ings from the state, $5,794.16 ; collection from district attorney, 
$278.14 ; Citizens Insurance Company, $26 ; sales of produce, 
$1,207.69 ; maintenance of poor home, $1,712.77 ; total receipts, 
$9,794.16; total expenditures, $9,459.63; balance on hand, $334.53. 
Cost of maintenance per capita $2.22 per week. 


Balance on hand last report. $334.53; earnings from the state, 
$5,469.40; collection from district attorney, $3,483.60; sales of 
produce, $1,092.27; maintenance of poor home, $2.122.98 ; total 
receipts, $12,502.78 ; total expenditures, $11,456.96 ; balance on 
hand, $1,045.82. Cost per capita per week, $2.72. 


Balance on hand last report, $1,045.82 ; earnings from state, 
$5,424.20 ; collection from district attorney, $764.75 ; sales of 
produce, $1,526.40; maintenance of poor home, $1,978.22; total, 
$10,339.59; total disbursements, $11,758.04; balance overdrawn, 


Receipts — Cash received from state, $6,498.94 ; cash received 
from farm produce, $2,392.96 ; appropriation by the county 
board, $3,000; special appropriation, $300; cash for maintenance 
of poor, $2,576.09; cash miscellaneous, $461; total, $15,228.99; 
total disbursements, $15,617.17 ; balance overdrawn, $338.18. 


Receipts — Cash received from state, $5,663.76 ; received from 
sale of farm produce, $2,615.58 ; appropriation by the county 
board, $2,500 ; special appropriation, $1,715 ; cash for main- 
tenance of poor, $2,777.27 ; cash miscellaneous, $867.54 ; total, 
$16,136.15; amount of total disbursements, $13,798.46; balance 
on hand, $2,337.69. 


Situated in a fertile valley, surrounded by great advantages, 
on nearly all sides farming lands as good as are to be found 
anywhere, is Sparta, tlie county seat of this county. 

Ever since it became a village of any appreciable size the 
beauty of the location and surroundings have always impressed 
itself upon visitors and at the outset in this chapter, perhaps, 
no better description of the beauties of the place can be found 
than is contained in the following extract which was written 
in August, 1867, by a special correspondent of the Chicago Tri- 
bune. Parts of the article are here quoted and certainly the 
description is beautifully worded and will apply ;is well today 
as it did forty-four years ago : 

"Imagine a beautiful fertile valley through which tiows a 
river fed by numerous trout brooks whose soft, clear waters 
babble of the spring in the highlands where they were born. 
Surrounded with a chain of blutfs, some near, other remote, 
among Avhich winds the river and its tributaries through smaller 
valleys which arc here lost in the greater one. Near at hand, 
scarcely more than one mile away, are bluffs, forest covered, 
whose well divided proportions are clearly cut against the blue 
sky. On each side of the retreating valleys the bluffs appearing 
on the opposite side are confouiuled in the distance by misty 
and dim lookiug shadows as though the valley was entirely 
surrounded by a coronal of hills. 

"The flat land, smooth, clcai- and grassy, dotted Avith clusters 
of graceful trees; thus natui-e planned and fashioned it and now 
from this elevated spot where I stand the setting sun of a long 
August day illuminates the beautiful village with its din and 
bustle, and tasty residences and farmhouses which everyAvhere 
dot the landscape." After the opening of the state roads between 
Hudson and Prairie du Chien, and by way of Sjiarta to Black 
River Falls, and subsequently from Portage to LaCrosse in 1849 
settlers began to come towards the western part of the state, 
particularly in what was then LaCrosse county. As has been 



written, IMonroe county was at one time a part of LaCrosse 
and was detached from it in 1854. It is undoubtedly authentic 
tluit Frank Petit must have settled here in 1849. "Sir. Searle, 
who was clerk of the court at Black River Falls at that time, 
made the statement that he and a man in his employ visited 
Black River Falls in September of that year. In the evening 
of the first day they encamped where Tomah now stands, pro- 
ceeding on their way in the morning, and owing to a terrific 
storm they had lost their way and had nothing to guide them 
except the range of bluffs. Their only chance of getting out 
of the situation was to follow these bluffs and l)y them reaching 
the Mississippi. They had no provisions, but killed game to 
supply their needs ; they traveled south, as they thought, until 
they came to a small stream and some small timber, where they 
encamped for the night as best they could in a drenching rain 
and without food, as their ammunition being wet they could not 
obtain any game. The next day, towards night, they struck a 
trail near the stream where the marks of shod horses evidenced 
that some white man had crossed there. They followed this 
trail hoping to find a human being somewhere. That night 
they encamped near Castle Rock and the following day, in a 
storm which had continued all that night, the party struck 
Robinson's mills, where they obtained the first food they had had 
since their own supplies gave out. 

Here the travelers took a rest for two days and began their 
return homeward. At the point where the two crossed the 
river they determined to ascertain what description the land 
bore and they marked the southwest quarter of section twenty- 
four in township seventeen, range four west, Avhicli is now 
included in the site of the city of Sparta. 

Having discovered a chance for a Avater power at this point, 
^Ir. Searle at once went to Baraboo and applied for a warrant 
for the land. On his return he took teams loaded with lumber 
and a few men to help him and came to a road over a big ridge 
on his land, but on his way hither he discovered that the real 
mill site was above that point, and leaving his lumber he im- 
mediately set out for Baraboo, and applied for another warrant, 
but one of his men had betrayed his intention to Dr. Angle 
at Baraboo who promised the man a half interest for the descrip- 
tion of the land having on it the mill site. These two immediately 
set out for Mineral Point in order to go through the usual form 
necessary to make an entry and to entitle them to full possession 
of the land. Searle took the stage and Angle Avent on horseback 


Mild tlnis lijid tile advantage of speed and beat Scarlc by one 
hour, tlius beeoiuing the owner of the hind. So had the question 
been settled otherwise, "Angelo" wouhl probably have been 
called "Searlo" or something of the kind. Mr. Kearle having 
lost tile luiddle site and not knowing that a city was to spring 
up on that forty acres took no farther interest in this claim and 
sold it for ^30.00. He also states that upon looking for iiis 
lumber he found that Petit had followed the rule that necessity 
knows of no hiw. and had used it in building a house for himself 
near Castle Kock. William Petit houglit a claim of 160 acres 
of land near the crossing of these two state roads, and Avhere 
the site of the city now is; he built a log cabin on the bank of 
Beaver creek at the point about where the library is located ; 
when his cabin Avas completed on the 5th day of July, 1851, it 
was the first building of any kind erected in Sparta. 

The large amount of travel on the road and the need of a 
resting place at this point, induced Petit to make a tavern 
of his dwelling and though the cabin contained but one room 
and a loft, the latter apartment having no fioor, except such 
a one as was made of a few rough slabs made for this purpose, 
and put down loosely. There were few, if any, beds in the 
house and travelers wrapped their blankets about them and 
laid down upon the hard floor to lie lulled to sleep, if that was 
possil)le. by the howling of the hungry wolves Avhich often stuck 
their cold noses through the crevices between the logs and snift'ed 
in anticipation of what a good meal they could have, if it Avere 
possible to get inside. 

At this time supplies had to be brought from LaCrosse, 
Avhich then consisted of a land office and about a dozen houses, 
a hotel and one or two general stores. The varieties of food 
Avere feAV and the opportunities to get them Avere still fcAver, 
and consequently Petit "s bill of fare at the inn Avas very meager. 

In August 1851 EdAvard AValrath arrived and at once made 
arrangements to settle and in October of the same year his 
father, Kev. Fredrick AYalrath, a ^Methodist clergyman, and the 
remainder of the "\Yalrath family became residents of this place. 
The elder AYalrath entered a claim a mile or so south of Petit 's 
but not having a house built, in the fall lie made arrangements 
and did share the Petit cabin Avitli the OAvner, until such time 
as he could build one. The Petit cabin being scantily furnished, 
and "\Yalratli having no place to store his household goods, they 
Avere used in common, but the combined possessions of the tAvo 


families were not sufficient for the need of the inmates of the 
lioiise and the guests. Great inducements having been offered 
by the state government to parties in search for homes by 
offering thirty years time at 7% interest within which to pay 
for hind and the location of the land office in LaCrosse caused 
a great deal of travel by the way of Petit 's tavern, which 
resulted in a gradual settlement of the land near by. 

Richard Casselman also located here in 1851 and built a 
log cabin on the spot that is now the northeast corner of Oak 
and Water streets which he used as a blacksmith shop ; his 
house was a little back of the shop towards the creek. William 
Kerrigan, the father of Mrs. W. N. AYells, Avas then a lad, 
apprentice to Mr. Casselman and came with the Casselmans to 
this place. J. D. Damman, Lyman Andres, A. H. Blake and 
Russell Hill came to Sparta about this time. Damman building a 
log house where the hotel Lewis now stands which was after- 
wards sold to Harron who kept a hotel in it. A. H. Blake built 
a log house on a littk^ hill not far from Casselman 's and Mr. 
Hill located a dwelling farther to the west. 

The Rev. W. H. Card, a Baptist clergyman, came in 1851 
and preached the first sermon in Petit 's house. Ed. Walrath, 
not believing the minister's assertion that he would hold services 
there that Sunday, went out trout fishing. AYhen he returned 
Mr. Card was half finished with his sermon, and to save time, 
and to have dinner in season. Edward seated himself in the 
doorway and at the same time listened to the elder's remarks 
and cleaned the fish. The minister was somewhat indignant 
at his conduct as a lack of respect for himself and for the Sab- 
bath, and frowned upon the young man. After the services 
were over Walrath asked Mrs. Petit if she would cook the 
fish, to which she gave consent and notwithstanding his previous 
objection the minister ate heartily of the trout which were set 
before him at that meal. 

George A. Fisk who died in 1866 came to Sparta in 1851 
and married Catherine E. Walrath in 1857 ; ^Irs. Fisk survived 
her husband a great many years and lived to a ripe old age, 
passing away October 20, 1910, and in connection with the early 
settlement of the village it will be of peculiar interest at this 
point to get in Mrs. Fisk's OAvn words, an account of the first 
winter passed by she and her father, IMr. Walrath, in Sparta, 
where they arrived on October 10, 1851. A sketch of the first 
winter of her residence in Sparta written by Mrs. Fisk will 


be read "with s])ec.'ial interest by all and more particularly by 
the elder residents of the city. She entitles it, "My First AVinter 
in Sparta." 

"Ill l!io spring of 1851 my father made up his mind to 
break up the old home and emigrate to Wisconsin. Ilis children 
were getting the AVestern fever, one son and daughter liad already 
left the home nest. It was more than father and mother could 
bear so the farm was sold and the goods were packed. That 
was the beginning. How Avell I remember the packing up. Three 
large dry goods boxes about as big as a small barn, it seemed 
to me, were bought. I remember father telling mother not to 
put in anything heavy. She had already packed her splint 
bottom straight back sewing chair. Alothcr made the remark to 
sister Sarah, 'I can't leave the chair I rocked all mv babies 


"In these boxes were stored all things needful. Among 
them Avas a red cherry bureau, part of her setting-out outfit, as 
it was called in those days, when young people took each other 
for better or worse. It was not very large and was packed full 
of dried fruits. Tucked in every corner of the box was bedding 
of all kinds, maple sugar, twenty-five yards of carpet and many 
other things. AVe took the packet on the canal as far as BuiTalo. 
then across the lakes to ]\Iihvaukee and from there to my sister's 
home in Fond du Lac county where we spent the summer, while 
my brother Edward went to LaCrosse with a party looking 
for a homestead. On his return father bought a horse and what 
they called a Democrat wagon (fii-st democrat ever in Sparta "i. 
a ,ioke as well as wagon. 

"There were some teamsters who wauled to see the wild 
west -and they offered to bring our goods through for their 
board and lodging. It took nine days. The Avay Avas long 
and most of it nothing l)ut an Indian trail. Sometimes they 
came to what was called a swale or wet marshy ground. AVe 
would have to bridge it. Every wagon had a scythe and great 
forks fastened to one side. Father would call a halt, grass and 
hazel brush were cut and carried to fill the wet places before 
we could cross over. Sometimes the boys Avould want to rush 
things so as to hurry along, but father would build it safe for 
others that came after. AA^e stopped one afternoon in Lemonweii- 
A^'alley to pick cranberries. The farmer told father he could 
liave all we could pick in three hours. AVe picked a barrel 
and the farmer furnished tlie ])ai'rel to put them in. 

" We reached Sparta on the 10th of October, 1851, as the 


sun was setting so beautifully as we drove down the hill near 
where the Old Ida House used to stand ; across the little stream 
(Beaver Creek) to the old Globe Hotel. I have never since seen 
such a beautiful sunset. Father said to mother, 'It's like Para- 
dise.' The hotel had one window and a door with a wooden latch 
and buckskin string to lift it. Father was delighted with the out- 
look over the prairie. Not many trees then. 

"He took up a claim beyond where the Milwaukee de})ot 
noAV stands. j\Iy father and brothers were carpenters so it did 
not take long to build a log cabin. AVe moved in our new home 
on the loth of November without a chamber tioor or window 
or door. Rag carpets and blankets were tacked over tlie places 
for windoAvs and doors. That night came the first snow. It 
made us wish for our old home. The boys soon had doors and 
got windows from LaCrosse. The lumber came frm Black River 
Falls and it took three days to go and come. 

"Then when the boxes were unpacked such a mine of wealth. 
Lots of warm bedding, a little sewing chair, red cherry stand 
and bureau, three flag bottom chairs, small book case with Watt's 
sermons and Clark's Commentary and other books, twenty-five 
yards of rag carpet, a bolt of cotton cloth and curtain calico, 
you could see your face in (the first ever in Sparta), lots of 
dried fruit, dishes and table linen. AVe were quite comfortable. 
AYe had an elevated oven cook stove. They were the style those 
days. The boys made some tamarack bedsteads for the chamber. 
The roof was shingled with shacks, all that could be bought at 
that time. It was a terrible cold winter and lots of snow. Some 
mornings mother would have to come upstairs and sweep up the 
snow before we would go to breakfast. Mother had tacked 
cotton cloth on the rafters over our beds. 

"We only had one mess of potatoes all winter. A lady where 
father stopped when he went to Black River to preach gave 
him a half bushel. ^Mother said she would cut out the eyes 
and the rest she would cook. I never saw so many eyes in 
potatoes before or since. In the fall father bought two kinds 
of rutabagas of ]\[r. Frank Petit who lived four miles out and 
a- lot of pumpkins. Grandma Petit told mother how to make 
pumpkin butter that was delicious. Those rutabagas were the 
loveliest things, all the apples we had that winter. Some were 

"Brother Edward made a lovely couch out of those boxes. 
It had back and arms long and wide enough to sleep on when 
the preachers would raid us. AYe had so many boards for the 


sitting room, so many for the dining room and tlie rest for 
the kitchen. Our pantry was just holes in the logs, boards 
across and curtained with curtain calico, the same as the couch 
Avas covered with and everything matched. The sitting and 
dining rooms were carpeted. The boys made benches which 
wei-e covered Avith curtain calico." 

.Mr. W'iihiilli. a .Methodist minister, began his missionary labors 
in tile county by preaching his first sermon in Sparta in Novem- 
ber, 1851; his congregation consisted of five persons; after tliis 
he held meetings wherever the people Avould have him do so, 
journeying for miles through an almost travelless Avoods to hold 
services for some family avIio had sent him an invitation. Some- 
times going on horseback but oftener on foot. Truly a pioneer 
in the cause of Christianity. Occasionally the entire population 
of the valley Avould turn out and accompany him in a sleigh 
to some place farther on in tlie Avoods. and eA^en then the sleigh 
would not b(^ full. A ]\Irs. Parks. Avho resided six miles from 
Sparta, upon one occasion sent him word that she and her little 
ones could not Avalk doAvn to Petit 's to hear liini preach and 
dared him to meet lier and her family half Avay. And he did. 
The meeting Avas held, the parties each making a journey of 
three miles and ])ack for the sake of enjoying the services. During 
uuiny occasions this minister of the gospel Avas often pursued 
by Avolves Avith which the forests abounded. He Avas, hoAvever. 
never injurinl by any of these blood-thirsty animals, and eA^ery 
one at tliat tinu^ Avas more or less annoyed by tliem. They 
surrounded dwellings and made the night hideous Avith their 
hoAvlings, plundering Avhenever an opportunity offered, and to 
rid the nuisance the people resorted to ti'aps as well as hunting 
them Avith guns. 

A number of adventures are recorded with these aninuils 
and one concerns Captain Fisk, avIio, having been out in the 
country in company Avith the tAvo daughters of ^Nlr. Walrath. 
Avas returning after dark; there Avere good roads and they Avere 
going along nicely when ]\Ir. Fisk discovered they Avere being 
chased by five large Avolves. He made no meulion of the fact 
to the girls but Avhipped the horses to a fasti-r speed but still 
the Avolves Avere gaining upon them and matters Avere becoming 
serious, Avhen the bolt that holds the Avhitifle-tree dropped out 
thus necessitating a stop, lie sprang out to remedy the damage 
and fortunately found the bolt for Avhich he Avas searching, 
and at that time the girls noticed how strange his voice sounded, 
and kept looking l)ackAvards. FolloAviug his glances to see Avhat 


was the troul)le they beheld the panting wolves almost within 
reach of their arms. It was a trying position, none of the party 
had a weapon of defense and their only liope was flight. The 
horses had not been frightened by the pursuance of the wolves 
but became so upon hearing the slight screams of the girls when 
they discovered their danger. Fisk sprang into the sled, urged 
the horses forward and struck backwards with his whip at the 
wolves ; if it had not been for the strong wdiip he had the wolves 
would certainly have jumped into the sled. Mile after mile 
they went in this way. It can be readily imagined that minutes 
were hours to the pursued party in this race for life. The 
wolves repelled by the whip tried several times to cut off the 
flight by attempting to get into the road and trip against the 
horses at the point of meeting ; the constant bloAvs with the 
whip, however, caused them to fall back, and the chase con- 
tinued, the wolves snapping their teeth and keeping close to 
the sled until the clearing was reached and the settlement ap- 
peared in view, and then only, did the wolves give up their 
pursuit. It was an incident long to be remembered by those 
who w^ere engaged in it. 

Other wild animals as well as wolves and also wild fowls 
of all kinds were plentiful in this region at this time ; old settlers 
say that prairie chickens were so numerous that only partial 
crops of grain could be raised owing to the fact that these birds 
would devour every kernel of grain they could see and hang 
around the fields in great flocks. They were such a nuisance 
that they were obliged to destroy large numbers of them in 

The year 1852 brought many interesting events and ]\Ir. Petit 
in this year laid out the old court house square and platted a 
number of lots around it ; there being sufficient population in 
the village a meeting of the citizens was called and a resolution 
was passed to the etfeet that the village should have a name ; 
there w^as considerable discussion as to hoAv this name should 
be decided upon, but it was finally agreed that Mrs. Petit, the 
mother of the tw^o Petit boys, should have the privilege of 
choosing the name and she gave it the name of ''Sparta." 

A little later in the same year Lyman Andrews built the 
first frame house in the city upon a lot given for the purpose 
by Mr. Petit, who was offering to give lots to all who would 
erect buildings upon them ; the lot was at the Northeast corner 
of the square and the building was erected, opened as a tavern 
and was called the Sparta Exchange. G. H. Ledyard, a Portage 


jiian wlio had been peddling; tliroiifjli this section of the country 
since its first settlement, opened a store in the log cabin at tliis 
time the first store in the village. 'I'lie fii-st biiihling for use 
as a store was erected by C. J\athbun on what was then known 
as Cassebnan's corner where the Greve's block was subse(iueutly 
l)uilt. Samuel Fisk arrived in Aucrust and lived in the house 
Avith Casseliiiaii uiilil he could Imild one foi' his family. Tliis 
was located wdiere the Chicago & Northwestern Railway depot 
now stands; George A. and W. ^\. Fisk were the sons of Daniel 
Fisk. In the spring of 1852 the first election of any kind was 
held in tlie village and seventeen votes Avere cast; T\. J. Cassel- 
man, AVilliam Petit and Lyman Andrews were the committee 
of election; Sparta being at that time a ])art of the town of 
Leon in the county of LaCrosse. 

In December of the same year Samuel Hoyt arrived and 
began looking for a home; he bought a lot from .Mi-, llarron 
for $16 and built a cabin upon it and subsequently ^Ir. llarron 
became dissatisfied and offered Mi-. Hoyt the lot adjoining the 
other as a gift if he would pui-chase his oxen and farm so lie 
could leave the place. Hoyl lundc llic purchase and Harron 
moved away. 

People at this time were constantly filing ncAV claims througli 
the land office in LaCrosse and taking up land and it was neces- 
sary, of course, to have witnesses to the fact of their residence 
on the land for a sufficient time to enabh' tlieiu to get title. 
AVilliam Petit, James Phillips, AVilliam King and William Kerri- 
gan it is rehilcd once went in company to tlie land office at 
LaCrosse. Reluming they passed tlii- cnhin of a Avomaii known 
as mother Paddock, wlio was noted for her masculine attributes. 
The old lady was the possessor of a dog which had a bad habit 
of i-unning out and barking at teams and Kerrigan, nu)re for 
mischief tlian anything else, fired at the dog not thinking that 
be could hit it at so great a distance and it was. his misfortiuie 
to wound the animal in the neck. A whib^ aft(M'wards E. AVali-ath 
and K. Tliompson passed that way and took dinner with her 
at which they saw tlie dog, which was then fully recovered 
with the exception that it had lost its voice. It would go all 
through the motions of barking b\it could not make a souiul. 
Walrath, for a joke pointed to his companion and said: ''Mrs. 
Paddock, here is the man who shot your dog." Going to the 
supposed offender with her fists doubled ui^ and with a threaten- 
ing attitude the old woman said, ''Sir, all that keeps me from 


cowhiding the man who shot my dog is that I believe him to have 
been drunk at the time, therefore not accountable for the act." 
Thompson got a little pale about the mouth and did not seem 
to have the usual relish for his dinner and after that both 
AValrath and Thompson failed to stop for meals at ]Mrs. Pad- 
dock's on their way to Sparta from LaCrosse. 

This year the first logging was done on the LaCrosse river. 
No sawmills had as yet been built in this section and the logs 
had to be driven to Neshonoc. Kerrigan and the two Phillips 
l)rothers did the driving. A number of amusing incidents oc- 
curred in the log driving. It seems that AVilbur E. Fisk had 
started out with the company of loggers, but being inexperienced 
in log driving he covild not keep his footing when on the logs 
in the water and he got on one log which began to roll rapidly 
and he began to dance trying to keep his feet. Faster and 
faster they went and getting frightened, sprang into the water 
and clasped the log with his arms ; but the log had acquired 
such a momentum that he was whirled over and over in and 
out of the water with great rapidity and he was finally rescued 
with much diificulty nearly strangled and chilled to the bone. 
He did not continue any farther in the business but took the 
nearest road for home satistied that he was not suited for log 
driving. Later in the same year a sawmill was erected in Angelo 
by Seth Angle. 

The year 1853 brought many interesting events to the little 
village; a post office was established and AVilliam Petit appointed 
and installed as postmaster and made Richard Casselman deputy, 
who used his hat for a post office. At the beginning there was 
only one mail each week and it did not amount to more than 
a few letters and one or two papers so that it was no great 
task to "distribute the mail;" and as a rule those who wanted 
to get their mail went to Mr. Casselman and upon inquiring 
for it, he would take down the post office from his head and 
hand out the letter if there was one. Mr. Petit, however, had 
some difficulty with Casselman and appointed Lyman Andrews 
his deputy, Avho dignified the office by keeping it at the Sparta 
Exchange. Soon after this, Petit sold out his entire interest 
in the village to A. F. Bard and moved away while Casselman 
was appointed postmaster and served in this capacity for several 
years. A. H. and Hilton Blake during this year erected a saw- 
mill in the village on the bank of Beaver creek and were it 
still standing it would be in the middle of Water street in the 


down town district. Court street was then called Elaine and 
it bore that name until the erection of the court house on the 
court house square. 

There were a few new coiners during this year some locating 
in the village and some on farms near by. AV. S. Newton 
established a hardware on Oak street early in ]\Iay. Andrew 
Allen in September opened a store where ]\Ir. Harron had former- 
ly kept a tavern; this year the medical profession made its 
bow to the community in the person of Dr. George A. MilJigan. 
who was most joyfully received ])y the inhabitants and was 
the first physician to locate in the county of Monroe. He is 
still living in the city of Sparta at a very advanced ag" having 
retired from practice a number of years ago ; ^laj. Morrison 
]Mc^lillan arrived in 1853 and located on a farm in the villago 
and afterwards became quite prominent in county affairs. Timo- 
thy Barker was also another of the settlers at this time, he 
building a two story house; in addition to these, there were 
probably eight or ten more new settlers in or near Sparta during 
this year. 

The fine pul)lic school system of Sparta had its humble be- 
ginning in 1853 with the erection of a small board shanty about 
12 X 16 feet in size, which afterwards served the double purpose 
of a school house and church. ]\Iiss Sarah AValrath was the 
first teacher regularly employed and opened the teaching under 
adverse circumstances but with the pluck and vim Avhicli charac- 
terized the earlier inhabitants. 

During this year there was a miniature Indian war precipi- 
tated in the vilhige which proved, however, to be almost entirely 
one sided but which brought the desired results. It seems that 
the "Winnebago Indians, as had ever been the case, claimed all 
the territory to be theirs previous to the coming of the white 
people; this tribe at that time had degenerated somewhat, were 
very inferior to the Chippewa Indians who lived farther north, 
and the settlers invariably had nothing to do with tlie AVinne- 
bagos but were annoyed by them at times, as they would steal, 
and in certain cases became quite impudent. 

One instance, which aroused the ])eople of the village, oc- 
curred in the summer of 185)}, Avlien an Indian came to the 
home of R. H. ^McMann in Big Creek, about four miles from 
Sparta and demanded food of him and ui)on being refused, 
pointed his riHe at the farmer and threatened to shoot him 
unless it was produced. This so enraged Mr. ^Ic^Iann that after- 
wards he made a complaint to the authoi-ities in Sparta and 


the news having gotten among the people, a volunteer company- 
was formed for the purpose of punishing the Indians ; every 
man in the village and within two miles around volunteered 
his service and the company was organized, numbered about 
twenty-five men ; a camping party of about forty AVinnebagos, 
to which the Indian belonged who had threatened Mr. McMann, 
were camped about two miles from his farm ; to this point 
marched the brave little army intent upon punishing the AA^inne- 
bago and inflicting a lesson which would be lasting. Upon 
arriving at the Indian camp, a demand was made for the Indian 
who had threatened McMann and they were informed that he 
would be whipped as a punishment. To their surprise, the 
AVinnebagos made no resistance whatever, but allowed the whites 
to take possession of the Indian and not only that, but to take 
their guns away from them which were fired otf and stacked 
together. The Indian was stripped of his clothes and severely 
Avhipped by Mr. AIclMann with a blacksnake. The red man, 
however, stood with folded arms and not moving a muscle on 
his body, proudly erect and disdained to show any sign of 
suffering. AA^hen McMann had inflicted sufficient punishment, 
the Indians were marched to the village and arranged in front 
of the Sparta Exchange where they were given food by the 
proprietor, Lyman Andrews ; they all ate heartily except the 
Indian who had been whipped, he refused to touch the food. 
AVhen the meal was done the settlers told the Indians to go 
and gave them to understand that they must stay away and 
never be seen in that part of tlie country again ; this heroic 
treatment had its effect and it is related that there was no 
trouble with Indians afterwards, although one time soon after 
the people of the village had a serious scare from a rumor to 
the effect that the Indians were to massacre the whites in re- 
venge for this whipping; it proved, however, to be without 

Eighteen fifty-four brouglit things of big interest to the people 
of the little village; for during the winter a bill Avas pending in 
legislature to set aside the county of Monroe from LaCrosse 
county and a lively little contest was on as to where the county 
seat should be located; whether at Leon, which was then quite 
a settlement, or at Sparta; the bill was finally passed and ap- 
proved by the governor IMarch 21, and it provided that Sparta 
should be the county seat of the county and on the first Tuesday 
in April the first election was held at which the full quota of 
officers were elected and the records show that a total vote of 


seventy was jjollcd in tlic cnlirc rounty. Nearly all oL' the 
eounty ofHeers were residents of the village of Sparta and con- 
tained many well known names. 

A. 11. Hlake was elected county judge, E. AValrath, sheriff; 
AVilhur Fisk, register of deeds; John Barker, clerk of the court; 
Samuel Iloyt, county treasurer; A. B. Cornel, district attorney. 
This year brought several new settlers, all of whom it is 
impossible to enumerate, but among them early in July was 
George AV. Koot and family. Mr. Koot bought the house of 
Lyman Andrews, then known as the Sparta Exchange, together 
with the stock of goods and continued the business, hiring ]\Ir. 
Andrew's dining room table as a counter for a shilling a week. 
J. i\I. Sugden came up from St. Louis that year and l)uilt the 
first brick chimney in the village in Mr. Root's house. Sugden 
erected a paint shop on Water street, and it was at the time 
the largest building on that street; people called him crazy for 
|)n1ting up such a large house for a paint shop. Doctor Gage, 
in an article on the early settlers, says of I\Ir. Sugden : 

"Sugden, one of the pioneers and a first class painter and 
paper hanger, found this, at that early period a not very inviting 
field for these pursuits, but iew buildings then Avarranted this 
class of adornment and he betook himself to bricklaying, in the 
Avay of making small chimneys for the roofs of small houses 
as a means of turning an honest penny, and he became known 
as the handsome bricklayer, l)ut whether this term was to be 
applied to the individual himself or to his work has never yet 
been with certainty known." 

Among others, Charles Dickenson and family came this year 
and was one of the men who at one time conducted the Log 
Tavei-n which stood where the Hotel Lewis now is. At the time 
of his arrival there were about fourteen houses in the village. 

Things looked so promising for the future that a Fourth of 
July celebration was indulged in and every one within twenty 
or thirty miles of the village participated, making it a grand 
occurrence. George Flint, of LaCrosse. delivered the address 
and the day was passed in amusements of various kinds, a dinner, 
and finished by a dance; the day was marked by a further event 
which became historical ; the siirveyors of the ^Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway passed through theVillage on that day in running 
the line from ^lilwaukee to LaCrosse. 

Business advanced and among the stores opened in 1854 
was that of Rich & Blake, ^Fr. "Wouldrich, D. Logan, S. D. Jack- 
son. In August, the first ^Master-^Iason Lodge was organized 


through the efforts of Major ]\Ic]\Iillan ; the lodge met in a grove 
for the first time and afterwards held meetings in the loft of 
a small building. Among the settlers we also note the name 
of Benjamin Stevens, a mechanic, and his son, 0. D. Stevens, 
who afterwards kept a meat market ; S. M. Holbrook, an omnibus 
man, and Charles Goss. This year was marked also by the 
erection of the Monroe House, a little frame hotel, which stood 
upon the corner now occupied by the Baptist church, and Andrew 
Allen also built the Allen House, which subsequently was used 
as a store. 

This year also saw the publication of the first newspaper 
ever issued, if it may be called a newspaper, being the "Monroe 
County Citizen," which was published by a man by the name of 
L. Reising, who came from somewhere in New York and brought 
a little printing press. He issued a few numbers of this paper 
and, not meeting with financial success, the publication was 

The majority of the settlers who came in during the year 
1853-54-55 were from Cattaraugus county, in the state of New 
York, and there were so many of them that they became known 
as the "Cattaraugus delegation." 

AVe are unable to get the names of all of them, but among 
them L. S. Fisher appears, who arrived in 1855 and was elected 
clerk of the county board in 1856, served as deputy postmaster 
under Casselman and in that year opened the first exclusive 
grocery store in the village and in 1857 he went into the furniture 
business, doing well until 1860, when he was elected county 
treasurer, which position he filled until 1862, when he became 
commissioner on the board of enrollment for the Sixth Con- 
gressional District ; subsequently during the latter part of his 
life served as postmaster a great many years in the city. 

Dr. S. P. Angle was also from that county and located land 
and built a sawmill where Angelo now stands, and his son. 
Oscar, located at that point on a large farm, Oscar afterwards 
engaging in the livery business on Water street, subsequently 
became sheriff of the county. 

J. J. McKay, the second member of assembly of this place, 
also was a Cattaraugus man and so was Carlton Rice, -who took 
up practice in the county, A. F. Bard, L. Leas. Joseph Powell, 
Rufus Robinson, L. Moseley, G. Harvey and S. H. Sturns, M'ho 
served so many years as, clerk of the circuit court, B. S. Winship, 
proprietor of the Winship House, at that time the eating room 
for the INIilwaukee & St. Paul Railway, was a Cattaraugus man. 


Iloldeu & Ward, who conductt'd the grocery store at the 
corner of Oak and Court street, the ]\lcClure family all came 
from that county, settled here in 1852. J. J. ]\IcClure built a 
store south of the Globe Hotel, which was situated on what is 
now known as tlie library corner, he carried on a boot and shoe 
business; the Rockwell family, S. H. Dalaby came from Cat- 
taraugus county, C. AV. ^McAIillan, who served several terms as 
sheriff, was one of the delegation and arrived in ]85o. ^Morton 
Leonard, Lyman Andrews, AVilliam H. Blyton, AY. S. Newton, 
and Henry Foster all came from that county. sonu» as early as 

Hiram and Henry Foster arrived in 1855 and Hiram built 
the Globe Hotel the same year, but soon afterwards sold it to 
AYilliam Burlingaine, who kept it for a number of years. Henry 
Foster bought out 0. C. Poles, who was about to start a harness 
shop upon the arrival of the Fosters and he kept the business 
for a good many years afterwards. 

Very few of the old residents Avho came as early as 1855 
are still alive, and among them is H. A. Streeter, who now re- 
sides in the city at a very advanced age. He came in 1855 and 
his memory is quite clear as to the settlement in the village 
at that time. 

He states that the stage station at that time was at George 
Griffins, a log house with a barn connected which stood \ipon 
the Hotel Lewis corner. S. D. Jackson had a store then some- 
where along in where AIcAIillan's Furniture Company is now 
located ; the building was of rough boards and he afterwards 
built a store on what was called the knoll Avhere the barn of 
D. F. Davis now stands. Air. Streeter boarded when he first 
came here, but desired to l)uild a house and makes the remark- 
able statement that he started the building on Alonday, Avith tht^ 
help of a man named Andrew Dickenson, and had it completed 
and moved in by Tliursday: it was a frame building, very ]>rim- 
itive in its construction and he i)roeeeded, after the house Avas 
done, to make a bedstead, and he states that he made a "feather 
bed" out of cotton l)atten for the mattress. 

A table was erected of rough boards, several three-legged 
stools constructed, and this little home was complete and he 
and his wife moved in ha]ipy in the possession of that much. This 
building stood where F. Baldwin's blacksmith shop is located. 

Air. Streeter bought the lot there, because he thought the 
l)usiness portion of the village would go that way, as there was 
a jewelry store located there. He states that AA'illiam Kerrigan 


had a blacksmith shop in the corner where Roberts & Jones' 
grocery store is located. The shop at first having no covering 
over it whatever, but consisted of an anvil block and a bellows ; 
at that time a sawmill was located here where the dam now is on 
Water street bridge and Mr. Streeter found employment with 
the proprietor of the mill. 

In this year Sparta experienced its first serious flood. i\lr. 
Streeter relates that owing to the heavy rains the fiood came 
down the creek in a wave, which he states was at least eight 
feet high and crushed everything as flat as a floor ; the dam 
was washed out and the mill ruined; this dam was rebuilt, but 
in its history it was washed out in the earlier days five times. 

There was considerable agitation in 1855 with regard to 
the liquor question, and it appears that a man by the name of 
Samuel Crosby built a building where Gustad's store now is 
and opened a grocery and liquor store, and thereby, of course, 
caused indignation among the temperance people. 

C. AV. Pott, a harness maker, who arrived in Sparta that 
year, saw two Cattaract men drinking in the store and had Mr. 
Crosby arrested for selling liquor without license. This coming 
up before Justice McKay, would not allow Mr. Pott's testimony, 
saying that he had not tasted the liquor and could not swear 
to what it was and for failure of proof the jury found the. de- 
fendant not guilty. It got to be a regular thing and it seems 
that this man, Crosby, was tried six different times in an effort 
to convict him of this oft'ense of selling liciuoi*. At last they did 
find sufficient proof and he was fined $20 by the justice. 

But this did not rid the place of the liquor nuisance and the 
temperance people got up another plan ; the women Avould take 
their knitting work and sit in the front part of the store, hoping 
thus to keep tlu^ men away and to break up the business ; but 
that did not do as the men who desired to drink marched boldly 
in and called for what they wanted, so the ladies were obliged 
to retire in good order with the reflection that that method of 
stopping the liquor traffic was a failure. Other incidents of laAv 
suits in the earlier days abounded and have naturally connected 
with them the names of J. M. Morrow and L. AV. , Graves. It 
is related that in 1857, G. W. Warring was then justice of the 
peace and it apears that Air. Graves and AVilliam AYright were 
the parties in a suit before his honor, and S. F. Holbrook, L. M. 
Rose, AY. S. Newton and AY. L. Johnson were chosen as jurors 
with A. Cross, constable, in charge ; after hearing the evidence, 
the jury would not agree, but the court refused to discharge 


tliem until they were ready to render a verdict. The jury Avas 
quite disgusted ;il lliis and they went back in the room, climbed 
on the table ami one of tlu'in removed a board from the ceiling 
and made their escape unknown by the officers, who afterwards 
searched for them in vain, while the reprobates were enjoying 
a game of poker in the corner of the Ida House. This is a law 
suit that never has been finished as the jury never rendered a 

In 1855 and 1856 settlers arrived in such numbers that it is 
impossible to attempt to give the names of but few ; buildings 
sprang up everywhere and the spot which had so lately been the 
hunting ground for the Indians became alive with busy people. 
S. D. Jackson built himself a residence and also a store building 
which was afterwards occupied by Dodge Brothers; in 1855, 
Jackson opened up with a large stock of goods; subsecpiently 
taking into partnership AV. AV. Allis, who came from California 
in 1858. 

R. M. Dunlevy was one of the new comers in 1855, and entered 
into the dry goods business, at first clerking for S. D. Jackson; 
he continued for six or seven years, and at the end of that time 
became a member of the firm, Mr. Allis retiring. j\Ir. Jackson 
was acknowledged to be one of the best merchants in Sparta 
and Air. Denlevy's experience with him fitted him to enter into 
the business alone when Jackson removed to a larger field. 
Dunlevy l)ranched out into the wholesale and retail business in 
all kinds of fancy dry goods and kcjit a 1)uyiT in New York and 
Boston markets. 

During 1855 the Rev. L. C. Herrick, a Baptist clergyman, 
took up his residence here and 1)uilt a sawmill on Beaver creek 
near Allen's grove, and the same year another Baptist preacher. 
Rev. S. Gustin, came to Sparta and went into the nursery busi- 
ness. These contended for the pastorate of the Baptist society 
to such an extent as to Ix'come quite unfriendly and unfor- 
tunately it resulted in the temporary disorganization of the 
Baptist society. 

J. D. Condit arrived in 1855 also, and his brother, A. IT. 
Condit. ])uilt a drug store, the first, on llie nortli side of Beaver 
creek and also became interested witli Milton .Montgomcrx- in 
publishing the AVatchman, which was })ublished on the second 
floor of the building owned by Condit. J^ortei- Aylesworth, a 
blat'ksmith, ai'rived in 1856 and became proprietor of the AFonroe 
House which he kept until 1857, when he Avas l)urned out. The 
next year he built the old AVarner House, which stood some (tls- 


tanee south of where the present Warner House now stands. 
Among others in 1855 were L. M. Newbury, E. J. Campbell, 
Joseph Kline, wlio settled in Leon Valley, G. B. Holden, who 
engaged in the lumber business and became interested in the 
Sparta AVoolen ]\Iill, and J. D. McDowell, who worked for a 
time for AV. S. Post, in the mercantile business. McDowell went 
into business for himself in 1857 by opening a boot and shoe 
store Avhich he continued to carry on for several years. 

Business had grown to such an extent by this time that 
banking conveniences were necessary and in 1858 the Bank of 
Sparta was started by J. D. Hemphill ; seven years later it was 
organized under the general banking law as the First National 
Bank of Sparta and subsequently in its history it became the 
State Bank, now being known as the Bank of Sparta. 

Hagaman Palmer arrived with his family in 1856 in company 
Avith five other families, among them being S. P. Greenman, the 
well known hotel keeper, who carried on the Ida House for a 
number of years, and Francis Brock. Palmer went into partner- 
ship with J. D. Coudit in the dray business and also engaged 
in land speculation, entering and buying some 6,000 acres mostly 
in Monroe county. He brought his five sons with him, all of 
whom afterwards engaged in business in the city ; William Palmer 
became county clerk : John Palmer in the livery business ; Daniel 
Palmer became a partner in the firm of H. Palmer & Co. ; George 
and Henry carried on a flour and feed store. 

H. E. Kelly, who afterwards became collector of internal 
revenues started in the dry goods business in 1856. L. S. Bing- 
ham took up his residence here and entered the hardware trade ; 
he built a three story building on AVater street near Oak. J. A. 
AYarner came about the same time and clerked for McFarland 
a number of years, afterwards going into business as a wholesale 
and retail dealer in Greve's block. AI. A. Thayer and A. A. 
Alunn arrived the same year, Air. Thayer was register of deeds 
for nine terms and also went into the banking business. J. AI. 
Alorrow and L. AY. Graves arrived during the same year and 
so did J. Andrews. In company witli Frank Skillman and 
Captain Fisk, AndrcAvs erected the first foundry in the city, 
which was located near the Alilwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
depot ; J. A. Gillman, who arrived in 1856, subsequently became 
owner of the foundry and after that several changes in owner- 
ship followed and passed into the hands of J. J. Owsley in 1865 
and a year later was destroyed by fire. 

During the year 1856 a court house was erected on a piece 


of ImikI donated by J. D. Damman, the town reserving the 
squ;ii-f mIk'I'c the present eoui-t liouse is, Avhich was given by 
AVilliani Petit, for a park. Additions to tlie village were platted 
by J. D. Dannnan, Kiehard C'asselinaii. H. Hill and E. S. Blake, 
and at that time there was niueh rivalry between the two sides 
of the river as to which shonld have the court house. The 
second building, however, was built in Petit "s square after some 
li'oiihle with Dannnan over his gift. This yeai- a public hall was 
opened, situated on the corner of Oak and AVater streets, opposite 
the Greve's block; this building was two stories high and cdih- 
pleted l;)y R. AV. Bowles, the hall receiving the proud name of 
"Liberty Hall;"" and then the village arrived to. the dignity 
of having theatrical perfoiiuances for the amusement of its 
inhabitants; the very first show M'hich appeared was a magician 
who drcAv a large crowd, and it is related that the crowd was 
so large that it Avas too heavy for the floor and just as the 
magician was about to perform one of his startling feats the 
floor gave way and down went the audience and magician with 
all his slight of hand machinery on top of them, so that a grand 
disappearing act was successfully performed which was not in 
the program. 

The day that the Liberty Hall floor broke seemetl to he a day 
of accidents; it is related that the frame of the IMethodist church 
had just been raised and Benjamin Stevens and IMorton Bump, 
two carpenters, were putting u]) the frame of the belfry, when 
one of the ties broke, lotting down llie timbers and the workmen 
at the same time; Stevens was severely hurt, but Bump escaped 
wilii slight injury; during the same day a man fell from the 
top of a building on Oak street, but was not seriously injureJ. 

Wedding bells rang for the first time in 1855 when Edward 
Wairalh and Miss Blake were nuirried, and in the following 
year Henry Talmadge and Anna Bradshaw. 

The hard tinu\s of 1857 seriously etfected the business and 
settlement of the village, and during Ihat year Sparta was nearly 
at a stand still; very few new comers arrived and little occurred 
which was of interest. The settlers, however, continued their 
efforts in building up the place and dui-ing that year 1\. and 
O. P. ]\IcClure built the first grist mill which was erected on 
the site of the old saw mill on Benver creek. Subsequently 
T. B. Tyler erected a woolen mill on the same site at a cost 
of .+-^,000. This old building is still standing and is known 
as the Sparta "Woolen !Mill i)roperty. 

On ]\Iay 11, 185?, under provisions of chapter 52 of the 


statutes of AVisconsin, the village of Sparta, JMonroe county, 
Avas incorporated and arrived at the dignity of a full fledged 

The first board of trustees was elected on July 1, 1857, and 
M'as as follows : R. J. Cassclman, president ; H. Palmer, Joseph 
Carmichael. R. W. Bowles, S. F. Holbrook, C. Rich and J. A. 
Gillman, trustees; L. S. Fisher, clerk; L. Andrews, treasurer, 
and Chester McClure, marshal. 

Among the settlers in 1857 were Dennis Lawrence and wife, 
the later a fashionable dressmaker. AVilliam Potter, a meat 
market man, who afterwards getting the gold fever, went to 
Pike's Peak and was given up for dead, but soon afterwards 
returned to Sparta and resumed his old vocation. Thomas B. 
Tyler arrived in 1857 from Pennsylvania, though a native of the 
east, he loved his new location and was one of the men who did 
much to build up the village. 

A good story is related of Mr. Tyler which is as follows : 
Previous to his coming to Sparta, he had been engaged in the 
drug business at Coudersport, Pa., and there was ac- 
quainted with several men who afterwards came to tlie west. 
So it was no unusual thing for a Coudersport man to call on 
]\Ir. Tyler's place of business when he came to Sparta. One 
day J. D. Condit happened in at Mr. Tyler's place of business 
when the latter was out, and a few minutes later a deaf and dumb 
man entered. Like all unfortunates of this class, this individual 
began to stare at everything, without making his business known. 
Condit thought he saw a chance to play a joke on Mr. Tyler, 
so stepped to the door to look for him, and met him coming. 
"There is a man waiting for you. Perhaps he is from Couders- 
port," said J. D. The individual was now looking at some pic- 
tures, and had his back turned to the pair. Mr. Tyler was a 
quiet, unassuming man ; so he brushed back his hair, straightened 
up his collar and coughed. The stranger did not seem to hear 
him. Mr. Tyler again arranged his collar and hair, and stepping 
a little nearer, said: ''You wished to see me, sir?" No answer, 
no backward glance. The gentleman reddened perceptibly, but 
again jerked at his collar and brushed back his hair, with the 
question now put in louder tones, "Did you want to see me, 
sir?" The stranger still continued his examination of the pic- 
tures. Redder and redder Mr. Tyler grew, and when he next 
asked the question he bawled it at the top of his voice. The 
man, however, took no notice whatever of him, and a look of 
blank amazement was spreading Tyler's face, when IMr. Condit, 


Avho ]iad stepped outside of the door, peeped in and said in a 
hoarse Avhispc)-: "You eternal I'ool, he's deaf and dunil)." 

The opening of the ^lihvankee & St. Paul railroad to this 
plaee in 18.58, gave a new impetus to business and to immigra- 
tion. The track was laid as far as the tunnel from the east, 
and also westward from the tunnel to LaCrosse. But the tunnel 
itself was something that required months to complete. An 
engine and some cars Avere drawn over the bluffs for use on 
the western part of the line ; and for some six months the trains 
ran to and from the tunnel on both sides, passengers having to 
foot it across the bluft' from one train to the other. During this 
time Sparta had no railway depot, — a freight car, switched oft' 
of the main track, answering the purpose, as it was of ample 
dimensions to hold the waiting passengers and their baggage at 
that time. Later, a neat depot was erected with other necessary- 
buildings; and later still,, a dining hall and hotel known as 
the ~\Vinship House. 

The Letson Brothers, in 1858, put up a sash, door and blind 
factory. L. H. ^Mather came to Sparta the same year, built a 
block of buildings on AVater street, and opened a drug store 
which he kept for several years. Mr. ^Mather's enterprise is to 
be seen all over the city. He erected more handsome buildings 
here than any one man in this place. J, W. Smith and family 
made their advent this year. ]Mr. Smith engaged at that time in 
the harchvare business. His son. J. E. Smith, kept a variety and 
auction store on Oak street. J. J. French, a dealer in guns and 
ammunition, Avith II. Palmer & Co. D. B. Howe, of the firm 
of Ayleswortli & Co. D. ^McBride and family were among the 
new comers of 1858. D. McBride was the editor of the "Herald," 
which has been conducted since that time to the present with 
only a slight interruption. I\lr. ]MeBride was postmaster at 
Sparta for eight years, commencing with President Lincoln's 

Late in Decem1)er of the same year another newspaperman, 
Capt. D. "W. C. AVilson, took up his residence here. He did not 
at that time, however, enter a ju-inting office. During 1860 and 
1861 he served as .iustice of the peace. Tii the summer and fall 
of 1861, lie held war-meetings, and in November of tliat year 
was made lieutenant of Company D of the Eighteenth "Wisconsin 
Regiment, going into service January. 1S&2. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, April 6, 1862, and 
was in various prisons in Alabama and Georgia, until paroled 
at Richmond, Virginia, which occurred in October of the same 


year. Re-entering service, he remained there until 1864, when 
he returned to AVisconsin. He was elected to the assembly in 
1865, and to tlie senate in 1866. During 1868, he was traveling 
correspondent of the "]\Iilwaukee Sentinel," and two years later 
he took a half interest in the "Sparta Eagle." In 1872 he bought 
the whole ''Eagle" office and changed the name of the paper to 
the "Monroe County Republican." A. AV. AVilson, a brother 
of Captain Wilson, also settled in Sparta in 1858. Dr. ]\I. R. 
Gage was another of the new comers of 1858, practicing his 
profession here many long years except the two years that he 
Avas surgeon of the Twenty-fifth AVisconsin Regiment. At one 
time after the war, Dr. Gage was connected witli II. Palmer in the 
drug business. 

The next year, 1859, T. B. Tyler built a grist mill near the 
Mihvaukee & St. Paul railroad depot. This mill has passed 
through many hands since its building. D. D. Cheney, who 
settled in this place in 1861, and H. Greve owned it at one time. 
It is now owned by Bergman Brothers. The mill had a capacity 
of three hundred barrels per week, and employed six men. H. 
C. Brooks, was head miller, T. D. Freneli. a brother of J. J. 
French, came from the south this year, and settled in Sparta, 
going into business with J. M. Sugden, a partnership which 
lasted about four years. 

Among the settlers of 1861 and 1862 we find A. Saxe, a fur- 
niture manufacturer on Oak street ; J. J. Owsley, who bought 
out Tyler's mill and run it some five years, during tlie first 
year of which time the dam went out seven times. S. M. Owsley, 
a son of J. J. Owsley, now a grocer on Oak street ; R. S. AVells, 
surgeon dentist, and AV. H. AA^hite, a dealer in agricultural im- 
plements. James Francis became a resident in Sparta in 1861, 
and a little later went into the grocery business at Johnson's 
old stand, corner of Oak and Court streets, which Air. Johnson, 
deceased, had left vacant. Subsequently he moved into a brick 
block further east on Oak street, and then added dry goods to 
his stock of groceries. Dr. Bennett, a well-known physician of 
Sparta, located in 1861, 

George Dunn came in 1861 and in connection with AI. Erick- 
son and AV. H. Blyton, erected a large block of brick buildings 
between Alain and Oak streets on AVater; Dunn opened a whole- 
sale and retail dry goods business there and still continues in 
the same store building with the retail business. Chauncey 
Blakeslee came from Neilsville and commenced business with a 
large stock of dry goods in the Dunn building. 


The bcjiinniiig of the AVar of the Jiehellion affected the growth 
and l)iisiness interests of the vilhige to a marked degree; prices 
went up and tlie poorer classes had a hard time to get the bare 
necessities of life. 

The citizens of Sparta and \icinity exhibited true patriotism 
and furnished a large portion of the several companies that went 
from the county. At the receipt of the news of the fall of Fort 
Sumptcr the indignation and war-like spirit of our modern 
Spartans were fully aroused, and at no place in the United States 
was the President's call for troops more promptly responded to 
than in this village. As soon as it was known that a call had 
been formally made for volunteers, enlistments commenced, and 
continued so briskly that only a small portion of those who ten- 
dered their service were accepted. The first company organized 
in Sparta was known as Captain Lynn's, and its members were 
first enlisted for a period of three months, but as soon as it was 
known that troops were required for a longer period of service 
the company was reorganized and nearly every man who had 
enlisted for the short term reenlisted for three years, or during 
the war. The company was ordered about the 6th of June. 1861, 
to proceed to Camp Utley, Racine. AVis.. where it was assigned 
to the Fourth Regiment, AVisconsin Volunteer Infantry, under 
Col. Halbert E. Paine, and became Company I of that regiment. 
It left Sparta with the following named commissioned officers: 
Captain, John AV. Lynn; first lieutenant, Levi R. Blake; second 
lieutenant, Ansyl A. AYest. 

Captain Lynn was killed on the gunboat Tyler, July 1."). 1862. 
while on an expedition toward A^icksburg, the steamer having 
been fired into by a rebel battery. Shortly after this the regi- 
ment was in a thirty-days' siege of A'icksburg, but disease so 
weakened the men that at the end of that time the siege was 
abandoned. They had a successful battle at Bisland, Louisiana, 
near Bayou Teche, and a little later they made an attack upon 
Port Hudson, where Capt. Levi Blake fell mortally wounded. 
The battle of Port Hudson proved very disastrous to the regi- 
ment. On September 1, 1863, the AYar Department gave orders 
that the Fourth AVisconsin be equipped as cavalry, and it Avas 
thereafter known as the Fourth AVisconsin Cavalry. 

Company A. Third AVisconsin, Barstow's Cavalry, was organ- 
ized about mid-summer, 1861. by Capt. Jerry Dammon, of Sparta. 
Its first lieutenant was Robert Carpenter, of Sparta, and second 
lieutenant, Leonard Morley, of A^'iroqua. 

The company left Sparta and proceeded to Camp Barstow, 



Janesville, Wisconsin, where it was mustered into service. The 
regiment left the state and went via Chicago to St. Louis, IMarch 
26, 1862. "While on the Northwestern railroad, near Chicago, it 
met with a very serious accident, which resulted in the loss of 
twelve men. Company A alone having seven men killed and sev- 
eral were severely injured. 

Captain Damman, who went out in command of the company, 
resigned March 9, 1863, and was succeeded by Capt. Robert Car- 
penter, who retained command until the date of his muster out of 
service, January 30, 1865. 

Company D, Eighteenth "Wisconsin Infantry, was raised in 
the month of November and December, 1861, and was called the 
Northwestern Rangers. The company was recruited by George 
A. Fisk, D. W^. C. W'ilson and Peter Sloggy. At an election for 
officers a vote of the members of the company was taken and 
resulted in the election of Fisk as captain, W^ilson as first lieu- 
tenant, and Sloggy as second lieutenant. The company left 
Sparta and proceeded to Milwaukee, January 14, 1861, and was 
assigned to the Eighteenth "Wisconsin Infantry, under the com- 
mand of Col. J. S. Albin, of Plover. 

This regiment was at the battle of Shiloh and in the sieges 
of Corinth and Vicksburg, at the battle of Champion Hills, and 
at that of Allatoona mountains, as well as in several lesser en- 
gagements ; and it suffered severely from disease, engendered 
by the sickly climate. Its gallant colonel lost his life at Shiloh, 
w^hicli proved a disastrous battle to the raw recruits. Yet Gov- 
ernor Harvey said of them: "]\Iany regiments of that fight may 
well covet the impressions which the Eighteenth have left of 
personal bravery, heroic daring and determined endurance." 

Company C, of the Nineteenth W^isconsin Regiment, was or- 
ganized in December, 1861, and mustered into service by Capt. 
J. A. Chandler, of Sparta. Charles Case was first lieutenant, and 
Henry B. Nichols second lieutenant. 

Captain Chandler resigned July 30, 1862, and Charles Case 
was promoted to the captaincy. The latter also resigned and 
Henry B. Nichols became the captain of Company C February 
7, 1863. The company Avas mustered out of service April 19, 1865. 

The Twenty-fifth Wisconsin Regiment w^as organized by Col. 
Milton Montgomery, of Sparta, and was mustered into service 
September 14, 1862. Company D was the company enlisted at 
this place, and its officers were : J. D. Condit, captain, and Mort. 
E. Leonard and Charles S. Farnham, lieutenants. Captain Con- 
dit resigned on account of sickness, July 15, 1863, and Mort. E. 


Leonard Avas put in command of the company. The latter was 
wounded in the action of Decatur, Ga., July 22, 1864, but returned 
to duty in November of the same year. At the same battle 
Colonel ^Montgomery was Avounded and taken prisoner. His arm, 
which had been shot off by a rifle ball, hung dangling to the stub 
for a period of forty-eight hours before amputation took place. 
The gallant colonel did not. however, resign upon his release 
from prison, but continued with his regiment until mustered out 
June 7, 1865. The regiment suffered very much from sickness 
during its service. At one time 500 of the men lay sick, and 
less than a hundred were fit for duty. This happened at Snyder's 
Bluffs, ]\Iiss., in 1863. The regiment Avas in several skirmishes, 
of which lack of space prevents particular mention. 

The Thirty-sixth Wisconsin Regiment w^as organized under 
the government call for 500.000 men. Company C of this regi- 
ment was recruited by Capt. George A. Fisk, of Sparta, and was 
mustered into service ]\Iarch 4, 1864. Luther B. Noyles was first 
lieutenant, and C. E. Bullard was second lieutenant. 

Before the close of the Avar Captain Fisk Avas promoted as 
major, and Stephen C. I\Iiles, a Avell-knoAvn Sparta man, as cap- 

Company C lost several men. C. L. Cleves, DarAvin Cole, 
DaA'is Douglass, A. B. Ligales, P. C. "Walker and Charles L. 
McClure Avere killed in action. E. H. Amidon, R. B. Balcom. H. 
BroAvu, Thomas Casner, "William Dayton, H. AV. Hudson, John 
HopAvood, Eldridge Rathbun and John "Wilkinson died of Avounds 
received in battle. Of those Avho died of disease many gave up 
life in the Salisbury and Anderson\'ille prisons. The folloAving is 
a list of such of Company C's men as died of disease: George C. 
Cross, AYm.. B. Snyder, Alfred 0. Barnes. IM. A. Butts, Dan. A. 
Barton, P. Farr, Nathan Graves, Henry HathaAvay, James Hub- 
bell, EdAvard Nichols, John Printz, Cyrus Sour, Samuel Smith, 
J. E. Stevens, L. VanBorst, AValter YanVickle, J. B. AYolcot and 
Chas. Young. 

A portion of the First Battery, the LaCrosse Artillery, Avas 
from Sparta. S. Hoyt Avas one of the number. This company 
Avon the applause of Major General ^McClernand and of ]\Iajor 
General Reynolds, for gallant conduct on the field, and for its 
cleanliness and good behavior in camp. 

Sparta sent 142 citizens to the Avar, sixty-three of Avhom re- 
enlisted at tlie close of their first tcnii. The colonel of the Sev- 
enth AVisconsin Regiment, W. AV. Robinson, Avas a Sparta man. 
Col. AV. W. Rol)inson Avas born at Fairhaven, Vermont, December 




14, 1819, and was educated at Rutland Academy, Castleton Acad- 
emy and Norwich Military Academy. During the Mexican war 
he served as first lieutenant and captain in the Third Regiment, 
Ohio Volunteers. He was a resident of Sparta at the outbreak 
of the War of the Rebellion, having first visited and selected a 
farm near that place in the summer of 1851. In the spring of 
1861 he took an active part in the organization of the company 
then being recruited here, giving it quite a thorough course of 
lessons in discipline and drill. In August of the same year he 
was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the Seventh AVisconsin 
Volunteers, and served in that capacity until January 31, 1862, 
when he was promoted colonel of the same regiment. He com- 
manded the Seventh Wisconsin in the following named engage- 
ments : Thornburg, Rappahannock Station, AVhite Sulphur 
Springs, Gainsville, Fredericksburg, FitzHugh Crossing, Chan- 
cellorsville. Laurel Hill and Bethesda Church, and the Iron 
Brigade in the following: Brandy Station, Beverly Ford, Gettys- 
burg, Birchland, AVilderness, November, 1863 ; Wine Run, Wil- 
derness, 1864 ; Spottsylvania Courthouse, North Anna, Cold 
Harbor and Petersburg. He was severely wounded in his left leg 
at the battle of Gainsville, August 28, 1862, from the effects of 
which wound he has never fully recovered. For services ren- 
dered during the war he has recently been appointed United 
States Consul at Lamatove, Madagascar. 

Many of the newcomers of Sparta were in the war previous to 
their coming here. J. AV. Currant, at one time register of deeds, 
and Michael McComber each lost a limb in battle ; Rufus S. 
and H. K. Dodge were also in the army. H. K. Dodge tells of 
many occurrences of the war which are very remarkable and 
which are not in history. One of these we will give here, the 
truth of which the editor will not vouch for : Dodge was once 
stationed at a point to repel a large force of rebels, a belt of trees 
dividing the two armies. Air. Dodge finally got out of bullets 
and substituted some balls of snuff, which the sutler had for sale. 
The effect was wonderful. In a few minutes the whole rebel 
army was sneezing, and they kept at it until consternation seized 
them and they broke ranks and fled. Air. Dodge went in pur- 
suit and was surprised on crossing the ground which they had 
occupied to find it strewn with noses. He says he picked up 
two and a half bushels of them. AA'hat use he made of them in 
trade he does not say, and as he was the only person who knows 
the information died with him. 

The return of peace brought with it a renewed activity in 


business enterprises and llie growth of the comnuinity, wliich 
had been interrupted b,y the war, contiiiind and many new names 
were added to the roll, too many to here enumerate, among them 
l)('ing Colonel Shuter and Dr. A. B. Niehols. who opened a 
Tui'kisli l)ath estal)lishment nnder the AVarner House. This in- 
stitution was conducted successfully for several years, and in 
connection Avith artesian water Avhicli has mineral properties 
became quite a resort for treatment of various diseases. In the 
spring of 1865 the courthouse was built in Petit 's square, which 
included the sheriff's dwelling, and in that year J. L. IMather 
built tlu* Sparta paper mill, which a few years later was sold 
to Farnham, Shuter & Co., who in turn sold it to 0. T. Newton, 
and he continued to operate it up to the time of his death, when 
it went to his sons, George and Harry, and having burned a few 
years after Avhile owned by these boys it never was rebuilt. The 
water power, however, is used in furnishing power for the elec- 
tric light plant, which furnishes light and power to the city and 
vicinity, running under the corporate name of 0. I. Newton Sons' 
Co. Air. George Newtcn is at present the manager. The paper 
mill at OIK" lime manufactured about 4,000 pounds of paper per 
day and ('m])l<)y('d twenty men. 

A new charter was obtained for the village from the Legisla- 
ture, Alarch 24, 1866, and in the folloAving April a charter chH-- 
tion was held in which the following officers were elected: J. T. 
Hemphill, president, and T. B. Tyler, 0. D. Randall, T. D. Steele, 
AI. R. Gage, D. G. Jewett and C. C. Morrill, trustees; George C. 
Farnham, clerk; II. E. Kelly, treasurer; Samuel Hoyt, police 
justice; John Humphrey, marshal, and D. F. Stillman, street 

About this time the hoj) fever had been raging over this part 
of the country and large numbers of persons in Sparta and vicin- 
ity had gone into the business. At one lime it is stated there were 
over three hundred acres planted to hops within a mile of Sparta, 
and the same condition of aifairs was true in ditferent ]>arts of 
the county, especially around the two larger villages, Sparta and 
Tomah, and the editoi- remembers with great ]>leasure some of 
his experiences at "hop picking time,*' and it in those days be- 
came a common thing to refer to events which took place at or 
near ''hop i)icking time." 

The firm of II. Palmer & Co. were, perhaps, the most exten- 
sive dealci's in hops. The tirm was composed of, in addition to 
Air. Palmer, U. Af. Cargill and John Alotl'at. They handled at 
cue time as high as $500,000 Avorth.of hops annually. 


Another thing which struck this part of the country at this 
time and caused great excitement was the rumor that oil had 
been discovered in the valley of the Kickapoo river, which runs 
along the southern portion of the county. A man named Ticknor, 
Avho (daimed to be an oil operator from the oil regions of the 
cast, jissured the people of the existence of oil in that section. 
They visited the spot and saw crude petroleum boiling from the 
spring; smelt it, tasted it and w^ere satisfied. And the times that 
followed were indeed exciting for awhile. A "Gem Petroleum 
Company" was formed in which this man Ticknor was the head 
and a heavy stockholder ; lands were leased from farmers at 
exorbitant prices in that section, and the capital of this celebrated 
industry was the famous village now known as "Oil City." 
Stocks in the oil company were in demand and everyone who 
could raise enough money invested it in a share or more, and 
this man Ticknor, in order to accommodate his friends, so to 
speak, sold nearly all of his shares at a large advance. 

During this time wells Avere being bored in the "oil" region 
and after the stocks had been pretty well distributed it was 
discovered that all they got from the wells was water, not oil; 
then the bubble burst, for it was discovered that Ticknor had 
sunk a barrel of crude petroleum under the spring for the 
purpose of deceiving the people ; stocks went down and the Gem 
Petroleum Company w^ent out of existence; the oil excitement, 
much to be regretted, had practically ruined several good citi- 
zens, financially. 

It w'as discovered, however, in digging the Avells near the 
Kickapoo river that the water was of remarkable purity and a 
movement Avas set on foot to investigate the matter in the city 
of Sparta, and sink a well ; a meeting of citizens Avas called 
and a subscription taken u]^ to defray expense and George W. 
Waring Avas engaged as chief engineer and commenced the Avork ; 
a Avell Avas sunk in Petit 's square and floAving Avater Avas reached 
at the very first attempt at the depth of three hundred and 
fifteen feet, the Avell floAving one hundred gallons jjer minute, 
and still fioAvs in the court house park. The medicinal qualities 
of the Avater Avere soon discovered by the various citizens who 
drank it, as a remedy for different diseases. It Avas used to 
such an extent that the Avater was submitted to chemical analysis 
and it Avas discovered that it w^as composed of v^arious minerals, 
principally carbonate of iron, Avith a fair percentage of car- 
bonate of magnesia and sulphate of soda, togetlier AA'ith various 
solutions of lithia. ammonia, lime, calcium, sodium, iodide of 


sodium, and several other ingredients. The carbonate of iron 
was considered a fine tonic, as it helps digestion and reddens the 
blood globules, and persons i)artaking of this water as a treat- 
ment for general diseases were greatly l)enefited. Sparta became 
somewhat famous as a health resort, people coming from long 
distances to drink the Avaters and to take treatments at the 
Turkish bath establishment. At the present time this business 
has again Ix'cn icvived and the basement of the AVarner House 
fitted up as a sanitarium. 

In 1867 J. D. Condit purchased the Warner House and entered 
into the management of it; this was a year in which consid- 
erable building was accomplished, notal)ly, the woolen factory, 
which was completed and put in operation in September; the 
manufacture of printing pax)er at the paper mill was begun; 
the brick building two stories high across from the Hotel Lewis 
was built in this year and owned jointly by Palmer, Gage, T. B. 
Tyler and Simpson & Co. A large brick school building was 
erected on tlie site where the grade school now stands and the 
building at that time was considered one of the best and cost 

In looking over old newspaper files for this year, 1867, it 
is amusing to know that a game of base-ball was played at 
Tomah in July between the Sparta Eagles and Tomah Amateurs, 
in which the score was fifty to thirty-five in favor of the Sparta 

An income tax which is now the subject of so much discus- 
sion is no ncAv thing in the state, as it was in existence during 
the year 1867, but was finally discarded as a revenue measure. 
An issue of the Sparta Democrat, May 28, 1867, contains a 
statement published of the income taxes returned from the con- 
gressional district, comprising Yornon, ]\ronroe, Juneau, Adams, 
Jackson, Clark, Trempclcau, Uuft'alo, Pierce, St. Croix, Polk 
and Burnett. 

The Opera House block was l)uilt dui-ing 1S()7 and 1868 by 
Herman Greve and is the building which is still known as 
the old Opera block; J. A. Gilhnan built a grist mill on his land 
in the southern jiortion of the city in 186S, having previously 
straightened the river in order to make the water ])ower; and 
the building of this mill created considerable litigation; the 
Dodge Bi-others Company, of G. T., R. S. and II. K. Dodge, bought 
a building on cornei- of ]\lain and AVater of S. D. Jackson in 
1872 and engaginl in the iiuM-cantile business, which establish- 
ment is still conducted at the old site in a fine brick department 


store building. The business is now known as the Dodge & 
Davis Department Store Company, a Corporation. 

Rice & Burton engaged in the grocery business at the corner 
of Franklin and Water streets, the firm subsequently becoming 
Burton & Graves, and they continued in business for several 
long years and only retired in 1910. D. J. Lambourn opened a 
drug store in 1870 and Ira A. Hill entered into the same business 
in July, 1871. In 1872 L. M. Newbury and J. P. Ward erected a 
large foundry, known as Sparta Iron AYorks. which has several 
times been enlarged and is now owned and controlled by the 
Canfield Brothers, Lee and Robert, and does a flourishing 
business in the manufacture of well drilling machinery. 

In 1873 the building of the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
road through the village marked a new incident in its history; 
and the Adllage, in order to get this railroad, paid the company 
$50,000 and considerable difficulty arose over the issue of these 
bonds in subsequent years, but they were all finally paid and 
the village relieved from the burden of this great debt. These 
bonds were voted by the citizens believing that the railroad 
would open up for better trade, a very fertile region lying on 
the southeast and especially from the Ridge country and beyond ; 
though at this time there were several stage lines running out 
of Sparta to Cataract, Wilton. Ontario and Viroqua ; these lines 
were run on a regular scheduled time table like a railroad and 
carried freight and passengers. 

The next decade marked a very substantial growth to the 
village, not only in building but in trade and general progress, 
with the exception of a drawback or two caused by disastrous 
fires. And in 1876, in common with villages and cities every- 
where throughout the United States, Sparta held a fitting cele- 
bration of the centennial year; not only the commemoration of 
the one hundredth anniversary of the independence of this 
country, but also to celebrate the progress of this hustling little 

In 1876 the Seminary building at the corner of I\Iain and K 
streets was commenced in the latter part of September by the 
Sisters of Charity of La Crosse ; this was the start of an institu- 
tion which has grown to large proportions and become one of 
the valuable educational institutions in this part of the state and 
is treated more extensively at another place in this work. 

On the 28th of September in this year occurred one of the 
most disastrous fires which has ever visited the village or city; 
it commencing at Lee & Palmer's livery stable, in which a large 


I)art of their oquipinent, including fifteen horses, was lost, and 
it spread on Water street and crossed over to Oak street and 
destroyed Heller's dry goods store, then situated on the corner; 
tlu' property which was 'hiinicd including the bus l)arii of 
lIoll)rook & Lee; Heller building and stock of dry goods; the 
building of James Francis; Henry Foster "luiildii^g and stock 
of harness goods: the AVilliani Kerrigan building; J. X. AVag- 
oner building; John Matchett Hotel and furniture; C. H. Ford 
hop house and fixtures; G. B. Holden lost his valuable library; 
the preparations for fighting fire were then not of the best, but 
finally was checked, the total b)ss of something over $40,000, 
which was a severe blow to the business interests of the village 
at this time. Investigation failed to trace the cause of the fire, 
although it was decided that it must have been of incendiary 
origin. ]Most of the buildings were rebuilt soon after, including 
the Heller block, which was erected in a more substantial man- 
ner than ever and a new stock of goods bought and opened for 
business within a year. 

On the 22nd day of February, 1877, Sparta had been settled 
for such a length of time tliat some of its citizens then considered 
themselves "old settlers" and they liad a pioneer reunion in 
the Ida Hall, one at which the loudest kind ot a time is recorded. 
The principal movers in this celebration were C. B. ]Mc('lure, 
Elsa Rice. T. B. Tyler, S. N. Dickinson, J. J. French. S. F. IIol- 
brook, r. AV. IMcAIillan. AA\ H. Blyton, X. P. Lee, J. King, H. 
Austin, Z. K. Jewett, J. B. Palmer. 

In 1887 George Matchett assumed control of the Ida House, 
which he conducted for several years. Thayer 6c Kingman 
erected the brick building now occu])ied by the Alonroe County 
Bank and in tlie same sunnner and at the same time J. A. Harvey 
and Jacob Schram erecte<l l)ricl< blocks. 

Early in 1877 an excavation was conunenced for the building 
of the new AVarner House as it now stands and in 1879 the 
celebration of tlie comjiletion of tliis building was undertaken 
on a large scale; .). 1). Coiidil was owner and builder and the 
citizens took part in this matter of so dedicating this fine hotel 
structure in good style; committees were appointed which 
included the names of prominent citizens in all of the lu^arby 
villages and towns and invitations were issued quite generally 
and which were responded to very lilierally. Guests arrived 
from ^Milwaukee, La Crosse. AVin<ma, Tomah. Kendall. Black 
River Falls, Alauston and even some from St. Paul and ]Minne- 
apolis to join the festivity, and ;i baiuiuet was served, followed 


by dancing, whieh was kept up until the small hours of the 
morning. The receipts of the occasion M'ere $765.50 and the 
amount of enjoyment gotten out of the occasion by the partici- 
pants was on an equally large scale. 

On September 17 of this year Viroqua celebrated the opening 
of the new railroad known as the "Viroqua Branch" from 
Sparta through that city ; a special train was run and a large 
number of the citizens participated in the celebration. 

Having survived floods, fires, panics and other smaller draw- 
backs it still remained for Sparta to have a cyclone and this 
came in due time, striking the city about 9 :30 on the morning 
of June 10, 1880, and for a time the destruction of the entire 
city seemed imminent ; as it was, the Chicago, Mihvaukee & St. 
Paul Railway engine house was wrecked; M. B. Oster's hop 
house was bloAvn down; J. L. Woy's elevator was unroofed; the 
depot school house was moved of¥ its foundation six or eight 
feet while school was in session ; the roof was blown off the 
D. D. Cheney building on Water street ; numerous chimneys 
w^ere blowai down in different parts of the city; at the north 
school house the teacher, Jessis McMillan, and one pupil were 
struck by lightning; Patt ]\Ioss also experienced a shock and 
was knocked fiat. The house of A. B. Holden was blown down 
and the buildings on the fair ground wrecked. 

In 1881 Sparta arrived at the dignity of having an opera 
house with a real stage, which was completed in what was known 
as the Old Opera block by Ira A. Hill and T. B. Tyler, who then 
owned the building; the stage Avas nicely fitted up and equipped 
with scenery and good setting was furnished for the house and 
for a long term of years was the opera house for entertainments 
of all kinds, including roller skating. 

There Avas little of general interest during the next ten or 
tweh^e years, Avith the exception of the fact that it Avas incorpo- 
rated as a city in 1883 and during this period two of Sparta's 
beautiful churches Avere erected and the armory building Avas 
also put up ; in 1888 the Methodist Church congregation erected 
and completed their ncAV church, Avhich has since been remodeled 
and enlarged, hoAvever, but this building Avas the first real sub- 
stantial structure OAvned by the ^Methodist Society. 

In the folloAving year the daAvn of better municipal improve- 
ments came Avith the purchase of ]M. A. Thayer of machinery 
Avitli AA'hich to establish an electric light plant ; this Avas put into 
operation in a year or tAvo with the main plant at the village of 
Angelo, run by Avater poAver. This Avas the beginning of the 


excellent electric lighting system "vvliich is now enjoyed by the 
inhabitants of the city, having been later acquired by the 0. I. 
Newton Sons' Company and enlarged and improved so that at 
the present time there are two plants, one at the Angelo dam and 
the other at the old paper mill dam in the city, furnishing street 
lighting and power for machinery and an excellent system of 
lighting for stores and residences. 

In 1889 the Congregational Socidy comi)leted its l)eautiful 
church ; and to Dr. "William Crawford is due great credit for the 
successful carrying out of this great undertaking. Few cities 
of its size can boast of so beautiful a church structure; after two 
and one-half years of struggle the society, on August 20, 1889, 
held the dedicatory exercises and the church was opened fi»r 
religious service. 

Following the installation of an electric light plant an agita- 
tion for a system of water works began in 1890. but owing to 
the state of the city's finances during that year no move was 
made to install such a system. 

Sparta having maintained a military company for a great 
many years, being known then as Company I of the Third Regi- 
ment, Wisconsin National Guard, and the company having occu- 
pied ditferent buildings during its career and suifered twice 
from loss by fire, the patriotic citizens of the city got together 
and formed an Armory Association ; George Dunn was elected 
president and AVilliam II. Blyton secretary; this organization 
took prompt steps towards the erection of a commodious armory; 
stock was sold and money sufficient for the purpose collected, 
and that year a contract for the building was let to J. AV. Blake, 
of Viroqua, for $4,850; December 18, 1890, tlic Imilding was 
opened for use by the public; the dedication was observed l)y 
an address by John J. Esch, which was followed by a nuisical 
entertainment, ])eing the production of a "Trial bv Jury," a 
Gilbert and Sullivan opera given by local people; this building 
was maintained for a number of years by the Armory Associa- 
tion, being rented by the military company for its armory, and 
has at various times been improved; it has now passed out of 
the hands of the Armory Association, as the purpose of this 
organization has been accomplished, and it is now owned by the 
Abonita Guard Association, Avhicli is the civil organization 
comprising the members of Comi)aiiy L of the Third Regiment, 
AVisconsin National Guard, and such members as have served a 
certain time of enlistment in the comi)any ; the society is prac- 


tieally free from debt and improvements are under contempla- 
tion, to be made during the year 1912. 

The Seventh Day Advent Church was erected and dedicated 
by the society on the 31st day of May, 1890. 

On August 19, 1891, the corner-stone of the Masonic Temple 
on the corner of ]Main and Water streets was laid with impressive 
ceremonies. Within the stone were deposited articles of his- 
torical interest which may some day come to light. The building 
has been greatly improved since then and is owned by the 
Valley Lodge No. 60, Free and Accepted Masons. 

Coming down to the year 1896, an unprecedented growth in 
the city by the erection of business buildings, public buildings 
and residences ; it perhaps marks the year of the greatest growth 
that Sparta has ever enjoyed and the cost and number of the 
buildings erected during that year are worthy of note ; a com- 
plete list of all the money expended in building is not here given, 
but the following is the list of the buildings erected : 

High school, $23,000; grade school, $13,000; boiler house, 
$850; depot primary, $500; state school buildings, $7,500; First 
Baptist Church, $5,000; improvements on St. John's Church, 

Business Buildings.— W. G. Williams, $8,000 ; W. C. Hoffman, 
$3,000; E. E. Olen. $6,000; C. E. Rich, $1,500; Roelston & Rosing, 
$3,800 ; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul warehouse, $2,000 ; Ira A. 
Hill, improvements to Opera block, $2,000. 

Residences. — F. W. Swarthouse, $4,000 ; J. :M. Fanning. South 
AYater street, $1,600; E. I. AYaring, Jefferson avenue, $700; H. 
Ranum, Alontgomerj^ street, $1,000; Ben Phillips, East ]\Iain 
street, $700 ; D. F. Jones, Water street, $1,500 ; C. E. Lake, Water 
street, $2.000 ; J. E. Broadwell, Court street, $1,000 ; AY. W. Hub- 
bard, Pearl street, $1,200; B. E. McCoy, South AYater street, 
$700; Charles Abrahamson, South Water street, $1,200; J. P. 
Rice, South Court street, $2,000; P. S. Sparling, $2,000; John 
Smith, North Benton street,, $1,200; D. A. Baldwin, $1,800; 
George H. Chaffee, Long Court street, five cottages aggregating 
$7,300 ; George Newton, North AYater street, improvements, 

The total amount which was put into buildings and improve- 
ments for that year was $115,400. 

It is noticeable how low the amounts are as compared with 
the cost of building materials at the present day. 

In the previous year, 1895, the Odd Fellows dedicated their 


new hall and in tlic following year, 1897, the Baptist Church 
was finished and dedicated on the 7tli day of February, and 
the year 1896 also saw the dedication of the magnificent new 
court house erected by the county of ^Monroe; the exercises took 
place on the Lith day of ]\Iarch in that year and were attended 
by representatives from every town, village and city in the 
county of ]\Ionroe ; the exercises were followed by a banquet in 
the evening, with probably more oratory let loose than had ever 
before been the case in IMonroe county, for it was a proud 
occasion for the citizens of this county; they had erected and 
completed a court house which is a model both for beauty and 
usefulness. The excellent arrangement of the business offices 
and court rooms and the provisions of ample vault space for 
several long years to come, Avas a wise foresight of the building 

]\Iilitary circles were astonished l)y the fact that Company I 
of the Third Regiment, AVisconsiu National Guard, was mustered 
out in 1895 and the citizens became thoroughly aroused with 
regard to the necessity of giving more support to a military 
company; steps were immediately taken to reorganize the com- 
pany and a temporarj^ organization was perfected at which T. 0. 
Thorbus was elected captain ; F. L. French, first lieutenant, and 
R. B. ]\IcCoy, second lieutenant. 

Enlistments were rapidly procured and on July 15, 1S9G, a 
new company, known as Company L, Third Regiment, "Wisconsin 
National Guard, was mustered in by Col. Charles King, the 
adjutant general of the state of AVisconsin, the same official who 
had mustered out Company I; R. B. IMcCoy Avas mustered in as 
captain ; F. L. French as first lieutenant, and John P. Rice, second 
lieutenant; a large audience attended the exercises and the 
citizens of Sparta felt that they had redeiMued themselves in 
this particular. But there is one thing Avhich this history will 
not fail to record, and that is that while the citizens of Sparta 
are patriotic, they have not at all times interested themselves 
in the military company and it has ])een hard work for the 
officers of the company to overcome the opposition which has 
been oflfered t(t the enlistment of young men and it has been 
difficult at times to nuiintain the company standard. 

Under Captain jMcCoy the com])any Avas rapidly brought to 
a high state of efficiency, and none too soon, for it Avas destined 
to some actiA'e service. Trouble had been brcAving for some time 
in Cuba and early in 1898 Avar being declared by this country 
against Spain, there Avere exciting times in Sparta. To the 


President's call for troops Wisconsin quickly responded, and on 
April 28th, with tiags flying, cheered by thousands of friends and 
relatives, Company L boarded the special train which carried a 
part of the Third regiment to Camp Harvey at Milwaukee. The 
record of the company is told elsewhere and is a good one. 

Spring, summer and fall passed slowly. The boys at the front 
were sadly missed. Eagerly the newspapers were read for news 
of them and a letter from one of the company in Porto Rico was 
an event. The glad news flashed over the wires the latter part 
of October that the Third regiment had landed in New York. 
Great preparations were made to receive the company, and at 
10 :30 a. m., October 30th, the company arrived, truly having the 
appearance of veterans. The celebration was elaborate and joy- 
ful, with a note of sadness for those who had been left behind. 

The war over, business once more settled down to its usual 
routine. Rumors came that the American Cigar Company de- 
sired to establish a company in this part of the state for the sort- 
ing of tobacco, and steps were immediately taken to secure the 
locating of it, and the efforts of the citizens who had the matter 
in charge were so successful that in May, 1899, assurance was 
given that the plant would come to this city. Later on ground 
was purchased and buildings were erected, which were completed 
and opened for business January 12, 1902 ; a capacity for the 
handling of 1,800,000 pounds of tobacco, or about 60,000 cases, 
and during the sorting season the plant employs in the neigh- 
borhood of 400 hands. 

Other good news came to Sparta in 1899, and that was the 
purpose of H. J. Heintz to erect a salting station in this city, 
which was done in that year, and subsequently enlarged, proving 
a great benefit to the farmers in the vicinity in encouraging the 
raising of cucumbers for pickles, for v\^hich a good price is paid. 

AVhat proved to be the most disastrous flood ever experienced 
in this city, or even in the county, occurred on the night of June 
11th and 12th of 1899. The day had been pleasant up until 6 
o'clock in the evening, when a storm gathered and broke over 
the city. For a time there was a bombardment of hail with it, 
then it settled down to a steady downpour of rain, which con- 
tinued hour after hour nearly all night. An immense amount of 
water fell. The streams, brooks and rivers, especially the 
LaCrosse river and Beaver creek both ran over their banks and 
every creek and little rivulet in this part of the country over- 
flowed, washed out roads, cultivated fields and bridges and 
caused great damage. The city got the full force of the storm 


and tlie desti'iirtioii ul' the Bacon dam followed the flood which 
came down l^eaver creek. Lnmber, boards, and even a hay stack 
or two were washed in with the torrent and lodged against the 
Bacon dam, and in spite of all that Mr. Jiacon, with what help 
he could procure, could do, they were finally compelled to desist 
and the structure w'cnt out and was swept away down the stream. 
AVith the rush of this tremendous force against the northwest 
corner of the Conover building, which stood near the dam, it 
was seen that the building Avas in danger. IMr. Conover and his 
wife, who lived on the second floor of the building, were unaware 
of the situation, and being warned they took what clothing they 
could carry and escaped from the building just before it was 
undermined and sw^ept info the flood. It fell into the flood and 
the water drove the ruins of the building against the bridge on 
"Water street, and then with a tremendous noise it was hurled 
under the bridge and strewn all along the stream. Not a vestige 
of the building was left where if had stood. It was completely 
swept away and swallowed up by the flood. The C. E. Kich 
building next to it was threatened for some time, but the flood 
receded. Forces were organized tow^ard morning and with ])ags 
of sand and trunks of trees kept the flood away from the build- 
ing. Walrath creek rose to a tremendous height and swept out 
the ^Miller and Kasen dam, which had just been completed from 
a former flood. Telephone lines were dow^n and all the bridges 
in the city except two -were out of commission. The road to the 
Northwestern depot for some time was under two or three feet 
of wafer, and the whole river bottom below the paper mill was 
covered, while the houses adjoining the banks were partially sub- 
merged. The night of June 11th Avas a wild night in the city, one 
long to be remembered, for it seemed for a time as though the 
tremendous flood "woidd carry away a i)()rfion of the business 
buildings whiili were situated next to Beaver creek, and luckily 
no lives were lost. No estimate has been made of the actual 
damage, but it reached a large sum. 

For the second time Avithin the period of little over a year 
Sparta experienced another serious flood on the nights of Octo- 
l)er 27th and 28th. Beaver creek, running through the heart of 
the city, Avith a reputation for mischief of many years past, rose 
to the highest point if had ever reached, and OAving to the fact 
that the tAvo dams upon it Avere in better shape to resist the flood 
than ever before, no great damage Avas done. The Bacon and 
Evans dams, hoAvever, both Aveut out eventually Avifhout any in- 
jury to any of the buildings around its banks, but flie bridge 


approaches at Montgomery, Main and Oak streets were severely 
damaged and the abutments of the Oak street bridge were so 
badly torn that they had to be rebuilt. The LaCrosse river also 
rose rapidly and flooded the low sections between Railroad street 
and Court street, which looked so threatening that the fire alarm 
was rang and the people routed out. The LaCrosse river reached 
such a height on Long court and the flat in front of it that the 
sidewalk to the Northwestern depot was carried over to the west 
side of the street, and some of the dwellings were flooded. Quite 
serious damage was done at the Newton plant at Angelo, where 
they Avere making extensive repairs to the dam. The coffer-dam 
was carried out and the whole plant had a narrow escape from 

As a result of correspondence conducted in the previous year 
or two Dr. F. P. Stiles received a letter dated February 8, 1902, 
from Andrew Carnegie, agreeing to give $10,000 to the city of 
Sparta for the erection of a public library. The city council ac- 
cepted the offer, which resulted in the handsome building now oc- 
cupied by the city library, which has proven to be a great boom 
to the people of the city. 

In 1903 the citizens of Sparta planned and carried out a 
Fourth of July celebration which is worthy of note. The prepara- 
tions were elaborate and quite unique. After an immense parade 
in the morning with the usual exercises, in the afternoon, upon 
stages which had been erected in the street, free performances 
were given for the people by artists hired for that purpose, which 
continued during the entire afternoon and evening. This method 
was so successful that it has been carried on in many of the large 
cities of the state in celebrations of this character. 

In December, 1903, the city of Sparta took an appeal from the 
equalization of assessments made by the county board to the cir- 
cuit court of Monroe county. The board appointed Van S. Ben- 
nett, of Viroqua ; Chester Lyon, of Mauston, and C. S. Van Auken, 
of LaCrosse, as the commissioners. After a thorough investiga- 
tion and a hearing at which a large number of witnesses were 
sworn, the commission found in favor of the city of Sparta and 
reduced the assessed valuation of the city from $1,957,000 to 
$1,859,150, a reduction of about $88,000. 

The year 1904 marked the passing away of several of Sparta's 
most prominent citizens. On February 16, 1904, David D. Cheney 
died at Biloxi, Miss. ]\Ir. Cheney was one of the pioneers 
in the city of Sparta, a man who had accumulated large wealth 
by reason of his excellent business ability. 


Soon afterwai'ds the news flashed over tlie Avires from Pasa- 
dena, Cal., that Ira A. Hill, one of Sjiartn's most prominent 
citizens, had died in that city on that date. 

An event of some historical importance occurretl on June o, 

1904, when the famons Li1)erty Bell, from the old statehonse in 
Boston, passed lliroii^ii iicrc. being taken on a trip Hirouyh the 
country so tluit llic people migfht see this famons bell. The spe- 
cial ti'iiin carrying- it ni'i-ived hitc in the afternoon and halted at 
the station for about ;i luilf hour, giving llic thousands of people 
Avho had collected ample opportunity to view it. AVlien the train 
pulled out three mighty cheers were given for the "Old Liberty 
Bell.'' It certainly was a lesson to see the reverence with which 
this object was viewed by the people generally. 

On Sunday morning, January 22, 1905, the St. Patrick's 
Catholic church was totally destroyed by fire. The fire started 
in the basement and before it could be brought under control the 
entire church was enveloped in the flames. It was an old wooden 
building, which had been first erected in 1867 down near the 
^Milwaukee depot and moved to the present location in 1877. In 
1883 St. Patrick's congregation was incorporated. The congre- 
gation luckily had $1,500 of insurance on the building, so that it 
was not a total loss. Steps were innnediately taken for the erec- 
tion of the handsome new chiu'ch, and on Sunday, June 24, 1905, 
the corner-stone of the new edifice was laid Avith impressive cere- 
monies by Bishop Sch.weboch, of LaCrosse, and on June 5, 1907. 
the bishop again visited the church and presided at the dedica- 
tion ceremonies, which were very elaborate. The equal of this 
beautiful Iniilding is hard to find in a city of this size anywhere 
in the state of AVisconsin. Its magnificent proportions are very 
sightly and tlie interior is handsonu^ly appointed and decorated. 

On October 2(j, 27 and 2S the Western Wisconsin Teachers' 
Association held its session in this city. There was an attendance 
of over 600 teachers, with several prominent educators, among 
them C. P. Cary, state superintendent of pul)lic instruction. This 
meeting Avas procured by the efforts of Prof. F. M. J.u-k, who 
Avas then superintendent of the Sparta schools. The sessions of 
the associ.'ilidu were very interesting and instructive and tlie 
pul)lic addresses delivered by Mr. Cary ;md othei-s were greatly 
enjoyed liy tlu^ citizens of Sparta. 

After a long series of years in Avhich effoi-ts hatl been made 
to collect sufficient funds, the soldiers' monument Avas at last 
completed. It Avas placed in the North park, and on May 30. 

1905. it Avas formally dedicated and presented to the city. The 


celebration was in charge of John W. Lynn post, Grand Army of 
the Republic, and a general invitation was issued to the citizens 
of the county to participate. The Henry AV. Cressy post, G. A. R., 
of Touiah, came over, accompanied by their friends, 150 strong, 
bringing their drum corps; and a large representation was present 
from the towns, villages and cities of the county. A dinner was 
served at the armory from 11:30 to 12:30, and in the afternoon a 
great parade, led by the Sparta band of twenty-five pieces, headed 
by Company L and the Grand Army veterans, passed through 
the streets to North park, where the formal exercises were held. 
After an address by INlr. Beebe, giving the history of the monu- 
ment, it was presented to the city by AY. H. Blyton, and accepted 
in behalf of the city by A. J. Carnahan, president of the city 
council, after which an eloquent address was delivered by Con- 
gressman John J. Esch. Perhaps to Dr. D. C. Beebe more than 
any one man is credit due for the success of this great under- 
taking. He exerted great efforts to bring it about, and it was 
one of the proud moments of his life that he was able to stand 
before it and deliver his address, reciting the struggles wiiich 
had been gone through to accomplish it. 

On ]May 17, 1907, the new Bank of Sparta building was com- 
pleted and opened for business ; truly a handsome building, one 
of the best to be found in this part of the state, and reflects great 
credit upon its builders and the institution. 

Sparta has had its full share of fire and floods, especially 
floods, and another disastrous one was experienced July 21, 1907. 
At this time, however, the damage which was done was not very 
serious and confined more to one locality in the city. The old 
IMiller and Kaiser dam at the City mills, near the St. Paul depot, 
then owned by Bergman Brothers, again went out and the flood 
swept away the railroad bridge just below it. The bridge on East 
avenue was also let down on one end and so badly racked that 
it was some time before it was repaired so that travel could go 
over it. 

October 10th the local camps of Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows entertained the state grand encampment of Odd Fellows. 
IMany visitors were present and there was a large attendance of 
delegates from all over the state. 

During 1908 a number of municipal improvements were under- 
taken, especially with regard to the sewer system in various 
parts of the city, and the year marked also the inauguration of 
the free letter carrier system by the post office department. This 
went into operation June 1, the city having been divided into 


three districts, and as a result of civil service examinations here 
for the purpose, K. A. Merrill, J. R. Pulinan and IT. G. Angle were 
appointed carriers. 

Dr. D. C. Beebe, who was postmaster at the time the service 
was inaugurated, lived long enough to see it in full operation 
when he passed away on June 9, 1908, one of Sparta's most pro- 
gressive and best loved citizens. 

This year is also marked by taking from the ranks of its prom- 
inent men, Kufus S, Dodge, a pioneer merchant, wlio died July 
31, 1908, very suddenly. Tlie business which bears his name is 
one which has attracted attention to the city of Sparta, and is 
today its principal mercantile establishment. 

An event of unusual interest in musical circles was a band 
carnival held on September 2 and 3, 1908, which was participated 
in by two regimental bands, the Third Regiment band from 
Viroqua and the First Regiment band of Baraboo, together with 
bands from Reedsburg, Tomah and Sparta. They were consoli- 
dated into one huge organization, which gave a parade in tlu^ 
business portions of the city, making a volume of tone which 
sounded like an immense pipe organ. Band concerts, horse rac- 
ing and various sports furnished amusement and enjoyment to 
the vast throng of Sparta people and visitors who participated. 

The Fair store, opposite the Hotel Lewis, was discovered to be 
on fire early in the morning of January 31, 1909, and for a time 
the entire block of business buildings was threatened. The 
weather Avas ])itterly cold, l)ut the firemen succeeded in confining 
the blaze in this building, which was completely l)ui'n<Ml inside, 
and the stock of general merchandise, owned by Sam Herch, was 
a total loss. 

Henry Esch, father of Congressman John J. Esch, and one 
of the pioneer residents of the county, passed away early in April 
at a ripe old age. 

Death also claimed T. 0. Tliorl)us on September 28. 1909. alter 
a brief illness. ]Mr. Thornbus was a very public-spirited citizen 
and held a prominent place in the community for many years. 

December, 3909, marked the forming of the Jefferson Leaf 
Tobacco Company, under the management of \V. T. Jefferson, 
formerly manager of the American Cigar Coinpany plant in 
Sparta. The Jefferson company was incorjiorated and imme- 
diately secured the Shattuck building on Oak street, where the 
])usiness of buying and selling tobacco is now conducted on a 
large scale. 

A much-needed improvement was made by the city in the 


spring and summer of 1910 in tearing up the old cedar pavement 
on "Water street, from Franklin street south for several bloc-ks, 
and putting in brick pavement with a solid concrete foundation. 
The work cost about $10,000, the most of which was borne by the 
adjacent property. 

Old residents were made happy in ]\Iay by a visit of Gov. 
James N. Gillett, of California, to his boyhood home. Sparta 
claims Governor ''Jim" as its own, and he seemed to enjoy meet- 
ing old friends and acquaintances immensely and spent several 
days looking them up. The governor is one of the tine examples 
of what an American boy, without advantages, can make of him- 
self, and his autobiography in another chapter should be read by 

On IMay 25, 1910. at precisely 2:48 in the afternoon, the 
first spike was driven on the ^Milwaukee, Sparta & Northwestern 
Railway at the starting point of this new road in this city. The 
honor of performing this ceremony was given to AVilliam M. 
Forseman, the agent of the Northwestern company at Sparta, and 
was accomplished in the presence of several officials of the new 
company and many citizens, thus marking another epoch in the 
railway history of the city of Sparta and one which undoubtedly 
will prove to its advantages in the future. 

After long efforts Congressman Esch was enabled to wire to 
Postmaster Brandt in June, 1910, the good news that he had se- 
cured an appropriation of $60,000 with which to purchase a site 
and erect a government postoffice building in Sparta. Later on 
the postoffice department sent a representative to the city to 
select a site, and after a thorough investigation this official an- 
nounced his decision, favoring the lots back of the AYarner House 
on the corner of Main and Court streets, including the Hemstock 
dray barn property. This site Avas subsequently purchased and 
a commodious postoffice building, containing offices for the offi- 
cials of the government military reservation, will undoubtedly be 
erected within a year or two from the publication of this M'ork. 

Two of Sparta's pioneer citizens passed away in 1911. L. S. 
Fisher, many years postmaster, died March 17th, and John 
Moffat, one of the earliest settlers, who did much in the upbuild- 
ing of Sparta, died ]\Iarch 27th. 

The year as a whole was uneventful, marked onlv bv the nat- 
ural growth of business, retarded somewhat by the rather strin- 
gent financial situation which prevailed for a time throughout the 

The Sparta of 1912 is truly a beautiful, progressive, modern 


littk' city, Avith its 4,0(10 pcoj)!!' l)iisy in vai-ioiis Avalks of life; its 
miles of paved .streets, with beautiful lioulevards in some por- 
tions; a little city whose inhal)itants have given it a reputation 
not only for business, })ut as a eleanly and well kept town; care- 
fully elip|)f(l lawns, well li'iuimcd sliadc trees, homes neatly 
painted, all combine in the title so often heard, "Beautiful 


A woman, a rare and noble soul, whose name is numbered 
among the pioneers of '55, was given the task of first establishing 
the cause of education in the little village on the banks of 
Beaver creek, and it was not a task which she undertook at a 
request of any school board, but because she was a large-hearted, 
kind woman, well educated and bright, whose pity was aroused 
by the children of this little village roaming the streets without 
school advantages, that Elizabeth Trux voluntarily assumed the 
duties of teacher, procured a room and gathered around her 
eighteen pupils and thus inaugurated the cause of education in 
Sparta, aud it grew mightily with the passage of time, from 
1855, when the first school house was built, to the present. Her 
own language will convey the difficulty which was encountered 
by ]\Irs. Trux in this little pioneer school, and we here quote 
from an article written by her in 1897 the following: 

"As there was no school here Avhen we came and I had had 
some experience as a teacher, I opened a school on the 6th day 
of April, 1855, with eighteen children. Besides teaching them 
to read and spell I taught them to sew and to work perforated 
cardboard and often kept them with me for company until tea 
time, sometimes taking them out to pick flowers and Avinter- 
greens ; I think they were all very happy and I am sure I was, 
for I loved the little ones dearly. There was at that time a frame 
building on the corner of Oak and "Water streets, now occupied 
by the Williams block, facing Oak street, containing three rooms. 
One was ]\Ir. S. D. Jackson's store, another the postoffice, and 
as the other had just been vacated we were fortunate to secure it. 
Here we kept house and taught school in the same room. In 
about two weeks jMr. Pott and J\lr. Scheler with their families 
came from Pennsylvania and bought the building, so we were 
obliged to move into one room of what was known as the 'Old 
Log Fort,' which stood just back of where Mr. Foster's harness 
store now stands, facing Water street. Mr. Thomas Blyton's 
people lived in the next room and another family in the back 



room. Uur room contained onr cook stove, l)ed, and such other 
furniture as ■we possessed, witli the same benches made of slabs 
that we had in the other school room. More children came until 
Avo had twenty-eight in that small room and it was pretty well 
tilh'd. In a few weeks ]\lr. Blyton's people moved into a house 
they had built and I had the room they vacated for a school 
room ; new families came with more children, and our number 
increased until we had forty-seven. "When tlie school had been 
rnnning a little more than tAvo months Mr. Edward Canfield, who 
owned the house, came from Connecticut Avith his family and 
Avanted the Avhole of it. so the school had to be giA'en up for 
Avant of a room in Avhich to hold it. 

"In June the first school house Avas built on tlie present site 
of the West Primary and is noAv occupied as a residence in the 
southAvestern part of the city. 

"Miss Ann Shepherd, an experienced teacher from Fond du 
Lac, Avas the first teacher in the first public school. I taught 
as a substitute for her for one month Avhile she Avas sick, and 
such a school Avas never taught before ; there Avere one hundred 
pupils of all ages, from all parts of the county, Avith the books 
they had brought Avith them, and as there Avere no books to be 
bought in Sparta, there Avere no two books alike, Avhich made 
each pupil a separate class, and made it \'ery hard for the 
teacher, as avcII as for the scholars. I sometimes Avonder if the 
members of our schools at the present time can appreciate the 
Avonderful |)i-iviloges they have in getting an education." 

Pioneer days in the schools Avere pretty much alike in this 
county, a story of struggles for better things, better school houses, 
better equipments, better teachers, better everything that starts 
the young American on his Avay in the Avorld Avith something of 
an education, Avhether he is rich or poor; and progress at times 
found hanging on her skirt the old saying, "What is good enough 
for our forefathers is good enough for us" fallacy, but be it 
said to the credit of the good sense of the citizens of Sparta 
exercised as a Avhole that running through all the years has been 
a disposition to give to the schools anything Avhich in reason 
ought to l)e provided, a loyalty Avhich has borne rich fruit in 
the past and Avill continue to do so in the future. 

Perluips there is no subject more choice to the people than 
the history of the schools of any community, for in a great degree 
characters are built, careers mapped out. iuul i)erhaps men of 
history here receive the fundamental education upon Avhich to 


build for the future. But of the details of the earlier years little 
can be gathered; with the gradual change of methods and better 
equipments the village schools kept pace with modern methods, 
resulting in the establishment of a high school which was accom- 
plished during the time of Professor Bloomingdale. Of him no 
better description can be given than that which is contained in 
an article written by Dr. D. C. Beebe in 1897, after long service 
on the school board, from which we quote as follows : 

"I see way back in the '60s an important personage in educa- 
tional affairs here. He really is the pioneer, for no worthy 
pretentions to aggressive educational work were made here 
before his time. He was rough in manner, untidy in dress, of 
strong personality, had a tender heart, and an unflinching cour- 
age that never forsook his convictions, let come what would. 
Closely allied and almost inseparable, w^as the educational insti- 
tution of the place at that time — the new brick school building 
just finished and equipped. 

"Prof. J. Bloomingdale was not only principal and superin- 
tendent of the Sparta schools, but he was the oracle, the com- 
pendium, the beginning and end of all matters that savored of 
public education. He planned with great nicety the new school 
building, and superintended its construction with jealous care; 
and when it was completed, it was to him the embodiment of all 
that was then worth knowing in school architecture. I remem- 
ber distinctly the first quasi-theatrical that I enjoyed in the new. 
building on one public Friday. It was a grand success. The 
house was filled Avith proud fathers and mothers. The stage 
appointments were admirable, and the costumes of the players 
all that the delighted patrons could wish. The principal, with 
unshaven face and bushy, frouzled hair, seemed enveloped in a 
halo of glory as the good work went on. 

"Professor Bloomingdale was a type and teacher of the old 
school, and as such he held the ground without a rival. Death 
called him home before his eyes ever saw the dawn of the new 
educational era. AYhat seemed to him to be the acme of school- 
house perfection fell far short of what is demanded for our 
children today. ' ' 

The building mentioned in the foregoing quotation was the 
brick high school building built on the present site of the 
grade school in 1868-69 at a cost of about $13,000, and was con- 
sidered at that time as a high school building well in advance 
of the usual buildings devoted to this purpose. How the school 


systi'iii developed is eoiieisely Mild (Mitirely described hy AVilliam 
J I. JMytou in iin .irtiele on llie Sparta S(.'lio(,ls, from wliieh we 
quote very i'rcely as follows: 

"Prior to ]87() the progress of our sehools Avas retarded by 
false notions of economy. To 1)e sure, we lind built fi'om lime 
to time fairly good school buildings, but evidently hut little care 
Avas given to the matter of selecting experienced teachers. If a 
suitable and competent principal Avas secured it seemed to be the 
policy of the authorities to fill the other places in the schools 
at the lowest possible cost. Not until after a special meeting of 
the electors of the district, Avliich was held on the 27th of July, 
1876, at which time the people there present unanimously re- 
solved to organize a free high school district under the laAV of 
the state, being chapter 322, general laAvs of 1875, Avas sufficient 
attention given to the selection of sul)ordinate teachers and 
adoptiiig Avholesome rules and regulations. AVhen this Avas done 
the school seemed to at once spring into neAV life and began to 
attract attention. Sparta schools had been under the immediate 
care and direction of Professors Bloomingdale, Smith, Cummings, 
AVinter and Clark, and the corps of teachers liaA^e been increased 
from seven in 1870 to sixteen in 1897. The question of providing 
more and better accommodations for the school appeared to liaA^e 
been settled for all time, as many of our people then supposed, by 
the erection of the high school building in 1868-69 at a cost of 
$13,000, but as the population of the district increased the demand 
for more and better school buildings became so f>ressing that not- 
Avithstanding the additions and alterations heretofore made to 
the several buildings the school board iit the annual district meet- 
ing on July 1, 1895, reported as folloAvs : 

" 'The problem of Avhat Ave are to do Avitli oui- overeroAvded 
school Avithout more school loom. has conl'ronted the school board 
for more than a year. When the present high school building 
Avas built the school census of the district shoAved betAveen oOO 
and 600 ehildi'en of school age, tln^ census just taken shoAVS over 
one thousand children of school age. It has finally come to this — 
something must be done, some plan must be devised that Avill re- 
lieve these overeroAvded schools or they Avill greatly suffer for 
the ensuing yeai". Indeed, if no relief is provided the board is 
of tile opinion thai the half-day plan should be a(lo])ted and 
preferable to crowding so many pupils together.' Upon the fore- 
going report and at the suggestion of many citizens the people 
Avere jirompted to act, and the result Avas finally recorded on July 
8, 1895, by the adoption of proper b^gal resolutions authorizing 


tlie raising of necessary funds to purchase additional ground and 
to build a new high school building." 

"The school board immediately took the proper steps to secure 
the necessary ground, caused plans and specifications to be pre- 
pared for such new building, and on the 26th day of September, 
1895, awarded the contract for the ncAV building to L. V. 
Huschka, of Sparta, for the sum of $18,379.66, and work thereon 
was promptly begun, and the present high school building was 
completed and ready for occupancy September 1, 1896. The 
destruction of the old high school building by fire on December 
2, 1895, again called for prompt action and an additional outlay 
of money. Again the people were assembled in special meeting 
on December 30, 1895, to authorize the construction of a new 
building to take the place of the one destroyed, which was done 
without a dissenting voice. On July 6, 1896, at the annual meet- 
ing of the district, more money was voted and the result of the 
action of the taxpayers in tiie district is the two fine, substantial 
school buildings of which we are all so justly proud. AYith the 
loss of the West Primary building by fire on January 3, 1892. the 
high school building on December 2, 1895, and the AY. C. T. U. 
building, in Avhie-h the high school Avas temporarily located, on 
April 6, 1896, it will be seen that the duties of the school officers 
and teachers have not been altogether easy to perform and the 
demands on the taxpayers by no means light. How^ever. we have 
survived and today M^e are in possession of fine buildings and 
equipments which have cost as follows : 

"High school building, $18,379.66; seating and furnishing, 
$938.75 ; intermediate building, $12,280 ; seating and furnishing, 
$628.55; Depot school building, $601.05; boiler house and boiler, 
$1,703; East Primary building, $1,200; AYest Primary building, 
$1,020.55; estimated value of school grounds, $9,800; making a 
grand total of $49,551.56 invested for school purposes. The an- 
nual current expenses of conducting the schools have increased 
from $6,668.21 in 1876 to $11,617.76, being an increase of 
$4,919.52. AYhile this is cpiite a large increase it is not so large in 
proportion as the increase in the number of scholars." 

The above article, written in 1897, certainty shows a remark- 
able amount of progress made in the building of buildings and 
equipping the high school and the ward schools of the city, and 
since that time new school houses have been built for the depot 
primary and the east and west primaries so that the buildings 
now owned l)y the school district are all modern and up-to-date 
in every particular, and with the addition of a department of 


domestic science and anotlier of manual training in connection 
-svitli the high school, has brought the Sparta schools down to the 
present time as thoroughly ecpiipped and efficiently managed, 
giving all the advantages that any high school in the state can 
offer, except, perhaps, not as complete equipped in the laboratory 
for scientific investigation or as large a reference library as is 

Tlie training of the child has indeed largely changed in the 
last forty or fifty years; not only in the course of study arranged 
for his benefit mentally, but also much attention is paid to the 
pliysical growth and restraints of bad habits of body. Sensible, 
muscle-making and health-giving athletic exercises are now rec- 
ognized as of imperative importance. A substantial foundation 
for special or professional work is now laid in the high school. 
For not only is domestic science and manual training taught, but 
stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping and commercial pursuits 
are also a part of the courses of study. Scientific methods of in- 
quiry on particular lines of knowledge as developed through 
laboratory work and in other ways in bringing practical educa- 
tion to every high school student, in fact, in all lines and in all 
courses of study the Sparta high school has proved to be one of 
the best and has turned out many fine examples of young Ameri- 
can manhood and Avomanhood. whose careers as citizens in various 
parts of the country have demonstrated the thoroughness with 
which the foundition of their education and physical lives was 


In the earlier days in the high school baseball was more or 
less prominent, and in fact was the principal game to wliich at- 
tention Avas devoted by the students, and perlmj)s was never 
better played than in the time of Professor AVinters. At that 
time the McCoy boys, S. H. Burroughs, Palmer. Reck brothers. 
Caliioun and Leyden were almost expert players. Later came 
Gould, Burr and ^Moseley, who had foremost parts in connection 
Avith the game. In the spring of '96 Sparta won the champion- 
shij) of the AVestern AVisconsin High Schools for ])aseball. Track 
and field athletics began with the advent of ^Ir. A. F. Barnard 
as a teacher in the school during '94 and '95. A field day was 
held in June, 189."). l)etween tlie ^lauston and Sparta schools at 
the latter place, and Sparta won many of the events. This was 
nothing more than a start, however, and during the succeeding 
year a league was formed called "The West AVisconsin High 


School Athletic League,"" which had in view the promotion and 
maintenance of general athletics and comprising the towns of Vi- 
roqua. Tomah, JMauston and Sparta, and the field day between 
the teams representing these several towns was held at Sparta, 
June 6, 1896. This league was maintained for two or three years, 
l)ut owing to the lack of support on the part of the various or- 
ganizations, it was finally dropped. 

It is to be regretted that more records were not kept of the 
various athletic events during the past years with which the 
high school has been connected, but as a rule since '96, when 
athletics took in a larger field of events, including football and 
the ordinary track and field sports, the Sparta high school has 
maintained a prominent place in high school athletics and at 
times has taken a championship or two. 

Particular attention during the latter years has been paid to 
the football team, and perhaps the greatest success was attained 
by the team of 1908, under the captainship of Earle Jefferson, 
when the Sparta team, having defeated LaCrosse in past contests 
for seven straight times on the home grounds, an exciting game 
was played at LaCrosse between the two teams on Thanksgiving 
day. Fully five hundred people went to LaCrosse on that day to 
witness the game and give moral and ''vocal" support to the 
Sparta team. The game was close, well contested and exciting 
throughout, the score finally being twelve to ten in favor of 
Sparta, and this added eight straight victories over LaCrosse. It 
was indeed a victory, for LaCrosse had been very energetic in 
perfecting her team and had gone to considerable expense in 
employing a coach, the home team having been coached l)y Dr. 
Barlow, a dentist residing in the city, himself an athlete and 
deeply interested in everything that pertained to athletics. An 
athletic association exists in connection with the high school to 
which students are eligible, and it is connected with the Inter- 
scholastic Athletic Association of AVisconsin, under the rules of 
which all contests are held. 


A little quarterly magazine, entiled The Spartan, is published 
by the students of the high school, which originated in the early 
part of the fall term of 1885. Numerous publications were 
received from different schools and colleges in Wisconsin and 
the neighboring states, among them being the University Press 
and Badger of our own state. As these papers continued to arrive 
and were almost invariably accompanied by requests for an ex- 


cliaii^c. tlic idea yratlually sugyi-stt'd ilself that tlie liigli school 
might be able to get out a journal of its own, and after consider- 
able investigation it was finally decided to i)ul)lisii a school ])ai)ci-, 
and witli that end in xicw tlic studcnls ])i-oceeded to elect a board 
of editors, and The Spartan made its first appearance on the 20th 
of November, 1880. In its first issue the purpose of the publica- 
tion was set torlli as follows: 

The Spai'tan aims first, to ])e a true representative of the 
Sparta High School. It is to be the pi-oduction of the scholars 
as a body. Its columns will always be open for the expression of 
honest opinions, and the only test for the admission of articles 
will be merit and originality. We purpose to insert each montli 
several original essays on live subjects, subjects that will Ite 
interesting both to the students and to the community at large. 
No pains will be spared in iiuiking the alumni column one of the 
most valual)lo departments of llie paper, for we wish The Spartan 
to be indispensable to all graduates and former students of the 
school." The editorial board of the publication was selected 
from different classes, each class having one or more represent- 
atives. At the outset it was the intention to publish the pai)er 
once each month, but oAving to the amount of school work tnat 
was not always found adv«isable, so that it resolved publications 
of four numbers each year. 

Outside of the articles coutril)uted by students there have 
been frequent articles by the alunnii and former members of the 
school, which, from time to time, have proved of great interest. 
It is the plan of each board of editors to produce an attractive 
and valuable magazine, and particular attention is paid to the 
printing and illustrations. The paper is supported pi-incipally 
from subscriptions of the students and alumni and (piite an 
amount is also received from advertisements, and the business 
and professional nu'u of the city are glad to render assistance to 
this meritoi'ious work by giving small advertisements, which are 
carried throughout the yeai'. The little paper has proved to be 
of considerable value in |>n'S('rviiig in. this form tlu^ records of 
graduating classes and of some atliletic events, and also oratorical 
contests and debates. It was published for two years. com]ileting 
two volumes of eight nund)ers each, aftei- which the publication 
was di'opped for a luuuber of years. Jt was finally revived in 
1898 and 1ms been published continuously ever since, having 
reached its fifteenth \olume in the school year of 1911 and 1912, 
and now is one of the pcnnaiiciit institutions of the high school. 



Numerous societies sprung up, had their day, and were no 
more, especially those of a musical nature, although in 1908, 
1909 and 1910 a very creditable glee club was maintained among 
the boys of the high school known as the ''Owl Glee Club." It 
has a membership of something like twenty voices, and was quite 
successful in its work. There was also a girls' glee club, called 
the "Greig Choral Society," and in the fall of 1909 a high school 
orchestra made its bow to the public and proved to be a very 
popular organization during its one or two seasons of existence. 
The oldest society in point of years is the Jefferson Debating 
Club for boys, which was organized during the fall of 1897 and 
has been in existence ever since. This is a society conducting de- 
bates and literary exercises and has developed good material and 
furnished several debating teams, which in the past has held 
up the honor of Sparta High in contests Avith other schools. 

The Girls' Athena Society, a debating club, is also successfully 
maintained, and its meetings have proved to be interesting and 
instructive to its members. The athletic society has been 
previously mentioned. But, perhaps, the most interesting asso- 
ciation from the point of its membership is, of course, the 
Alumni Association, which numbers as its members all of the 
living graduates of the Sparta High School. This association 
meets once a year, during the holiday season, between Christmas 
and New Year's, and indulges usually in a reception and a ban- 
quet, followed by a program of varied interest. 

This society numbers among its members many who have 
achieved prominence in different walks of life. They are scat- 
tered in many states and to attempt to enumerate them would 
be a task indeed, and we will be content with mentioning here 
some of the more prominent. Of course there comes to the mind 
at once the name of John J. Esch, who has achieved a national 
reputation in congress as the representative from this district ; 
Frank Oster, Julian Bennett and Howard Teasdale, all have 
been mentioned in a previous chapter on the legal fraternity ; 
Corwin J. Steele, of the class of '77, became a prominent physician 
at Milwaukee, AVis. ; Dr. Carl Beebe and Dr. Spencer Beebe, 
now both of this city, prominent physicians in this part of the 
state ; Dr. Albert J. Miller, of the class of '92, who served in the 
Philippines in the United States troops, and is now located in 
California; A. R. Smith, of '87, an attorney practicing at Bara- 


1)00; R. B. ]\U-Coy. at i)resent county judge of IMonroe county; 
S. R. Burrouglis, quite prominent in insurance circles, who en- 
gages ill luisiness now in Sparta. There are c|uite a number of 
the legal fraternity who did not graduate from the Sparta High 
School but received a portion of thcii- education in it. who are all 
referred to in a previous chapter on the "legal fraternity." 

Among the alumna^ may be mentioned ]\Iiss Laura Miller, now 
a prominent educator in ^Montana ; ]\Iiss Bell Ady, who graduated 
from the school in '81, afterwards taking a course of music in 
the Boston Conservatory, and for some time filled a position in 
the Sparta school ; Mary L. Bisbee, a poet of her school genera- 
tion, now in California. But to go over the whole list will con- 
sume more space than Ave can devote to the subject and it will 
suffice to say that the graduates of Sparta High School as a rule 
have made good. 

The following is a complete list of the graduates of Sparta 
High School, arranged by classes, from 1877 to and including 

Class of 1877 — ]Mary E. Greene, Emma ]McKeu/.ie, ]Mary 
McKenzie, AVilliam J. Hughes, Lizzie H. Palmer, Annie Streetou 
and Corwin J. Steele. 

Class of 1878 — Addie Ellis, AV. F. SaAvyer, Hallie Smith, Julian 


Bennett. R. F. Jones, Fannie Palmer. Eliza Canfield, Frank Oster, 
Jessie ]\IcjMillan, J. C. Prill, Kate IrAvin, HoAvard Teasdale, John 
J. Esch, Stella Brock, E. K. Holden and Lizzie Hill. 

Class of 1879 — Jennie Wells, ]\Iary Harr, ]\Iary ]\IorroAV, 
Charles J. Smith, Sarah Gould, ]\Iary Foote, Josie Fisk, Charles 
L. Smith. Lillie Sarles, Nellie Harvey, Florence Thayer, AVilliam 
Graves and Ella James. 

Class of 1881 — Angle DorAvin, ^Mamie ^Merrill, Franc ]\IcMil- 
lan. Belle Ady, Lottie King and Etta Kilmer. 

Class of 1882 — George Grossman. Alviii Regan, Addie ]\I. Sa- 
bin, Fannie Cook, "NVm. F. Jones, Louis Brooks, Jennie ]McAIillan 
and Gertie Bancroft. 

Class of 1883— Stella Bancroft and Luella Tyler. 

Class of 1884 — George Petis, Flora Dalaba, Lou BaldAvin, 
I\Iamie Sarles, Anna Beckler. ^Minnie Lee, George Stevens, Neeta 
]5aldwin, Nellie Hanchett and Carl Beebe. 

Class of 1886— Franc C. Angle, George E. Gray, Rose E. Hel- 
ler, ]\Iiriaiii J. JcAvett. Hattie AV. LaAvrence, Dora E. Link, Mary 
A. Smitli, AValter AI. Smith and Alary P. SpafTord. 

Class of 1887— Robert B. AlcCov, Laura L. Aliller. Nellie A. 


Morse, Everett R. Pease, Alonzo R. Smith and Grace ]\I. 

Class of 1888— Julia :\r. Beebe, ]\Iary L. Bisbee, Mary B. 
Brooks, IMartlia Davenport, Grace E. Lee, Kate j\lc]Millan, Lillian 
M. Moftatt, Anton Moe and C. Floyd McClnre. 

Class of 1889 — Spencer D. Beebe, Josephine Brennan, Pauline 
M. Bedenk, Agnes Davenport, Robert B. Dunlevy, Walter E. 
Kaser, Charles J. O'Connor, John W. Palmer, Lillian B. Clark, 
Helen R. Gray, Eva A. Gray, Gertrude Nutting, Margaret B. 
Lewis, Harriet Richardson, John M. Fanning and Carl ]\L New- 

Class of 1890— George AY. Ascott, Harry D. Baldwin, Seth R. 
Burroughs, Alary AL Calhoun, A\"m. B. Calhoun, Olive C. Chadsey, 
John L. Herbst, Louis T. Hill, Alice K. Hill, Albert E. Hollister, 
Frank AA^. Horner, Harriet AL Alanley, Lelia R. Palmer, Helen 
Richardson, Bertha Sargent, AVilliam Thorbus, Alina AL AA'are 
and Henry A. AVaste. 

Class of 1891 — Flora A. Angle, Alargaret A. Jones, George AL 
Link, Alabel L. Alasters, Lila D. Newberry, Alabel A. Payne, 
Louise Foote, Clare L. AIcAIillan, Charles Stimson, Alaggie Tay- 
lor and Hugh H. A\^illiams. 

Class of 1892 — Alame L. Beebe, Frederick Brooks, Nellie Car- 
gill, Albert Fonken, Ella L. Hewitt, Carl H. Lewis, Clara Olson, 
Albert L. Aliller, K. Josephine Alueller and AA^illiam D. Tallman. 

Class of 1893 — Bess R. Baldwin, Nellie Dodge, Inez E. Berry, 
Alice Hettman, Alaude Jewett, Delia Johnson, Kate AIcAulift'e, 
Leonora O'Connor, Eva J. Rhodes, Kate H. Sterger, Nellie E. 
Sullivan, Julia AA^hite, AVilliam P. Dunlevy, Daniel Fisk, AA^ill 
Ford, Carl Foster, Clarence Fulmer, Alilon R. Gould, Edmund 
Gray, Henry C. Hanson, Theodore Lewis, Ossian R. Link, AYill G. 
Alerrill, John Sehrara and Jessie AL AVright. 

Class of 1894— Nellie AL Bnsh, John AL AYoy, Emma E. 
Gantka, Bernard Alulrenin, Lena A. AVright, Rose L. Finn, Carrie 
A. Huftman, Anna J. Evans, Stella 0. Thorbus, Clara A. Fowler, 
Jessie J. Sias, Ruth AL Hanchett, Jas. J. Bowler, Alaude AVoy, 
Anna B. Durrie, Alary A. Barber, Tillie I. Olson, Thresia Inger- 
soll. Lulu E. Bush, Josephine Erickson, Arthur Hollenbeck and 
Nellie Throbus. 

Class of 1895 — Herbert N. Leete, Bessie Rutledge, Joseph 
Brown, Jessie Lake, Edward E. Sands, Silas AL Lewis, Harold 
Stevens, Lena Freenlee, George Dudley, Alinnie Van Antwerp, 
Addie King, Rollie Hogue, George Bowler, AVayne Aloseley, Ger- 


trude Nodine, Josio Dammoji. ^rM<j:Lri<' liowlci-, ^lilo Babcock and 
Carl II. Gould. 

Class of 189G — Artliui- Avers. Gcorijo Esch. Clyde Smith, 
Alfred AVliite, CJrace Brown, Lnla Converse. Ella Erickson, Effie 
King. John Brown, Frank Frazier, Griffith Roberts, Robert Teall, 
Susan Beswick. Nellie Brown, Anna Doxrud, Nellie Freeman, 
Ella .Mul renin and Etta ]\lelntyre. 

Class of 1897 — Letha Ordway, Blanche AVebb, Nettie Lewis, 
]\Iay Varlin, ]\Iabel ]\IcGary, Anna Jenkins, Nellie Sias, Allie Bur- 
rouirhs, Sadie Hettman, Carl Newton. Colburn AVhilc, Jason Wil- 
liams, Herman Hanchett, Ray Palmer, Nellie Jones, Lillian L. 
Dudlej^ George Hanchett and Frank Schneller. 

Class of 1898 — Alice Beebe, Norman Durrie. Ella Eseh, 
Blanche Gray. Alark Jewett, Gertrude Jones, Bess Palmer, 
Francis Seidell, Nellie Bradley, Nellie AVoods, Evan Evans, Jane 
Gallagher, Earl HoAvard, Earl Kemp, AVinnie Alulrenin and 
Myrtle AVood. 

Class of 1899 — Stena Sands. Grace Blackman, Agnes Bowler, 
Paul Bush, Sadie Edminson, Susie Fish, Genevra Jolinson, Elma 
Landt, Hattie Alurphy, Louis Nelson. Alae Robinson, Emma Sax- 
ton, Marie Seidel, AVinnifred Smith, Annie Teall. Georgie AVhit- 
comb, Ella Bowler, Alabel Bush. Fred Chaml)erlain. Dorothy 
Everett, Clara Jackson, Elizabeth J<'nkins, Charlotte Shermer 
and Harry Alasters. 

Class of 1900 — Anna Abrahams, Bona Brownell. Blanche 
Chamberlain, Alay Hubbard, Gertrude AIcAuliflfe, Anna Nyberg, 
Katherine Romanowsky, Netta Sholts, J\Iabel Tuthill. Alfred 
Clark, Augusta Dellman, Tillan Goltz, Elizabeth llotner. Alattie 
Howard, AVard Jewett, Dwight Leete, Blanche Alorrison. Hilda 
Olson, Ethel O'Leary, Norton Saxton, Ernest Servis, Fred Smith, 
Bess Thayer and Angcline Taylor. 

Class of 1901 — Carrie Ditman. Blanche Boydeu, Elsie Cam- 
eron, Jennie Johnson, Fern Scott, Ida Clark, Isaac Lewis. Dora 
Sherwood, Elizabeth Teall, Carroll Ayers, Alary Babcock, Ernest 
Brooks, Etta Homer, Hattie Hutson, Lottie Johnson, Clara Knud- 
son, Lula Nelson, Russell Rath, Edwin Rich, Zel. S. Rice, Charles 
Roy, AVill Rutledge, Meta Smith, Robert Rutledge. Ray AVebster, 
Everett AVilliams and Rachel AVilliams. 

Class of 1902 — Cora Abrahams, Bess Blackburn, Herman Can- 
field, Alabel Heasty, Doris AIcAulift'e, Emma Aloy. (Jeorge Seidel. 
Cornelius Shea. Edward Strait. Robert Alerrill. Francis Smith, 
Charles Potter. Ruth Dalaba, Ethel Link, Edith AlcCormick, 
Eli/ab<Hi Oliver, Floyd Rogers, Ray Smith, Alargaret A'oung, 


Charles Carnalian, Frank Newlon, Horace Howell, Leon Moss 
and Rollie Quackenbusli. 

Class of 1903 — Andrea AYinterfield, Grace Shotts, IMaiide 
Nieol, Florence Jones, Clara Jankel, Clara Jackson, Mae Hitch- 
cock, Maud Farnham, Effie Edminster, Julia Cholvin, Roy Sliat- 
tuck, Sadie Slayton, Daniel Clark, Alice Brackett, Earl Brandt, 
Fannie Babcock, Lawrence Dake, Harvey DorAvin. Laura Davis, 
David Jones, Eva IMoffatt, Guy Palmer, Jacob Putman, Grace 
Sharp and Catherine Johnson. 

Class of 1904 — i\Iae Rice, Lucretia Van Zandt, Lydian Bush, 
Harriet Ball, ^Margaret Dougherty, ^Mildred Evenson, Arthur Fish, 
Nellie Hitchcock, jMyrtle Hoftman, Gertrude Johnson, JNIartha 
Jankel, Edward Leverich, Verne Lovell. Esther Moy, Lester 
j\Ioss, Dorcas Prill, Sophie Roy, Tom Teall and Ethel AA^illiams. 

Class of 1905 — Alvin J. Graf, AVill H. Graf, Theresa Hanson, 
David Jones, Bess Heasty, Mary Hutson, Helen Jennings, Mabel 
Huschka, Nettie Jordan, Laura Kyle, Carl Kelley, Alice Thorbus, 
Fidelia Van Antwerp, Edwin Moy, jNIabel Sherldon, Harry AVhite, 
Elsie Tucker and Arthur AValters. 

Class of 1906 — Nellie Marie Ball, Sydney David Jones, Edna 
Caroline Dieke, Gwen M. Jones, Luella Anna Graf, Helen Pitkin 
Leete, Carl Glenn Gililand, Winfred Owsley, James Andrew 
Johnson, Ella Louise Schlaver, Grace Emma AVhite, Loren Ernest 
Austin, Harold Edwin Blackman, Endora Deldee Burrows, Nor- 
man Lee Jewett, Gloria Alta Alengelt, IMinnie May Evans, Neil 
Martin iMolley, Ella Everson, Jason Nieol, Vena Rae Hemstock, 
Aimee Ethel O'Brien, Clarence Edwin Hitchcock, John Howard 
Prill, Otilde Josephine Jackson, INIaria Delia Sahrt, Catherine 
Magdalena Kulm, Harry Ross Shetfer and Harold Kasson Thurs- 

Class of 1907 — Price McConnell, Evan Lewis, Percy Leverich, 
Nora Abrahamson, Hubert Blank, JMark Jones, Julia Harvey, 
Stella Kitchum, Rachel Nieol, Hazel Nieol, Alertie Jackson, Grace 
Shoemaker, Gorman Moffatt, Carl Jones, Harry Longwell, Win- 
nie Rooker, Arthur Blank, Lottie Graf, Bennett Stiles, Sarah 
Jones, Nora Alulrennin, Benjamin Sias, Reuben Rogers, Jay 
Webb, Jessie Rutledge, Frank Van Antwerp, JMiriam Lamborn, 
IMark Quackenbush, Anna Potter, David Simpson, Elizabeth Trux, 
Edgar Clough, Arthur Nichols, Ernest Dorwin, Tracy Huschka 
and Nina Hubbell. 

Class of 1908 — jNIabel Davis. George Barker, Hazel AVolcott, 
Rose Seidel, Gretehen Esch, Harold Barker, Harriett Brackett, 
Mabel Parks, Grace Baldwin, Grace Van Antwerp, ]\Iinnie Poss, 


Anton Boison, ]\Iarie Dowd, Francis Huston, ^Nlj^rtlo Butler, Eu- 
gene ^Matteson, Hazel Hubbard, Lillian Farnhain, John AVolf, 
Inez Lloyd, Jessie ^Morrison, Eleanor Smith, P>ed Newman, 
Kiesling Tluiyer. Pearl Trij)]!, Blanche Davis, ]\rarie AVintertield, 
Irene Jordon, Arthur Hoffman, Sophy A])rahams, Pearl Kichai-d- 
son, Lillian Jensen, Arbie Brooks, Fred Ileitman, Luella Walters 
and Frank Glynch. 

Class of 1909 — Jennie AVebster, Andrew Johnson, Elinor Sher- 
man, Earl Jones, Lettie Jackson, Chester Jackson, Forrest Rich- 
ards. Anna Jones, Otis AVestby, Blanche Wagner, Earle Jetferson, 
]Maude Sharp, Celia Krotzman, Moses Smith. Malx'l Matteson, 
James McDonald, Edith Pratt, Eugene Ilesselberg, Gertrude 
Gladden, Ethel Crowe, George Brooks, Grace AValters, Percival 
Hutson. Grace Simpson, Olga Larson, Delia ]\Ierrill, ]\largaret 
Ileasty, Harold Dorwin. Bessie Hutson and James INIerrill. 

Class of 1910— Alta AVolcott, Harry AValters, Sylvia Richard- 
son, Ethel MeClure, Earl Jones, Ethel Doyle, Agnes McGarvey, 
Lila Blank, Jessie Swarzlow, Ida Jones. Delbert Dawley, Jessie 
Holinbeck, Edna Janes, Rachel Davis, Edith Clark, Alma Winter- 
field. Earl Leverich, Margaret Laing, Clara Barker, Elmer 
Abrahamson. Anna Axelson, Jennie Hitchcock. Chauncey Beebe, 
Jessie Powell, Lucy Smith, Helen Haddow, Joseph Dana, Elsa 
Baldwin, Pearle Kelley, Ralph Williams, Liilia Lund, Harriet 
Herman, Harry Ilersh, Edith Ileasty, Ella Shaw and Lulu 

Class of 1911— Floyd Rath. Grace Sarles, Leita Bestow, 
Stephen ]\lcDonald. Fern Smith, Lisle ]\Iayfield, Jennie Jones, 
Roy Dunbar, ]\Iae ^Morrison, Frank ^McDonald. Christina AVinter- 
field, Ruth AlcCabe, Clyde Ewers. Zella Keene. Dorothy Oswald, 
Lawrence Carroll. Lila Bartlett. Emma Hansen, Charles AIcGone- 
gal, Hazel Alatteson, Amelia AVright, Burton Evans, Bernice 
Everson, AVilliam Kammalade, Esther Freeman, Alerritt Newton, 
Alyrtle Jones. Fred Enckhausen. Dorothy Hansen. AValter Evans. 
Alaude Alaytield, David AVilliams. Harrietta Rathbun, Vaughn 
Lee and Edna Richards. 

Class of 1912 — Inga Christopherson, Don Divoll, Ilulda Erick- 
son, Doris Escli. .Mae Finger. Rena Fi-ank, Fi-ed Hansen, f^mil 
Ilersh, Cecil Ilorswill. Kuby Jackson, Ethel Jones, Elsie Kielberg, 
Dorothy Kyle, Victoria Larson, Spencer Lucas, Alina Alorgau. 
Serenus Paulson, Alice Prill. Grace Reed, Doris Richards, Esther 
Roberts, Blanche Rooker, Frances Sarles, Earl Thurslon. Emma 
AValters and Grace AVi-iffht. 


Within four years after the passage of the law which created 
the county of Monroe, the citizens of Sparta were furnished with 
banking facilities through the organization of the Bank of Sparta 
in 1858. From that time until the present the banking business 
has been conservatively and safely conducted with the exception 
of a private banking institution of M. A. Thayer and Company, 
which originally was established in the 70 's by M. A. Thayer and 
R. S. Kingman, but which failed, together with the bank estab- 
lished by Mr. Thayer at Tomah in 1893. 

The other banking institution have been distinguished for a 
steady and substantial growth. Two of them are housed in their 
own buildings and the third will undoubtedly acquire its home 
within the next few years. 

The combined capital of the three institutions in Sparta is 
now $100,000. The total amount of of the surplus of the three 
institutions combined is $17,250, and the total amount of re- 
sources is $1,257,933.10. 

The Bank of Sparta, which is the oldest bank in the state of 
"Wisconsin west of Madison, was organized in 1858 by John T. 
Hemphill, who came from ]\Iilwaukee, AYis., and Samuel JMcCord, 
of ]\Iadison, Wis. It was inaugurated under the banking laws of 
1852 and opened for business on the 26th day of July in tiiat 
year, in the north half of the one-story frame building which is 
now No. 120 North Water street and occupied by the Grand 
Rapids Llilling Company. The other half of the building at that 
time was occupied by the postofiice. Both Mr. Hemphill and 
Mr. McCord were experienced bankers, formerly having been 
connected with the Marshall & Ilsley Bank at ^Milwaukee, Wis., 
the latter being connected with the State Bank of ^ladison. In 
1860 ]\Ir. McCord sold his interest in the institution and moved 
to Milwaukee. 

A statement of the l)ank at this time is interesting and the fol- 
lowing is copied from the semi-annual report, dated July 2, 1860, 
on file with the register of deeds of ]\Ionroe county : 




Loans and discounts !f2r).274 Gl 

Overdrafts 40 GO 

►Stotdcs on deposit witli state treasurer ] 9,000 00 

Bills of solvent banks 4,681 00 

Bills of suspended banks 17 00 

Due from banks and bankers 7,434 73 

Specie 2,145 55 

Total ^58,552.49 


Capital $2:).0()() 00 

Registered notes in circulation 15,280 00 

Deposits 15,925 40 

Due others 2.347 09 

Total ^t:58,552 49 

The remarkable fact about tliis statement is what appears to 
be the small amount of cash entered in this statement as 
"specie" as only $2,145.55, but it will l)e ol)served th;it the bank 
at that time issued its notes for circulation, which amounted to 
over $15,000. 

In the fall of 1860 the bank removed to the corner of AVater 
and ]Main streets, into Avhat was known as the "Goss building," 
now the site of the INIasonic Temple, and while there plans were 
made for a more su])stantial home. In 1864 the bank erected 
the first brick business building in the village, designed by a 
^Milwaukee arcliitcct, and a very tine building at the tinie. This 
was occupied by tin.* institution until it Avas replaced in 1906-07 
l)y the present ])ank building, except for temporary occupancy 
of a building opposite during the construction of the new bank. 

AVhen the natioiud hanking system was established througii- 
out the country the Bank of Sparta reorganized in 1865 as the 
First National Bank and increased the number of its stock- 
holders. The oflicers then chosen were: John T. Hemphill, pres- 
ident ; T. B. Tyler, vice president, and Thomas AV. Wilson, 
cashier. Later Air. Wilson removed to Alinneapolis and was suc- 
ceeded by AVilliam AVright. 

On Alay 8, 1873, E. H. Canfield entered the office as book- 
keeper, was elected assistant cashier in 1877, and cashier in 1878, 
having faithfully served the bank continuously to the jiresent 




time, except inree years, during which he was out on account of 
ill health. 

In 1878 the hank surrendered its national charter and reor- 
ganized as a state i)ank, resuming its original name of Bank of 

In 1879 Ira A. Hill hecame identified with the institution and 
was elected as a member of the l)oard of directors. At the retire- 
ment of Ml'. Hemphill in 1883, who removed to Indian territory, 
Mr. Tyler was elected president and Mr. Hill vice president. 
They held these offices until 1886, when Mr. Tyler's death oc- 
curred and Mr. Hill was elected president, in which capacity he 
continued until the time of his death in 1904. 

In 1898 Messrs. D. D. Cheney and D. AA^ Cheney became in- 
terested in the institution, the former being elected vice president 
and the latter assistant cashier. D. D. Cheney retired as vice 
president in 1901, but continued as a member of the board of 
directors until his death in 1904. D. AY. Cheney succeeded his 
father as vice president and at the death of Mr. Hill was elected 
president to succeed him, which office he holds at the present 

Louis T. Hill entered the bank as a bookkeeper in 1893, and 
was elected assistant cashier in 1897 and vice president in 1904, 
which position he now holds. A. AV. Barney, who had formerly 
been connected with the Alonroe County Bank, became asso- 
ciated with the Bank of Sparta in 1901 and was made assistant 
cashier, and later the same year was promoted to vice president. 
A. AV. Ryon entered the employ of the bank in 1908 and was in 
1911 promoted to the position of assistant cashier. J. D. Button, 
formerly in the grocery business in the city of Sparta, was em- 
ployed as assistant cashier in 1911; Pearl Kelley, assistant book- 
keeper, and Charles Aylesworth, night watchman. 

The management of this institution has during its fifty-four 
years of existence aided many men and many business enter- 
prises in their growth from small beginnings to greater success 
and usefulness, and numbered among its present customers are 
the sons and grandsons of those who were valued customers of 
the bank in its earlier days. It moved into the present hand- 
some banking building on Alay 17, 1907; truly one of the most 
artistic, commodious and substantial buildings of its character to 
be found anywhere. It occupies thirty-five feet front and is 
is eighty-five feet deep, is of classic design and massive in out- 
lines; the front is of Indiana Bedford stone; the interior arrange- 
ment of the bank is according to the best modern ideas for an 


institution devoted solely to country banking purposes, with 
every convenience for l)t)tli the patrons of the bank, its officers 
and employees ; there is a three-story vault built independently of 
the structure, the walls being lieavier than standard and rein- 
forced witli steel rods and beams; ample customers' room and 
directors' room and all modern conveniences are found in con- 
nection ; in front are the offices of AVilliam H. Blyton & Co. and 
D. W. Cheney. The wood work of the interior is mahogany and 
beautifully grained wood was selected, especially for this pur- 
pose. In the interior finish, beauty, Avithout too much ornament, 
was sought, and the result is pleasing in every particular. At 
the last statement of the bank its total resources were $734:, 975.46, 
and carrying dei)osits of $672,845.46. 

Monroe County Bank. This institution was opened for busi- 
ness October 26, ]894, with a capital of $25,000. The institution 
purchased the banking building on the corner of AVatcr and Oak 
streets, whicli has formerly been occupied by ]\I. A. Thayer ; a 
very advantageous location for business purposes, and it has 
remained in this building, which it now owns, ever since. The 
interior of the banking room has been remodeled and modern- 
ized in every particular and now has a handsome equipment of 
the most up-to-date facilities for tlie handling of the large busi- 
ness which this institution enjoys. Its first officers were George 
D. Dunn, president ; AY. G. AYilliams, vice president and A. AV. 
Harney cashier. Directors: George D. Dunn. A. Thoi'bus. W. G. 
AVilliams, C. :\r. ^Masters, L. D. Merrill and AV. T. Sarles. 

During its existence this bank has been conservative in its 
investments and has been of much service to many business enter- 
prises which have been assisted through its help. It has built up 
a strong clientage and is considered one of the best conducted 
and managed l)anks of its kind. 

The present officers are: President, George D. Dunn: vice- 
president, AV. G. AVilliams ; cashier, 0. G. Lindemann ; assistant 
cashier, David L. Jones ; bookkeeper. F. B. Heitman. 

At the last statement made by it the resources of \ho institu- 
tion were $.S28.1 71 .!»(), with deposits of $286,977.65. 

Citizens State Bank. This bank was established on Alay 25, 
1907, the officers Ix'ing AV. A. Jones, president; II. IM. Newton, 
vice president; AV. ^I. Gioler, cashier; T. C. Longwell, assistant 
cashier, and wlnle yet young, the bank has rapidly increased its 
resources and has every indication to good success in the future. 
At the present time it occupies rented quarters in the I. 0. 0. F. 
building, on the corner of Oak and AYater streets, which are 


neatly fitted up for the purpose of the institution; its present 
officers are : President, W. A. Jones ; vice-president, H. M. New- 
ton ; cashier, T. C. Longwell. Directors : J. C. Prill, C. M. Beebe, 
A. J. Carnahan and H. J. Masters. 

At the last report the resources were $194,787.74, carrying 
deposits of $166,481.59. 


It is the intention in tliis chapter to give brief historical 
accounts of the lodges and societies which came in existence in 
the city; there have been a number of organizations in the past 
"which have been disbanded and the records of which are not 
available, thus preventing any detailed account of their history 
at this time ; among these orders was a lodge of the Ancient 
Order of United "Workmen, which was organized in 1876, and 
also a lodge of Good Templar, which has had rather a fitful exis- 
tence at different times. 

Pearly in 1880 there was organized in the city a civic organiza- 
tion called the "Board of Trade," having for its purpose the 
advancement of the interests of the village along manufacturing 
and mercantile lines and promoting in the general prosperity of 
the municipality; this organization continued for some time, but 
finally disbanded for lack of interest. No institution of the kind 
was in existence again until 1908, when the citizens' club was 
corporated and furnished rooms in the Schram building on AVater 
street. The object of tliis organization Avas practically the same 
and for the time it accomplished considerable good in several 
ways, but, like the Board of Trade, interest in it waned, and it 
finally dissolved, sold its furniture and fittings, and in 1911 
became a thing of the past. The business men of Sparta have 
now no organization of the character which looks after promot- 
ing the general welfare of flic city and there seems to be no 
disposition among the business men to maintain such an organ- 

Valley Lodge, No. 60, Free and Accepted Masons. A dispen- 
sation was granted l)y the grand lodge of Wisconsin on August 
17, IS")!, and Valley Lodge duly instituted. The first meeting 
was held in the house of R. S. Kingman, August 26. 1854, when 
^lorrison AIc^NIillan was installed as worshipful nmster. The 
charter Avas granted June 1."). 1855, Mr. McMillan being the first 
Avorshipful master under the charter; since an hirli time there have 
been twenty-three Avorshipful masters and eighteen secretaries; 



the former are: Morrison McMillan, A. D. Soper, A. II. Condit, 
A. H. Isham, M. R. Gage, S. N. Dickenson, S. S. Field, D. C. Hope, 
C. M. Masters, T. D. Merrill, P. S. Sparling, N. W. Huntley, 
L. M. Stevens, H. T. Child, C. AV. Hines, J. C. Prill, E. A. Richard- 
son, G. H. Chaffee, H. D. Baldwin, T. C. Longwell, H. J. blas- 
ters, AA^. B. Ford, E. R. AYilliams, and A. J. Frye. Secretaries: 
Chester McClure, R. AA^ Bowles, E. F. Clinton, M. Alontgomery, 
J. AI. Sngden. Fred Lee, H. E. Kelley, E. Aylesworth, A. Oppen- 
hemer, E. C. Caskey, J. J. French, C. E. Boyden, J. M. Sugden, 
C. AV. Pott, S. T. Lewis, R. A. Alerrill, AV. AIcBride and D. B. 

In the year 1891 the Alasonic fraternity purchased lots nine 
and ten, Tyler's addition, on the northwest corner of AA^ater and 
Main streets, and a corporation was formed which erected a 
Masonic Temple ; stock in this institution was held by members 
of the different Alasonie liodies until 1910, when Valley Lodge, 
No. 60, having accumulated sufficient funds, took over the build- 
ing and now owns it absolutely, j)ractically free from indebted- 
ness ; the lodge rooms are handsomely fitted up and are used by 
the Alasonic bodies, including the Commandery of Knights 
Templar and by the Order of the Eastern Star. 

Valley Lodge has at the present time 126 members of good 
standing, and its officers are A. J. Frye, AV. AI. ; F. A. Brandt, 
S. AV.; F. L. French, J. AV. : AA^ S. Telfer, S. D. ; L. R. Aloore, 
J. D. ; L. D. Alerrill, treasurer ; D. B. Laing, secretary ; J. H. 
Chaff'ee, chaplain ; P. S. Sparling, tyler. 

Sparta Chapter, No. 19, R. A. M. Dispensation was granted by 
the grand chapter of AA'isconsin January 9, 1859, upon the peti- 
tion of Alorrison AIclNIillan, Soloman Howe, A. II. Condit, AA^. S. 
Lane, A. R. McLean, Thomas Beitcher, Robert Langley, E. San- 
ford Blake, E. F. Clinton, J. AV. Alillour, Israel Graves, Chester 
AlcClure, E. S. AIcBride, J. D. Condit and R. C. AIcAIann. 

The first meeting under this dispensation was held in Jack- 
son hall, on the evening of Alarch 11, 1859, at which time Alor- 
rison AIcAIillan Avas installed as high priest. On the 3rd day of 
February, 1860, the charter was granted by the grand chapter 
and the chapter was constituted and the officers installed on the 
19th day of April following ; A. H. Condit being the first high 
priest under the charter. 

During the forty-three years of its existence the chapter has 
had twenty-three high priests; the institution is in a prosperous 
condition and numbers ninety-five members in good standing. 

The present officers are G. H. Bunnell, high priest ; AV. j\I. 


Forsmau, king; G. II. Chaffee, scribe; D. B. Laiiig, secretary; 
A. W. Barney, treasurer; Thomas Teall, captain of the host; R. A. 
Richards, principal sojourner; AV. IMcBride, royal arch captain; 
E. R. AVillianis, master of third veil; George Dreyer, master of 
second veil ; A. II. Frye, master of the first veil, and P. S. 
Sparling, sentinel. 

Sparta Commandery, No. 16, Knights Templar. The charter 
of this oi-ganizatioii was granted by the grand commandery of 
the state of "Wisconsin on the 6tli day of September, 1882, and 
the following were the first officers installed : S. N. Dickenson, 
eminent commander; N. W. Huntley, generalissimo; J. D. Condit, 
captain general ; the commandery has always occupied the lodge 
rooms in tlie IMasonic Temple for its meetings, and there, in con- 
nection M'ith these rooms, are a set of cedar lockers which house 
the uniforms and eciuipments of the order; the jurisdiction of 
the commandery includes the Royal Arch Chapters at Tomali, 
Black River Falls, New Lisbon, Necedah and Sparta, and at tiie 
present time the membership is 100 sir knights. 

Its present officers are R. A. Richards, eminent commander; 
Louis T. Hill, generalissimo ; George Dreyer, captain general ; 
TV. ]\IcBride, senior warden ; William Forsman, junior warden ; 
George H. Chaffee, prelate; F. E. BaldAvin, recorder; A. \V. 
Barney, treasurer ; P. S. Sparling, standard bearer ; John Kemp, 
sword bearer; E. R. AVilliams, warden, and J. T. Sargent, 

Sparta Chapter No. 18, Order of the Eastern Star. This order 
Avas instituted on the 5tli day of May, lb9I, with the following 
charter member's : A. H. Isham, INIiss INIary Isham, 'Mv. and ]Mrs. 
James Skillman, ]Mr. and ^Irs. J. Schram. ]\lr. and ]Mrs. S. T. 
Lewis, Mr. and INIrs. E. A. Clark, Mr. and Mrs. C. N. AVright, Mr. 
and ]\Irs. L. D. Merrill, Mrs. D. B. Cheuev and :\Irs. Villiam 

This is an order to which the Avives, daughters, mothers, sis- 
ters and children of iMasons are eligible, and is in part of a social 
nature. It has rendered much assistance in the past to the sick 
and needy members of the order. It first occupied a hall over 
tlie ]\Ionroe County bank, but now is installed in the ^Masonic 
Temple, and meets twice a month ; it occasionally gives social 
parties, wliich are greatly enjoyed by the members and tlieir 

The present officers are Emma Baldwin, Avortliy matron; Dr. 
J. C. Prill, patron; Genevieve Masters, associate matron; Jennie 
Horseman, conductress ; ]\Iillie Enckhauseu, secretary ; Jennie 


Brewster, associate conductress; Sarah Merrill, treasurer; Anna 
Salsbury, Adah ; Bell Robie Lee, Ruth ; Dorcas Chamberlain, 
Esther ; Elizabeth Davis, Martha ; Lorena Hay, Electa ; Alice 
Baldwin, warder ; J. T. Sargent, sentinel ; Eva Williams, chap- 
lain, and Lena Taylor, organist. 

Sparta Lodge No. 94, I. 0. 0. F. The present charter of this 
organization was granted on the 21st day of January, 1899, with 
PI. Palmer, R. Langley, L. D. Fisher, D. C. Fuller and S. P. Green- 
man as charter members. There was a lodge of this order organ- 
ized in Sparta on or about the year 1858, but it disbanded and 
the records of it are not available. The present lodge numbers 
about 150 members, and is in a prosperous condition. 

In the year 1887 it acquired the property known as the old 
Heller block on the corner of South AVater and Oak streets, in 
which Avas added a business block on the west, so that this order 
is now the owner of a handsome property with paying business 
tenants below, and a tine suite of lodge rooms on the second 
floor, including a large and commodious dining room and 
kitchen; the property is valued at the present time at $10,000. 

Its present officers are E. F. Babcock, N. G. ; AV. S. Jones, V. 
G. ; D. L. Jones, secretary; W. 0. Naset, P. S. ; W. H. Blyton, 

Sparta Encampment No. 36, I. 0. 0, F. This is the uniform 
rank of the order of the Odd Fellows, and was instituted January 
19, 1870. Its charter members were A. W. Kemp, S. P. Green- 
man, G. Simpson, S. B. Hamilton, J. H. Allen, J. N. Tarr and W. 
F. Cook. 

This is an order of a military character, and is handsomely 
equipped with uniforms, each member carrying a sword ; its 
membership consists of about forty at the present time, and its 
meetings are held at the hall of the I. 0. 0. F., and its present 
officers are F. J. Van Antwerp, chief patriarch ; A. P. Anderson, 
senior warden ; 0. J. Jackson, scribe ; F. J. Sheldon, junior 
warden, and J. B. Aimer, high priest. 

Mineral Springs Lodge of Rebeccas No. 41. This is an organ- 
ization for women, connected with the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and the charter was granted for its institution by 
the grand lodge on December 3, 1874, and was organized w^ith 
the following charter members : A. W. Kemp, G. S. Shaw, Sam- 
uel Hoyt, E. E. Olin, L. Green, D. H. Smith, H. A. Streeter, W. P. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. AV. Kemp, Mrs. G. S. Shaw, Mrs. Samuel Hoyt, 
Mrs. E. E. Olin, Mrs. L. Green, Mrs. G. H. Smith, Mrs. H. A. 
Streeter and Airs. AV. P. Aleyer. 


This orgaiii/atiun is notewortliy for its charitable deeds, and 
has been a great help to the nienil)ers of the order, and they fre- 
quently give soeial entertainments at the commodious lodge 
rooms of the Odd Fellows, which are greatly enjoyed by the par- 
ticipants. It numbers 113 members, and its present ofifieers are: 

^Irs. Virginia Brewster, N. G. ; Mis. Inez Ileasty, recording 
secretary; ]\Irs. Fayette Baldwin, treasurer; ]\Irs. Bell ]Milhii-d. 
past X. G. ; Mrs. Jennie Sheldon, L. S. N. G. ; Mrs. Ole Jackson, 
L. S. vice G. ; i\Irs. Evan Lewis, conductor : David S. Jones, out- 
side guard; Mrs. Emma Talbot. V. G. ; ^Irs. John Ilotfinan. finan- 
cial secretary; Mrs. ]\Iaud AVest, chaplain; ^Irs. Ada Goodman, 
R. S. N. G. ; ilrs. Jennie Brandt, R. S. vice G. ; Mrs. Alice Bors, 
warden; Mrs. David S. Jones, inside guard; Mrs. H. M. Smith, 
lodge deputy. 

Knights of Pythias, was organized July 9. 1874, with the fol- 
lowing charter members: ^1. R. Gage. A. AV. AVilson, C. Blakes- 
lee, AY. H. Nott, J. :\r. Morrow, J. A. Harvey. C. B. :\IcClure, 
D. C. Beebe, AY. Goodale. J. B. Palmer and N. P. Lee. The lodge 
had a warrant granted to them under Avhich they worked until 
July 1, 1875, when their charter was received from the grand 
lodge. They were authorized by the Avarrant to organize, con- 
stitute and establish a lodge of Knights of Pythias at Sparta, 
county of Monroe, state of AYisconsin, to be known at Sparta 
Lodge, No. 18, Knights of Pythias. 

The first officers of the lodge were M. R. Gage. C. C. ; D. C. 
Beebe, Y. C. ; AY. H. Nott. P. C. : C. Blakeslee, P. ; J. AI. Alorrow. 
M. A. ; A. AY. AYilson, K. R. S. ; C. D. AlcClure, AI. F. ; J. Harvey, 
M. E. ; N. P. Lee, L G. ; AY. Goodale, 0. G. 

The lodge has occupied ditferent halls during the time of its 
existence, and it is now very comfortaldy housed on the second 
floor of the Grossman building, where they have commodious 
quarters fitted up and club rooms. 

The lodge at present numbers members, and its present 

officers are F. R. Salsbury, C. C. ; E. A. Richardson, A^ C. ; A. F. 
Baldwin, prelate; F. DeBruin, AI. of AY.; AY. S. Jones, K. R. S. : 
C. E. AIcAIillan, IM. of F. ; A. J. Carnahan, AI. of E. : S. C. Letson, 
!M. of A., and C. E. Simpson, guard. 

Sparta Camp, No. 560, M. W. A. This order was installed in 
the city of Sparta on the 18th day of April. 1888, with the follow- 
ing officers: AL A. Thayer, V. C. ; AY. H. Aloseley, AY. A.; C. AI. 
Beebe. clerk; C. C. Herbst, banker; Beebe & Sarles. physicians: 
AVilliam Schaller, watchman; AY. E. Coats, eelate; J. A. Siiolts, 


manager ; George McDowell, secretary ; John Guy, escort. There 
were in all about twenty charter members. 

The order has had a steady and prosperous growth and now 
has 438 members, among whom are thirty-nine social members, 
who do not participate in the insurance benefit of the order ; the 
lodge occupies handsome quarters in what is known as the old 
Opera block, leasing the entire upper floor of this building, in- 
cluding the dance hall, which it rents for public entertainments 
at various times and from which considerable revenue is derived. 

Its present officers are W. P. Bamber, consul ; M. H. Babcoek, 
advisor ; C. E. Stevenson, banker ; C. M. Van Antwerp, clerk ; 
Ed. Arnold, escort; August Keifer, sentry; C. Merrow, watch- 
man ; Sarles, Beebe & Beebe and H. H. Williams, physicians ; 
D. Hemstock, R. E. Nicol and C. H. Leach, managers ; M. E. Put- 
man, chief forester. 

This lodge is a member of the LaCrosse Valley Association of 
]\Iodern Woodman, which gives an annual picnic, and on June 5, 
1912, the annual picnic was held in the city of Sparta, with an 
elaborate program and a large attendance. 



AVhat is now the "Sparta Free Library," was, at the time of 
its first organization and starting in the world, in the winter of 
1861 and '62, termed the "Young ]\Ien's Library Association" 
of Sparta. It had its origin in the desire of a number of citizens, 
at that time, who possessed culture and literary tastes, to found 
a library which should be a credit to the place and which should 
not only be a public benefit in the direction of promoting a 
greater knowledge of books and the higher aesthetic culture 
Avhich comes from the study of standard works by well-known 
writers, and valua])le also as a means of reference, but which 
should be the basis for an association of kindred minds and 
tastes, for purposes of mutual intellectual improvement. The 
matter of organizing a library association had been discussed in 
public and private for some two or three years before it finally 
took shape and formed itself into a definite purpose. Among the 
citizens who took a prominent part in the l)eginning of the 
Young Men's Library Association, and to whom the credit of its 
inception and organization mainly belong, may be named ^Messrs. 
Romanzo Bunn, afterwards United States district judge for the 
western district of "Wisconsin ; Thomas B. Tyler, J. T. Hemphill, 
Judge George E. Pratt, D. McBride, Dr. M. R. Gage, Milton 
Montgomery, :\r. A. Thayer, E. S. AVhitaker. H. R. Hayden, L. B. 
Noyes and a number of others. The exact date of the first meet- 
ing of the association cannot be stated with certainty, owing to 
the fact that the early records of the institution have been lost ; 
and for the same reason but tew details of the organization and 
progress of the association can be given, except such as can be 
gathered from the memories of the early projectors of the enter- 
prise. It was organized as a stock association, and the members 
subscril)ing for shares at $5 each. AVitli the fund thus raised, the 
light preliminary expenses were defrayed, and a small but 
judiciously selected assortment of books procured. Not an incon- 
siderable part of the infant library also Avere the donation of 
members and others who gave such volumes as they could spare 



from their private collections, and thus a by no means insignifi- 
cant beginning was made. 

The officers elected at the start were a president, vice presi- 
dent, secretarv, treasurer and librarian. R. Bunn was chosen 
first president of the association, with E. S. AVhitaker secretary 
and T. B. Tyler treasurer, and, subsequently, by Judge George 
Pratt, who filled the office for a considerable time. He was 
succeeded by Dr. R. S. Wells as librarian. 

The new Young Men's Library Association, during the first 
year of its existence, experienced the usual vicissitudes of such 
institutions, the interest in it being active for a time, and then 
subsiding in to rather a state of quietude, broken at intervals by 
spasmodic revivals when a concert or dramatic entertainment 
was arranged for its benefit, or when an annual election of offi- 
cers took place. The Civil War was then at its height and filled 
too large a share in men's minds to permit their giving much at- 
tention to matters literary and, moreover, the class really imbued 
with a love of books and reading was, as is generally the case in 
western towns, exceedingly limited part of the total population. 
It is not singular, therefore, that although expenses were kept up 
and frecjuent additions were made, on the whole the association 
rather languished after the first year of its organization. The 
library rules were defective in not requiring a deposit on the 
loan of the books, and as a consequence, large numbers of the 
volumes became scattered and lost. The labor of keeping track 
of them was not a paying task, and as may be imagined, could 
not be performed effectively under the circumstances. After a 
time, and during one of the occasional periods of activity, a 
change was made and new rules were adopted, one requiring a 
deposit from those borrowing books from the library, the deposit 
being refunded, less 10 cents, on the return of the book. This 
reform kept the library intact, but the question of the revenue 
was still a perplexing problem. The membership dues had been 
originally fixed at $2 per annum, but as the number of members 
diminished from neglect and non-payment of dues, this source 
afforded no surplus for incidental expenses and the procuring 
of new books. The Sparta Dramatic Club, a local dramatic 
organization, came to the rescue at several different occasions 
and gave entertainments for the benefit of the library, from 
which considerable amounts were realized and for which the 
members thereof, among whom were prominent Messrs. ]\I. S. 
Powell, the brothers H. R. and Harrison Hayden, D. S. Whitaker, 
George Farbham, Mrs. George Whitcomb, Mrs. M. A. Harris, Mr. 


and l\Irs. L. B. Noyes and otliri's. dcsci-xinti- fu!l credit i'or tlie 
liberal aid they lluis fciulcrcd in tin- inst ilut ion. 

Finally it became apparent that the library would have to be 
put on some different basis in oi'dt'r to give it permanence and 
provide for its growth and stability. The membership had 
dwindled from TOO down to tliirteen in the winter of lS7;5-4. A 
meeting of the thirteen was held in the office of llie librarian. 
Dr. AVells, and it was proposed to form a new organization under 
the state law, then recently passed, authorizing villages and 
cities to estal)lish free public libraries. The first meeting was 
held May 8, 1874. at whidi the organization, under the state law. 
was effected. By this arrangement the library became a village 
institution, subject to municii)al authority, and its afiFaii-s in 
charge of a board of trustees. 

AVhen the library had finally become a village institution, it 
Avas located in the upper room of a store Iniilding opposite tin* 
old Ida House, which is now the Hotel Lewis; when Dr. AVells 
left town the library was removed to the second floor of the 
Schram building on Water street, where it remained for a good 
many years, until the present library building was erected. 

In 1900 there was considerable agitation with regard to the 
erection of a building for the library, and Dr. AV. T. Sarles had 
taken some steps towards calling a meeting for the purpose of 
making some arrangenu^nts looking to that end, but in the mean- 
time Dr. F. P. Stiles, having learned through reliable sources 
that money could be procured from Andrew Carnegie for a 
library building in this city if proper application was made, pre- 
pared such a letter, which resulted in ]\Ir. Carnegie agreeing to 
give the sum of $10,000 for the construction of a library, upon 
the condition that a permanent provision should be made by the 
city of an amount each year equaling 10 per cent of the gift to 
maintain the same. Tiiis was very readily granted by the Com- 
mon Council, and the libi-ary board, after considering several 
sites, purchased the old Cilobc Hotel property, at the corner of 
IMain and Court streets, being a lot 150 north and south and 130 
east and Avest ; in 1901, plans for the building having been 
adopted, the library board appointed C. I\I. ]\1 asters, F. P. Stiles 
and George A. Kichardson as a building conunittee. The work 
was commenced early in 1902 and linished during tlu^ month of 
April, 190;{. 

It was found when the building was nearly completed, that 
the sum given would not be sufficient to complete the building 
and to build sidewalks, grade and si^cmI the ground, and an appli- 


cation -was made to jMr. Carnegie, who granted the sum of $2,000 
more, upon the same condition that the provision amounting to 
10 per cent of the gift shoukl be provided. 

The library building, a handsome brick and stone structure 
containing commodious and nicely furnished reading rooms with 
hot water heat and electric lights, is one of the most convenient 
and tasteful buildings of its character to be found anywhere. 
Considerable credit is to be given to the building committee for 
the tliorough manner in which their work was carried out, and 
especially to George A. Richardson, who devoted a great deal of 
time in superintending the construction of the building and in 
the furnishing and fitting of it to its present condition; he has 
served for more than twenty years as president of the library 
board, all without any compensation whatever and purely for the 
satisfaction of seeing the library succeed ; that it has been an 
institution of great value to the citizens of Sparta there can be 
no question, containing as it does at the present time 7,288 
volumes, consisting of all classes of literature and comprising 
valuable reference works. At the present time there are about 
twenty-five periodicals, consisting of magazines and newspapers 
taken. The library is open daily under the charge of Miss Jennie 
Scouten, who has been librarian since 1894, and whose extensive 
knowledge of library work and her invariably courteous treat- 
ment to patrons of the institution has made her hosts of friends. 
At the present time Miss Lila Newberry is assistant librarian, 
and has been for three years. The present library board consists 
of George A. Richardson, Dr. F. P. Stiles, Dr. Carl Beebe, Mrs. 
C. C. Newton, IMrs. Paul Schaller and Mr. H. J. Masters. 


The title of this chapter is used to designate in a general way 
the fair associations, which have existed for a great many years 
under diiferent titles, on this side of the county. 

The first organization of the character was called ''The ]\Ion- 
roe County Agricultural Society," and was organized at a very 
early date in the history of the county ; in 1857 Robert E. Gillette, 
of Tomah, whose name is so closely connected with the history of 
that city, a zealous worker in all things which pertained to the 
welfare of the county, suggested the advisal)ility of organizing 
an agricultural society and, after considerable agitation, it 
culminated in a meeting of representative citizens of the city 
who were favorable to the project. 

Those who exhibited the greatest interest in promoting the 
organization were R. E. Gillette, Samuel Hoyt, T. B. Tyler, L. S. 
Fisher and Amos Kendall; after some discussion the society was 
formally organized early in 1858, under the laws of the state of 
Wisconsin then existing, which provided for the organization of 
state and county agricultural societies, and it adopted the name 
of "Monroe County Agricultural Society.'' 

The first officers elected were Samuel Hoyt, president ; L. S. 
Fisher, secretary, and Amos Kendall, treasurer. 

The association held its first fair in Sparta in September, 
1858, in what was then knoAvn as "Denny's Lot," situated on 
South AVater street, where the 0. I. Newton Son's Company 
electric light office and the adjacent lumber yard is situated; at 
least one man is living who attended this fair in the jicrson of 
Fred A. Ilolden. assistant register of deeds. 

]\Ir. Ilolden relates that the fair was quite a success, and that 
the exhibits consisted of cattle and agricultural products, and 
the sports consisted of foot races and a Avrestling match, in Avhich 
a -Ml-. Uui-linganu^ challenged all comers. He states that there 
were only three teams of horses at the fair, lieing the ones owned 
by Scpiire Andrews, who then Avas the landlord of the "]\Ionroe 
House;" his father. A. D. Ilolden. owning a span and also one of 



the Bard's. The rest of the inhabitants from the country came 
with ox teams and with the old-fashioned liueh pin Avagons, 
which were greased with tar. This seems peculiar at the present 
day, but it seems to be the fact that tar was used as a lubricator 
for wagons in those days. The receipts of the exhibits were 
rather light, but exceeded the disbursements, and the people who 
attended were unanimous in the claim that the gathering was a 
great success. 

In 1863 the society became the purchaser of the present fair 
ground, situated west of the city, for which $725 was paid and a 
deed received from the owner on the third day of September in 
that year. The plat originally consisted of an entire forty acres, 
but this being too much for the purposes of the societ3^ all but 
twenty-five acres were disposed of and are comprised in the 
present fair grounds. 

The purposes of this society was to promote the annual gath- 
erings at which the best products of the soil and the dairy were 
exhibited; improved machinery and implements for agricultural 
and dairy purposes were exhibited, and farmers, merchants, 
manufacturers and all classes of industries joined in making ex- 
hibits of their specialty, for which liberal premiums were offered 
in all lines. 

Fairs, which were more or less successful, were held in the 
succeeding years, and by means of donations from citizens, it was 
kept going financially and, up to 1880, was in a flourishing con- 
dition ; at that time a tornado, which passed through this section 
of the country, caused a severe loss to the society, as the build- 
ings on the grounds Avere completely demolished, causing a great 
expense to rebuild and repair ; by prudent management, how- 
ever, the debt was paid and the society once more placed upon 
a good financial footing. 

The society continued its existence until about 1892, when 
interest in it lagged and no fairs were held and, in May, 1894. it 
was succeeded by the "Sparta Driving and Agricultural Associa- 
tion," which was incorporated by AV. T. Sarles, Fred Gross. 
M. R. Gage, ^X. P. Palmer, L. D. Merrill and F. L. French, whose 
names appear on the original articles of incorporation. 

This society acquired the old fair grounds and improved the 
racetrack and held horse races at difi^erent times during the 
season of such sports, and revived the old fair and conducted the 
same for a great many years. 

No fairs were held during 1909 and 1911, and the society, as 
then in existence, transferred its whole property in the winter of 


1911-12 to tlie "Sparta Fair Association," suiifiidcrcd all llicir 
stock, and tlie organization Avhicli now owns the pi-opcrty is coin- 
posed pi'incipally of farmers; it has been thoroughly reorganized 
with AV. H. llancliett i)resident and AV. A. llolden secretary. 

Active preparations ai'c ])eing made, and undouhtcdly the 
year 1912 will see the resumption of holding an annual lair in 
the fall of the year. There are upon the grounds at the present 
commodious grand stands, a large exlubition building for farm 
products, mercantile exhibits and all those requiring indoor 
space, a large and commodious barn with 1)0X stalls for racing 
stock, ample cattle sheds and barns for the stock, togetlier with 
pens for pigs and sheep and a large house Avhere cliickens and 
other domestic birds are exhibited ; all together, the plant is 
very complete; a good half-mile track for racing, in the center is 
a baseball ground. There is an artesian well on the grounds 
which furnishes the best of water to the l)arns and stock sheds. 

The neAV fair association starts with bright prospects, has a 
very large number of stockholders, as no person is allowed to 
OAvn more than one share of stock, and whatever place it takes 
in the future history of the county, it certainly does not lack for 
good equipment, good membership and ample opportunity. 


IManufactui'ing was inaugurated in the little village of Sparta 
in 1853, when A. H. and Hilton Blake erected a sawmill upon 
the banks of Beaver creek ; were it still standing it would now be 
located about in the center of Water street; this was the only 
sawmill here in this vicinity, except the one which is situated in 
Angelo, having been built there in 1852 by Seth Angel. 

Messrs. Blake run this sawmill until about 1857, when the 
same was purchased by K. and 0. P. ]\IcClure, who destroyed 
the old building and built the first grist mill in Sparta ; this was 
situated about forty feet east of the old building. This grist mill 
was operated by I\IcClure Brothers for several years to great ad- 
vantage, the farmers bringing their grain to the mill from a 
great distance to be ground. 

In June, 1867, the property was bought by T. B. Tyler and 
T. D. Steele for .$27,000 ; they erected on the site of the grist mill 
a woolen mill, at an estimate cost of $30,000, and commenced the 
operation under the firm name of T. B. Tyler & Co. ; they con- 
tinued to operate the mill until 1872, when they sold it to 
II. Greeve. At that time the greater part of the original plat 
belonging to the mill property had been disposed of as building 

From that time, 1872 to 1878, the mill did not meet with a 
great deal of success, not running regularly, and in September of 
the latter year, T. B. Gibson bought the mill and commenced 
operation ]\Iay 1, 1879, manufacturing woolen goods, making a 
specialty of fine white blankets, which became quite noted. In 
the spring of 1881 Mr. Gibson made several improvements in the 
work in order to fill the demand for his goods, and increased the 
machinery ; he manufactured fine white blankets and ^Mackinaw 
cloth, tlie latter being a grade of goods used for out-clothing for 
lumber and woodsmen. The business ran at that time up to a 
capacity of $50,000 worth of goods per year and employed as 
high as twenty-five hands ; it was operated as a woolen mill for 
several years, until it passed into other hands and the manu- 



facture of goods was no longer continued ; the building was used 
for various purposes at different times up until about 1909, when 
it was sold to AV. A. Ileinstoek, and is now used as a livery stable. 

As early as 1864 the village of Sparta boasted of a paper mill, 
which was erected in that year by John L. Mather, at a cost of 
$42,000. In 1871 it came into the possession of Oran I. Newton, 
who ran it until 1879, Avhen he rebuilt the entire plant at a cost 
of over $50,000. The mill Avas situated on the LaCrosse river, 
when the water power, which is now used by the 0. I. Newton 
Son's Electric Light Company, was first put in. The mill's 
capacity was over 6,000 pounds of paper daily, and employed as 
high as twenty hands, using in the manufacture of a certain kind 
of paper five tons of straw daily. In addition to the manufacture 
of wrapping paper and paper bags, !Mr. Newton dealt very 
largely in other grades of paper, and built up a large trade 
throughout the Northwest, keeping several salesmen on the road 

After his death the mill was operated by his sons, Harry i\I. 
and George Newton, until it burned some years later. AVith the 
destruction of the plant the business went out of existence, as 
the Newton boys did not rebuild it, but used the Avater power for 
operating the electric light plant, which they subsequently ac- 
quired, and the general powerhouse of which is situated on the 
site of the old paper mill at the present time. 

Among other industries which have gone out of existence and 
which were prominent at one time, was the carriage works of 
Messrs. E. and A. Thorbus, Avhich was established in the village 
of Sparta in the fall of 1866 by the senior partner of the firm. 
]\lr. Thorbus commenced business in an old frame building and, 
during the first year, turned out seventy-five wagons of various 
kinds, the greater part of which were heavy vehicles, adapted for 
hauling and fai-m work. In 1870 A. Thorbus Avas admitted as a 
partner, bringing both business, capital and energy, and during 
this year the firm erected a warehouse at a cost of $3,000, which 
they occupied for many years. AVhen the Avorks were run to 
their full capacity, they employed twenty-five hands and kept in 
stock al)out 450 vehicles of various kinds. 

As the years went by the manufacture of Avagons Avas gradu- 
ally discontinued and, finally, under the name of E. Thorl)us & 
Son, the busini^ss Avas conducted ]>rincii)ally as a headquarters 
for farm machinery up to the time of the death of E. Thorbus. It 
Avas afterAvards continued by the estate under the management 


of the son, C. T. Thorbus, until a few years ago, when he sold it 
to Davis & Jones. 

There are three feed mills at present being operated in the 
city. One on Water street by G. H. Bunnell, he having acquired 
the Bacon mill dam and operates it at the present time ; a pros- 
perous business, manufacturing flour of different grades in a 
small way and being very useful for the farmers for feed grind- 

The old mill by the St. Paul depot is now owned by Bergman 
Bros., both of these properties have, in the past years, gone 
through so many different hands that tlie records of them cannot 
be gotten at the present time. 

Both have had various ups and downs, and the trouble Avitli 
the water power, especially the dam, has taken the course that 
is common with the dams constructed of wood and dirt. At 
present it appears to be operated successfully, being owned by 
Bergman Brothers, who have increased its clientage since they 
came in the business. 

The old McCoy mill, situated on the lower end of Court street, 
is still operated with the water power which had been in ex- 
istence for so many years. It is used as a feed mill and has built 
a large clientage among the farmers of the south and west. 

Monroe County Telephone Company. This company was 
organized in a small way in the year 1897, with eighty-five 
phones and with V. V. Willey, E. V. Benjamin and H. C. Jackney 
as incorporators, who, in December, 1907 sold out their hold- 
ings to about thirty local men, who have since owned it. It has 
grown steadily and extends its lines in all directions in the 
county, and in the year 1904, it closed a contract with Bell Tele- 
phone Company by which it is also connected directly with long- 
distance lines, which is a great convenience to its patrons; it 
operates at the present time 552 miles of rural routes and city 
lines, with 950 telephones ; has its central office in the Teasdale 
building, where a fine equipment is maintained with modern and 
most improved switch-boards, and in connection a rest room for 
the girl operators. 

The plant is valued with all its connection lines at about 
$50,000, and owes its success principally to Senator Howard 
Teasdale, who has been the secretary and general manager of 
the organization since its start. 

The present officers are C. M. Beebe, president ; W. G. AYil- 
liams, vice president ; H. Teasdale, secretary and general man- 
ager, and W. McBride, treasurer. 


Sparta Grain Separator Company. This company lias tlie 
distinction of building a machine lor the separating of Avheat 
and oats and tlic cleaning of wheat and oats, which is the work 
of a Sparta man, JMr. George W. Richardson; ^Ir. Richardson 
worked a great many years upon his idea and finally succeeded 
in getting a patent on a machine which would accomplish the 
Avork, so longed desired by mill and elevator men, that is a 
machine which Avould clean wheat and other mixtures of grain, 
separating them, thus making the grade higher. 

The company Avas organized in Ihe year 1902, in the manu- 
facture of this machine, and started in a small way in its present 
location and met with success and, finally, in the year ]909, the 
entire plant was sold to C. T. Thorbus, who is now the sole 
owner; he has perfected the machine in various ways and en- 
larged the plant at difit'erent times and the machines have been 
sold in various parts of the United States, and at the present time 
Mr. Thorbus has organized a stock company at AVinnipeg, 
Canada, for the manufacture of Richardson Grain Separators, so 
that starting from a small beginning, this business promises to 
extend itself over a large territory. Several sizes of these 
machines are manufactured, from a small machine for mills, up 
to a large machine of big capacity for handling grain in ele- 

American Cigar Company. This is not an industry by local 
capital, but is one of tlic many i)lants of this great company 
which is operated in ditferent i)arts of the United States for the 
sorting and grading of tobacco ; the company located here in the 
year ]9()1, and erected several large brick buildings, near the 
Northwestern depot, upon Ihe land donated to it by the city for 
this purpose; to this plant is l)rouglit a large stock of tobacco, 
bought in different parts of AVisconsin by the diflferent agents of 
the company, and here it is sorted, graded and packed ; the gen- 
eral manager and staff are employed the year around at the 
plant, and during the sorting season it has enijiloyed as high as 
5UU hands in the handling of tobacco. 

There is also an e(|ui{)nH'nl of machinery for curing tobacco, 
by which the leaf is started in one end ol' the nuichine and at the 
end of a few hours comes out tlie othor side, cured and ready for 
use. This is a very complicated machine, and reqiiires the atten- 
tion of an ('\])ci-t to operate it and accomplish the results, which 
otherwise reciuires considerable time. 

The present general manager is IT. S. AFcGiffin, with a corps 
of assistants. 


Jefferson Leaf Tobacco Company. This organization was in- 
corporated l)y AV. T. Jefit'erson and his son Harley, in connection 
with several others, in the year 1909. Mr. W. T. Jefferson had 
formerly been a manager of the plant of the American Cigar 
Company here and also state manager for that institution ; he re- 
tired from its service in 1909 and organized the Jefferson Leaf 
Tobacco Company ; his long experience in the business in Vir- 
ginia and in AVisconsin fitted him to engage at once in this busi- 
ness, and the company leased commodious quarters, situated on 
"Water street, where it congregates its stock of leaf tobacco, sorts 
and packs it. It employs about fifty hands. 

The present officers of the corporation are W. T. Jefferson, 
president ; D. AY. Cheney, vice president ; H. W. Jefferson, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

Sparta Iron Works. Originally established as an iron 
foundry, the present plant is the outgrowth of the oldest estab- 
lished industry in the city. In 1857 Captain Fisk erected the 
first foundry in response to a demand growing up in this section 
of the state for such a business ; he afterwards sold an interest 
to Frank Skillman and Jeremiah Andreas; this firm ran the 
business until 1860, when Skillman acquired the entire business, 
buying out the other two, and conducted it until 1865, when he 
sold out to LoAvrie, Mock & Stevens ; this firm sold to H. Greve, 
and he in turn was bought out by J. J. Owsley, during Avhose 
ownership the plant was destroyed by fire. 

In 1867 Lowrie, Irwin & Gilbert built another foundry near 
where the present works are located, and this was finally pur- 
chased by the Sparta Manufacturing Company, and again the 
plant was destroyed by fire. L. ]\I. Newbury bought what was 
left and built another shop in 1869, sold a half interest to J. P. 
AVard, and in 1872 built what is the main building of the present 
works. AVard sold to Air. Satterlee and the firm of Newbury & 
Satterlee carried on the business extensively, at times employing 
as many as sixteen hands. 

The works passed into the hands of Carl Newbury and J. U. 
Durant, by whom it was formed into a corporation ; the entire 
plant was taken over by Lee and Robert Canfield, who are the 
principal stockholders, and the business has been conducted 
under their management ever since. Gradually the foundry and 
casting business was dropped and the entire plant is now devoted 
principally to the manufacture of well drilling machinery, and 
in this business the Canfield brothers have made a success which 
is hardly realized by the citizens of Sparta ; modest and unassum- 


intr. they have developed surprising business ability, employ 
about forty hands, five of whom are traveling salesmen, and their 
machinery is sold all over the United States, in Canada, Porto 
Rico, Africa, India and the South American states and elsewhere. 




The Congregational church liad its beginning with the com- 
ing of Rev. AV. F. Avery, who arrived October 24, 1854; having 
finished his studies at Amherst College, Massachusetts, he started 
West and, upon his arrival, found everything crude and primi- 
tive, but he entered into the work with great earnestness ; after 
three and a half years his health broke down from overwork. 
At first, there being no meetinghouse, services were conducted 
in private houses, the church being formally organized June 22, 
1855, commenced the building of a church in the winter of 1856, 
which was formally dedicated June 11, 1857 ; it was erected at 
a cost of $3,800 complete. The first deacons of the church were 
Joseph Avery, the father of the pastor; Guy C. Hoyt, and H. M. 
Sandford. Deacon Avery was untiring in his efforts in behalf of 
his church, and it was through his efforts that the church build- 
ing was erected. The first board of officers was elected March 
8, 1856, consisting of six trustees, being George AV. Root, G. C. 
Hoyt, E. S. Blake, E. Lathrop, Joseph Avery and A. F. Childs. 

In 1858 Rev. Avery resigned, and from that period to 1867 the 
pulpit was occupied by five different clergymen ; the Rev. Joseph 
Carmichael became the pastor in 1866 and served for nine years, 
being followed by Rev. Geo. F. Hunting for two years, and he in 
turn succeeded by Rev. Frank T. Lee, who entered the pastorate 
January 23, 1879. During his time the church made rapid 

The Rev. AVilliam Crawford followed him, commencing the 
work April 8, 1883, and continued as pastor for about eighteen 
years, and it was during his long pastorate that the church 
reached its climax of success ; Dr. Crawford, a most earnest 
Christian, of great executive ability, a profound scholar upon 
whom his college, Amherst, has conferred the degree of D.D., 
was closely allied with the best interests of Sparta, and the 
memory of the great work accomplished by him will long linger 

in the minds of the people of Sparta. It was during his pastor- 



ate, ami largely due to his efforts, that the present beautiful 
cluireh was erected at a cost of about ii^20,U()0 and dedicated June 
23, 1879. 

This church is far beyond the cliurch building ordinarily 
found in a city of this size; it is l)uilt upon grand architectural 
lines, handsome in appearance, fitted inside with a large pipe 
organ and modern church furnishings, a large, roomy audi- 
torium, tlie acoustic properties of which are excellent, church 
])arlors Avhicli can be opened into the main auditorium and a 
Avell-appointed basement dining room and kitchen, in which 
church suppers are frequently held. 

Rev. E. AV. lluelster was called to the pastorate from the 
East, succeeding Dr. CraAvford, in January, 1901 ; upon his re- 
tirement, after considerable discussion, the Rev. F. AV. A\'alker 
Pugh, pastor of the First Baptist Church of the city, was en- 
gaged as pastor, and the two church organizations formed an 
alliance; the Baptist church being so small in num])ers that to 
maintain a clergyman was almost out of the question ; the coali- 
tion Avas effected ; the two church societies joined in supporting 
the church Avork of the Congregational church, although each 
organization still retains its olftcers and each conducts its annual 
church meeting as before. The arrangement seems to be a A'ery 
happy one, as the congregation, thus augmentedj supports the 
church very Avell. 

Rev. Harding Hogan succeeded Dr. Pugh. having been the 
pastor for about tAvo years last past ; Rev. Hogan is a fortunate 
addition to the local clergy, a man of broad mind, a deep student, 
gifted far beyond the ordinary Avith eloquence, his sermons, 
habitually delivered AA'ithout the aid of a manuscript, are models 
of logic, thought and diction. There are the usual societies con- 
nected AA'ith the church Avhich maintain the ordinary church ac- 
tivities and do much charity A\'ork, and the church is fortunate 
in having a large choir of mixed voices, ably conducted by Dr. 
S. D. Beebe. 


Sparta Avas visited for the first time by a Catholic priest in 
1858, in Ihe ]>erson of the Rev. Father Rrtche. Avho celebrated 
mass in a lailroad shanty. At lliat time there Avere but few 
Catholic families in the village, but Avith the advent of Father 
]\Iontague, who succeeded Father Roche in 18G0, began the 
groAvtli of the congregation UJitil in llie year lS(iT a frame ehureh 
AA'as built, under the direction of Father Alarco; Father 


Montague was succeeded by Father Stroker about 1864, and he 
in turn, by Father Gallagher about 1865, and Father Marco. 

This building was located somewhere near the present Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company depot, and the 
first members of tlie congregation were H. Fanning, Thomas and 
Pat Brennan, H. Schroff, D. Sullivan, P. Fitzgerald, C. Bedenk, 
H. C. MuUer, T. McGargle, H. Carr. AY. Lennon, M. Bransfield, 
Thomas and Bernard Mulrenin. Ed Barry, William, Thomas, Ed 
and John BoAvler, Pat Davis, Con. Carroll, Jacob Poss, J. Ant- 
weiler, John AYagner and Alec Allen, five of whom, Pat and 
Thomas Brennan, AA^illiam and Thomas Bowler and Thomas Mul- 
renin, are still living. 

The Rev. Father Quigley succeeded Father i\Iarco as the 
pastor in 1867, and he in turn was succeeded by the Rev. Father 
Dorward of Tomah, who on the 14th day of August, 1876, was 
succeeded in turn by Rev. J. B. IMetzler, who held the pastorate 
until August, 1877. when the Rev. Joseph Bauer relieved him ; 
he officiated until 1877, when Rev. J. AVicker took charge, until 
1879, when Rev. J. B. AViedman succeeded him. The church first 
erected in 1867, near the depot, was moved to the present loca- 
tion in 1877 ; the membership at that time consisted of about 
fifty families. 

Rev. Father T. H. Beau succeeded Father AYiedman in the 
pastorate, and after a short pastorate of a few months by Rev. 
J. Kennedy, he in turn was succeeded by Rev. Father H. F. 
Flock, who marks the twenty-fifth j^ear of his pastorate in 1912. 
During the latter 's pastorate the old church was enlarged and 
remodeled at an expense of about $2,000. Until about 1897 two 
mission churches were attached to the Sparta church, one at 
Summit of about fifty families, and one at Pine Hill, near Sham- 
rock, of about twenty families. Since 1897 the Sparta congre- 
gation has service every Sunday ; the aforesaid church at Summit 
now having a resident pastor, and the church at Pine Hill being 
attended from Black River Falls. 

On Sunday morning, January 22, 1905, the church was totally 
destroyed by fire, which started in the basement and, it being an 
old wooden building, it soon went up into flames. The congre- 
gation, luckily, had $2,300 of insurance on this building, so that 
it was not a total loss. 

Steps were immediately taken for the erection of a new 
church, and on Sunday, September 24, 1905, the cornerstone of 
the new edifice was laid with impressive ceremonies by Bishop 
Schwebach, of LaCrosse, and on June 5, two years later, the 


bishop again visited the elnireh and presided at the dedicatory 
ceremonies, Avliieli were very e]al)orate. The clnirch OAvns the 
entire ])lock upon wliidi its huildinos are situated, Avith tlie ex- 
ception of four h)ts Avhieh are owned bj' the Franciscan Sisters 
and upon which stands the St. Mary's Domestic Science school 

The congregation has a membership of something over 100 
families, who are steady supporters of the church, besides about 
fifty who are occasional contributors. Though not large, the 
congregation has made a splendid showing the last few years in 
erecting a new parsonage at a cost of !|<4,000 ; buying new prop- 
erty to the value of $6,000, and building the new church at a 
cost of $30,000 with a residue debt of only $15,000 at the present 
time and that is being paid at a rapid rate. 


This is not financially connected with St. Patrick's congrega- 
tion, but is a separate institution conducted by the Franciscan 
Sisters of LaCrosse, "Wis. Originally the building which was 
considerably smaller than now, was used as a school and after- 
wards it was changed to a girls' orphanage, for which purpose 
it Avas used until 1889, when the orphans were taken to LaCrosse, 
and it then became a boarding school until about the year 1905. 

The sisters then determined to undertake the opening of a 
domestic science school in connection with the St. ]\Iary's Con- 
vent, and it became a success from the start; it then was neces- 
sary to enlarge the buildings to accommodate the increasing at- 
tendance. The building was thoroughly remodeled and enlarged 
and school formally opened on I\Ionday, January 6, 1908. It is 
equipped with a large and commodious kitchen, a spacious dining 
room, sewing room, class room, bright, airy dormitories, a well- 
equipped laundry, several music rooms, all well lighted, steam 
heat and ventilation and provided with all modern improve- 
ments, arranged with a view to the practical convenience and 
comfort of the pupils. 

This is a school for girls, and its principal purpose is to teach 
domestic science and all its branches, which includes for the first 
year, cooking and serving of meals, table etiquette, study in 
composition and nutrient value of various foods, housekeeping 
and home management, laundering in all its branches, plain 
sewing, mending and darning, the making of simple garments, 
common and fancy needlework. The second year of the course 
includes also home-nursing, care of the sick and the sick room, 


making, cutting and fitting of garments and art needlework. 
Music is also taught, tlie music department being well provided 
with rooms and instruments. Orchestra concerts and musical 
programs are provided for the entertainment of the pupils and 
their friends ; there is also a course of drawing and painting, 
which is optional for those who desire to take it. In connection 
with the other instructions in the school, religious instruction is 
given, and the training and discipline Avhich will cultivate in its 
pupils the Christian virtues and special traits of womanly char- 
acter that should be prominent in good Christian homes. 

The following is. a list of the graduates of the school: 1910 
— Veronica Elner, New Ulm, Minn. 1911 — Emily Shornar, La 
Crosse, Wis. ; Gertrude Beecher, Eau Claire, Wis. ; Pauline Hil- 
debrand, Sheboygan, Wis. ; Catherine Schmitt, St. Lucas, la. 
1912 — Clara Belter, Athens, AVis. ; Anna Beil, Athens, Wis. ; 
Mary Greiner, Athens, AVis. ; Clemence Canar, Mondovi, AVis. ; 
Florence Schlosser, Eau Claire, AVis. ; Anna Alariek, Eau Claire, 
AVis. ; Sophia Duren, Cazenovia, Wis. ; Clara Muehlenkamp, Nor- 
walk, AVis. ; Elizabeth Rick, Plain, AVis. ; Alary E. Hughes, Green- 
wood, AVis. 

The total attendance for the year 1911-12 was forty-five 


This city is fortunate in being selected as one of the three 
points in the United States where is established a home for the 
members of this order. 

In August, 1911, the property known as the Judge Romanzo 
Bunn residence, on South Court street, was purchased, which in- 
cludes about thirteen acres of land, and became a mission house 
of this order, and on September 27th it was dedicated by the 
Rev. James Schwebaeh, bishop of LaCrosse, with impressive 
ceremonies. This order was originally founded in France, by 
Very Rev. Jules Chevalier, December 8, 1851, but in consequence 
of the French anti-clericalism, the society was moved from 
France, wdiere it had a magnificent basilica, dedicated to our 
Lady of the Sacred Heart, which annually attracted thousands of 
pilgrims and established its headquarters in Holland, from which 
it rapidly spread over many countries. The mother home is now 
located in Rome. 

The chief activities of the order are the missions of the South 
Sea and Philippine Islands ; the society is especially strong in 
New Guinea, where it has a complete organization, headed by an 


arclil)isli()|) willi 140 ])riests and 100 lay bretiircn ; in llic i'liilip- 
piue Lslands tlicro are twenty-five priests and twenty lay breth- 
ren. Altlioujrli 1lic missions are dang^erons and ditficult, they are 
declared lo he llic most pi'ospt'i'oiis of any througlioul the world, 
and the ordci- lias at this time a total membership of 600 priests 
and 200 lay brothers. At tiie mission home in tliis city tliere are 
at tlie present time an average of about seven priests who are 
here for rest from their arduous labors. 

The home is well located geographically, and it is expected 
in the future that it will grow in usefulness and be the home of 
many of these missionaries during the times in which they are 
permitted to retire from active service and recruit their health 
and strength. 


In the early settlement of the country it seems that the 
Methodist denomination Avas first on the ground in Sparta in the 
person of Rev. Frederick Walrath, who preached the first sermon 
in 1851 to a congregation of five persons, services being held in 
the cabin of iNlr. Petit. 

Rev. AValrath continued to hold services from that time until 
1854, the membership numbering about twenty-five persons ; in 
that year the first regularly appointed pastor took charge, the 
Rev. Mr. ^layne. Although regularly assigned to this clnirch, 
the organization did not, in fact, take place until 1850: at that 
time Rev. Reuben R. Wood, presiding elder of the LaCrosse dis- 
trict, AVisconsin conference, appointed Frederick AValrath, AV. J. 
Tucker, Albert II. Blake, Benjamin Stevens and J. W. Harding 
as trustees of the church at Sparta, to hold in trust all church 
property; the organization being completed according to the 
laws of the state by the presiding elder acknowledging the ex- 
ecution of the certificate before E. S. Blake, notary public, at 
Sparta, on the 16th day of February, 1856, the document being 
filed in the office of the county clerk on the same date. 

In 1856 a neat church was erected at a cost of about H'2,500. 
and about that tinu' a bell was presented to the church by the 
members of the community, the sum of $450 having been raised 
by subscription for that jMu-pose. and became a great addition 
to the building. The eliureii was. of course, regularly sujiplied 
inuler the system used in the Methodist conference, Avith })astors, 
during the first years, and for a great many years the five-year 
rub' being in force; a record of all of the pastors is not available, 
but among them have been humi of high intellectual attainments, 


among them might be mentioned the Rev. Seamann, Rev. Trimm, 
Avho became presiding elder of this district a few years ago ; 
Rev. AVright, who afterwards was sent to Europe in the mission- 
ary work; Rev. Bauchop, who believed in practical patriotism, 
joined the Sparta military company and received a commission 
as lieutenant, serving for a time faithfully and well. 

Rev. L. A. Brenner perhaps accomplished the greatest amount 
of improvement in church property, for during his incumbency 
for a few years ending in 1911, the church Avas greatly improved 
and enlarged, and through his etforts money was raised and a 
magnificent pipe organ purchased and installed ; the building en- 
tirely fitted with beautiful stained glass windows. 

In the past years the church has had able managers among 
its trustees, and has acquired the title to most of the block upon 
Avhich the church building is situated ; has erected a fine parson- 
age for the pastor's use, which is one of the finest appointed resi- 
dences in the city. 

During the fall of 1911 the conference of the LaCrosse dis- 
trict was held at this church; at this meeting Rev. L. A. Brenner 
was appointed district superintendent, a fitting reward for good 
and faithful service. The church has a large membership, is in 
a good condition financially, and wields a considerable influence 
in the community ; has many societies connected with it, espe- 
cially among the young people, and strong Sunday school and 
Epworth League ; the pastor at the present writing being Rev. 


Was organized September 9, 1854, with sixteen members, its 
first pastor being the Rev. James Squier; after an existence of 
some months the church disbanded and was reorganized on the 
29th of June, 1856, with twenty-two constituent members, who 
adopted the New Hampshire confession of faith, and during the 
first year, under the pastorate of Rev. AY. H. Card, the member- 
ship increased by the addition of fifty-one persons ; in 1 858 the 
first church building was erected on Benton street ; subsequently 
this was disposed of and, under the pastorate of Rev. S. S. 
ATalker, a church building was erected on the corner of Oak and 
Court streets, the present site ; in 1895 the congregation having 
grown to substantial proportions, erected the beautiful church 
Avhich occupies the site Avhich was formally dedicated February 
7th, 1897. The church, during the succeeding years, had varied 
success, but gradually, through removals from the city, the mem- 


bershij) clwiiulknl to a })uiiit wliieh, as has l)i'eii said, resulted in 
the coalition with the Congregational society during the pastor- 
ate of the Rev. F. AV. AValker Pugh ; at the publication of this 
history the arrangement still continues, a striking illustration 
that letting down the bars in denominational religion results and 
can result in greater good. 


The first services of this church were held at what was known 
at "Union Block," just south of Assembly hall, by Rev. Fayette 
Durlin, missionary stationed at LaCrosse ; he visited Sparta oc- 
casionally thereafter for some time. Bishop Kemper made the 
first Episcopal visitation in 1859, at which time Mrs. J. AV. AVal- 
rath, ]\Irs. J. D. Condit and Mrs. J. AY. Smith received the rite of 
confirmation. In 1860 the first Sunday school was organized by 
a few ladies at the home of ]\Irs. 0. D. Kaiidall, which held its 
first sessions at Liberty hall. In 1861 the lot was purchased 
where the little church noAv stands, and in 1863 a plain church 
"was erected through the efforts of the few meml)ers and the 
donations from all classes of citizens. In April, 1863. St. John's 
Church Avas formally organized with the Rev. AV. P. Ten Broeck 
as pastor. !Many clergymen have been assigned to tliis little 
church, Avhich has had a varied existence, at times no services 
being held, at others occasional service and at times having a 
missionary priest regularly in charge. 

Of late years the most determined effort to inaugurate a re- 
vival of the church membership and work was undertaken, with 
the coming of Rev. A. J. R. Goldsmith from England, sent here 
by Bishop Nicholson; he arrived in July. 1906. and remained 
about two years, during which time he was ordained by Bishop 
AYebl) ; he resigned and went to Arapahoe, Neb. In September, 
1909, Rev. Robert T. ]\IcCutchen assumed charge, holding regu- 
lar services up to the time when he received an appointment from 
the general board of missions in New York City as missionary to 
the Philippine Islands, with residence at Sagada, for whicli duty 
he and his wife left Sparta early in 1911. The church has since 
been closed, except for occasioiud services which have l)een sup- 
plied by Rev. Link fioiii Alauston. 


It having been established beyond the question that the city 
of Tomah was named from Tliomas Carron, or "Tomah," which 
is the French pronunciation for Thomas, a biography of this 
remarkable man merits a place in this work. There seems to 
have been a great deal of uncertainty in the past among the 
people of Tomah who have been interested in investigating its 
early days and the reason for the name, and it has frequently 
been written that he was a Winnebago chief, but through the 
efforts of the Wisconsin State Historical Society the principal 
facts in his life have been gathered and are here presented. 

Tomah was the most noted of the sons of the old Carron, a 
celebrated Menomonee chief, and was born in 1752 in the old 
King's village, opposite Green Bay. He was a man of magnifi- 
cent appearance, being six feet tall, with dark eyes and handsome 
features, and was very prepossessing, with a lordly bearing. He 
looked every inch a king and one writer, Grignon, says that he 
was the finest looking chief that he had ever seen. He was firm, 
prudent, peaceable and conciliatory, and wfss sincerely loved 
alike by the white and red men of his time. In his early man- 
hood he became the acting chief of the ^Menomonee tribe, 
although he had no hereditary title to the chieftainship. This 
was held at the time by a man about as old as himself, who was 
an idiot. Tomah merely ruled as the acknowledged strongest 
man of his nation, and this he continued to do for a great many 
years. The Indian tribes around him are represented as being- 
afraid of him, which is mentioned as a singular fact, that he 
never engaged in Avar with any of them while in control of the 
nation, but seemed to inspire awe by his great ability. 

The home of this tribe was in the vicinity of Green Bay, l)ut 
the Indians at different times roamed tJiis entire country, and 
no doubt at some time the chief Tomah occupied for a brief space 
some portion of the site of the present city of Tomah as his camp- 
ing grounds and made the acquaintance of some settler or settlers 
in that region, who were so impressed with his bearing and 



frii'n(llin(\s.s that liis name was jji-oposed for the little early settle- 
ment, and (^ver since the village, and afterwards the city, has 
horiK^ his name. An account Avritten by James AV. Biddle, of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., of a visit to the Indian trilx'S at Green Bay and 
vicinity along in 1810 and 1817, gives many interesting events in 
the history of this great chief. jMr. l^iddle relates that on his 
visit he learned that in 1810 or 1811 Tecumseh was forming his 
great combination for drivint: llic Americans back, who, like the 
waves of the sea, were encroaching upon their hunting grounds. 
AYith this vicAV he visited Green Bay, obtained a council and 
hearing from Tomah and his people, whom he addressed in a man- 
ner he best knew how to do, and in the course of which, in true 
Indian spirit, he pictured the glory, as well as certainty of suc- 
cess, and as omens of this recapitulated to them his own hitherto 
])rosperous career — the number of battles he had fought, tlic vic- 
tories he had won, the enemies he had slain, and the scalps he had 
taken from the lieads of the warrior-foes. Tonuili appeared 
sensible of this influence, for he was opposed to leading his people 
into war. His reply was in a tone to allay this feeling, and he 
closed Avith the remark to tliem that they had heard the words of 
Tecumseh — heard of the battles lie had fought, the enemies he 
iiad slain, and the scalps he had taken. He then paused, and 
while the deepest silence reigned throughout the audience he 
slowly raised his hands, and his eyes fixed on them, and in a 
lower I)iit not less prouder tone, continued, "But i1 is my boast 
that these hands are unstained with Imiiuiii blood!*' The eflt'ect 
is described as tremendous — nature obeyed her own impulse; an 
admiration Mas forced even from those who could not. or did 
not, approve of the moral to be implied, and the gravity of the 
council Avas disturbed for an instant by a murmur of ai)proba- 
tion, a tribute of genius, overpowering at the moment the force 
of education and of haliit. He concluded Avith remarking that 
he had ever supported the policy of peace, as his nation Avas small 
and consequently Aveak; 1li;it he Avas I'lilly awai-e of llie injustice 
of the Anu'ricaus in tlu-ii- encroadiiiienls upon the lands of Ihe 
Indians, and for them feai'ed its consecjuences. I)u1 llial he saw- 
no I'elief for it in going to Avai-. aiul therefore, as a national tiling, 
he Avould not do so, but that if any of his young nuMi Avere 
desirous of leaving their hunting grounds and foUoAving Tecum- 
seh they had his permission to do so. His prudent councils pre- 

The further report of Mr. Biddle. given in his oavu language, 
is as folloAvs: "I always thought this an odd speech, a very 


remarkable one to come from a savage, for such Tomali was by 
l)irth and edneation, but by nature I always thought him one of 
the grandest specimens of humanity I had ever seen. I had not 
met with him at Green Ba^' ; I was only a few days here in 1816 
and hurried with business, nor did I hear much, if anvthing, of 
him, until after meeting him the next year at ^lackinaw. The 
tirst I lieard of him was a prescription of his to Col. John Bowyer, 
tlie Indian agent at Green Bay, for the gout, of which my brother, 
EdAvard Biddle, told me, and a very rational one I thought it, ' to 
drink no whiskey, live on lean meat and wild rice and scarify 
his feet.' This led me to make inquiries about him when I found 
that my brother had become a warm friend of his — an admirer 
of him. 

"When at Mackinaw early one morning in the latter part 
of May or early in June, 1817, I had come out of my lodgings 
and observed approaching me one of tlie many Indians then on 
the island, and taking a look at him as he emerged from the fog, 
then very heavy, I was struck as he passed in a most unusual 
manner by his singularly imposing presence. I had never seen, 
I thought, so magnificent a man. He was of large size, perhaps 
full six feet, with hue proportions, a little stoop-shouldered, and 
dressed in a someAvhat dirty Indian l)lanket, and had scarcel}^ 
noticed me as he passed. I remember it as distinctly as if it was 
yesterday. I watched him until he disappeared again in the fog 
and remember almost giving expression to a feeling which seemed 
irresistibly to creep over me, tliat the earth was too mean for 
such a man to walk on ! The idea, to be sure, was discarded the 
moment it came up, but existence it had at this, my first view, of 
Toraah. 1 had no knowledge at the time who he was or that 
Tomah was on the island, but while standing there before my 
door and under the influence of the feeling I have described, 
Henry Graverat, the Indian interpreter, came up and I inquired 
of him whether he knew an Indian who had just passed by? He 
replied yes. that it was Tomah, chief of the IMenomonee Indians, 
who, with his people, had arrived late the evening before and 
were encamped at the 'Point;' that Tomah had just been with 
him to ask a council with the Indian agent, Maj. Wm. H. Puthuff. 
The council was held at 10 o'clock and I made it my business to 

"To understand what follows, I must make a short digression. 
The British for many years had paid annual contributions, termed 
by them Indian annuities, giving each member of the tribe a suit 
of clothes, consisting of a shirt, leggins, breech-clout and blanket 


— and each family a copper kettle, knives, axes, guns, ammuni- 
tion, etc. For these each tribe came regularly in the spring or 
fall, either to ^Mackinaw or Drummond's island or the Sault Ste. 
]\Iarie. Tomah was a British Indian. He had not himself engaged 
in the war, but his feelings were with the British, as were per- 
sonally some of his young men. He had arrived on ^Mackinaw 
island Avith his whole people on their way to Drummond's island 
to receive their usual annuity, and stopped at ^Mackinaw to rest 
over night. There was nothing novel to us in this as a number 
of tribes had previously arrived, stopped and had a council, at 
which they told their story, always winding up with professions 
of love for their 'Chemuckiman Nosah,' or American father, who, 
they hoped, would open his heart and give their people some 
meat to stay them on tlieir journey, and his breasts to give them 
some milk — i. e., whiskey — to make them joyful. This was the 
usual winding up of all such councils. AVhen the council in this 
instance had met and the proper time offered, Tomah arose and 
stated to ]\Iajor Puthuff that he had arrived Avith the Menoinonee 
nation the night before on their Avay to visit their Britisli father, 
and that having stopped on the island to rest over the night he 
had thought it his duty to report the fact to his American father. 
"With this simple announcement he sat down. Puthuff, a little 
nettled, made a short reply and the council broke up. 

"Coming out of the council house I waited for ]\Iajor Puthuff 
and remarked to him tliat Tomah would want some provisions 
for his people, and that I wished he would give me an order for 
that purpose. 'D — n the rascal, why didn't he ask for it, then?' 
'I suppose,' said I, 'being a British Indian, he is too proud.' 
'AVell, let him starve then.' 'If all are to starve who are proud, 
God help manj^ that I know of, major.' I had no difticulty in 
prevailing in the matter as the government had made provision 
for such issues to Indians, and Graverat and I made out an esti- 
mate proper under the circumstances to give, and Tomah and 
his people continued their voyage. 

"In a few days he and they returned, dejected and disconso- 
late. A change had come over the spirit of British policy. They 
had just come out of a long and exhausting dance, led them by 
Napoleon, and were counting the cost. They had been casting 
around to find where surest and readiest to cut off drains upon 
their treasury and judging tiiat they had no further need of Indian 
services, lopped off the whole list of Indian annuities. This was 
already known to ^lackinaw and had been told to Tomah upon 
his arrival, but he Avould not, or did not, believe it. He found 


it, however, too true. There were no annuities there for him 
or for any of the other tribes, many of whom were there, and it 
was anticipated at one time that they would rise against the 
British force there and take what they could get. But this was 
not attempted. 

"My brother Edward, then and now at Mackinaw, had been 
well acquainted with Tomah at Green Bay, and immediately 
after his return to the island he came into the store, spoke a 
few words to my brother and left. I had seen the interview 
and watched the result without making any inquiry, for I saw 
that my brother, who greatly loved Tomah, was imbued with 
all his melancholy. In a few moments a young Indian came into 
the store with a three-gallon keg, which my brother bade the 
young man in the store to fill with wdiiskey, which was charged 
on the books to Tomah. I was looking over the books but a few 
years ago and saw the entry on the ledger, which brought with 
it a train of wild and melancholy thoughts. This insult from 
the British authorities, as he took it, was more than his proud 
heart could bear. For himself he might have borne up against it, 
but for his people, and in the sight of those whose good offices he 
had refused to ask, he could or would not. The keg Avas brought 
to him in his tent, from which he drank alone, and to an excess 
that relieved him on the third day of pride, grief, joy and care. 
He was buried on the island. I was present at his funeral and 
witnessed his daughter, a young girl of nineteen or twenty, as 
she mournfully sang his death song at the head of the coffin just 
before lowering into the grave all that was mortal of Tomah. I 
never saw so distressed and broken-hearted a people. They said 
they were no longer a nation, no longer anything. Tomah could 
alone command and keep them together, but now they would be 
scattered and lost. We made a collection and bought them pro- 
visions which carried them home, where they organized under 
some other chief, until driven from their old hunting-grounds 
by you land-grasping AYisconsiners !" 

Tomah died and was buried at Mackinaw, July 8, 1818, at the 
age of sixty-six years. On his grave IMr. John Law, of Green 
Bay, erected a monument with the following inscription : 

"Here rests the body of Thomas Carron, grand chief of the 
Folle Avoine (Menominee) nation, who departed this life July 8, 
1818, aged sixty-six years, regretted by all who knew him." 

Thus lived and died this great man, for great he was in his 
day, a heroic figure of commanding ability, gifted with that 
nobility of character and breadth of mind which makes men 


great, whether civilized or savage ; and his great influence among 
his people and the surrounding tribes did much in keeping the 
friendly relations -with the early settlers, whom he invariably 
protected. He was fully as great as Phillip, of Pokanoket, or 
Pontiac, or Tecumseh, not as well known perhaps, but exhi1)iting 
traits of character which called for great admiration, and the 
city which bears his name may well be proud of it. — Ed. 


Woven around the adoption of the name of this beautiful city 
are a number of interesting facts. How and why it was given 
this name appears a little later in the chapter. "Tomah" is truly 
an euphonious word, pleasing to hear, giving the idea of gentle- 
ness and yet sturdy strength. The village and the city bears the 
name of that celebrated Menomonee chief whose life and char- 
acter show him to have been a mighty man among his people 
and in his time. So the city, his namesake, has become a familiar 
word throughout the state and stands for sturdy municipal 
strength and progress. 

Contrary to the general belief as to who was the first settler 
upon the site of the city, credit usually being given to Robert 
E. Gillett, stands forth the fact that Jesse Boorman was the first 
actual settler and the first man to acquire title to any portion of 
the land upon which the city is now situated. 

When in 1854 Mr. Boorman, who was then living in Wal- 
worth county, was informed by an itinerant preacher that the 
region to the west, near the Mississippi river, was the "Promised 
Land," the first idea of the new settlement began to take form. 
In that year jNIr. Boorman drove through from Walworth county 
to LaCrosse and entered three forties of land, which are now a 
portion of the site of the city. He came back and located the 
land and proceeded to clear a portion of it, going back to Wal- 
worth county in the winter and returning in the spring to further 
improve the land. 

To digress from the story at this point it seems fitting to give 
a short sketch of Mr. Boorman 's life. He was born July 4, 1830, 
in Kent county, England. When about six months of age he came 
with his parents to this country, embarking at Liverpool in a 
sailing vessel and landing in New York on New Year's day, 1831, 
the voyage having occupied six weeks. 

The family soon located in ChautauqvTa county. New York, 
where they lived for three years, moving from there to Green 
county, in sight of the Catskill mountains, where they resided for 



three years more. Mr. Boorman's father then decided to "go 
"west," left that location and went to Schenectady by way of 
Buffalo, coming to AViseonsin by the lake route, passing through 
Chicago and then on to AValworth count.y by teams, arriving 
there early in June, 1837, when "Wisconsin was still a territory. 
John Boorman, Jesse's father, entered 320 acres of land in AVal- 
worth county; his son, Jesse, remained at home and assisted in 
working the farm until 1854, when he located the 120 acres of 
laud wliich Mill be described hereafter, securing a patent signed 
by James Buchanan, then President. 

In 1855 he, with his brother-in-law, came to Madison by rail 
and then walked from there to the present site of Tomah and 
established a farm home, where he lived for many years until 
1903 when, owing to his advanced age, he retired from active 
farm life and has since resided in the city of Tomah. He was 
married to Miss Lucilica Constance Ryland, November 4, 1858. 

In 1855 Robert E. Gillett, accompanied by Robert Howie, 
arrived upon the scene. Mr. Gillett purchased some land which 
lay south and east of the present location of the city, and went to 
Walworth county during the Avinter of 1856-57 and offered to 
trade land with ]\Ir. Boorman. Mr. Boorman requested him to 
wait until spring, when he would be on the premises again. 
Accordingly in the spring of 1857 Boorman came back. At that 
time he had no idea that this location might be a good trading 
point with the advent of the railroad which it was rumored 
would be constructed through from ^Milwaukee, and the land he 
owned not being the best for agricultural puposes, on April 24th 
he traded with Mr. Gillett. On that day he gave Gillett a deed 
of the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter, the northwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter, and tlie southwest quarter of the 
northeast quarter of section four, township seventeen, range one 
west, which deed was recorded in the office of the register of 
deeds in volume four of deeds, on page 285, on April 24, 1857. 
For this land ^Ir. Boorman received an equal amount and sixty 
acres "to boot," which comprised a portion of the old Boorman 
farm, upon whicli, with additional purchases, he remained as 
stated until 1903. 

]\rr. Gillett had four forties in section nine, joining section 
four on tlie south, and the impulse which led to the selection of 
tliis point for a village is an interesting story. Robert A. Gillett, 
the son of Robert E., when a young man of twenty years was 
employed with the surveying party which staked out the route 
of the Alilwaukee and LaCrosse Railroad from ^Milwaukee to the 


Mississippi river. His father, Kobert E., instructed him to find 
out from the engineer in charge of the work at what point the 
line of railroad was most likely to be built to the north, and in 
tlie course of events it was found that Council House creek was 
the most likely and logical point for such an extension. Word 
was sent back to Milwaukee and a movement was immediately 
started to buy the property necessary for a town site. This was 
done at what would be considered a trifling cost in these days. 
The United States government and the state of AVisconsin held 
title to the land and settlers were able to secure it at very reason- 
able prices. The land grants were secured by Robert E. Gillett 
and a tract covering a mile in length and a half-mile in width 
was secured south of and abutting upon the projected railroad, 
which the founder often stated, and firmly believed, would some 
day be a railroad center. His untimely death prevented him from 
seeing his dream realized even to a small degree. 

In 1855 Griswold Gillett, the father of Robert E., took up 
160 acres of land adjoining the southeast corner of the original 
village, on a land warrant for service rendered the United States, 
government in the war of 1812. This became the homestead of 
the family, and on this farm the third house in the village was. 
built. After the trade which had been made between Robert E. 
Gillett and Jesse Boorman, plans were at once made for laying 
out the town site. AVhen the plot of ground was selected it was 
necessary to find a name for the proposed village, and it appears 
that the son, Robert A. Gillett, after the perusal of an old history 
of the state in Avhicli a record was found telling that an old and 
highly esteemed Indian chief, contemporaneous with and friendly 
to Chief Oshkosh, had at one time gathered his tribe for confer- 
ence in the council house located on the headwaters of what is 
now known as Council creek, he chose the name "Tomah," which 
was accordingly adopted. In connection with this chapter it is 
eminently fitting that here be given a short account of the 
founder of the city and his son, remarkable men, both of them, in 
many ways. 

Robert E. Gillett Avas born in Mesopotamia, 0., on the 23rd 
day of June, 1809. He was one of the three sons of Griswold 
Gillett and Elvina Tracy, both of whom were pioneer settlers 
of the western reserve of Ohio. Born in the first decade of the 
nineteenth century, Robert E. Gillett combined the spirit of the 
pioneer with an appreciation of the value of education, and was 
one of the first to become identified with the educational move- 
ment of which Oberlin college, Ohio, was the center, and became • 


thf first financial secretary of the society or group of earnest men 
antl women who laid the foundation of this Avonderful school. 
He was a man of sterling character and strong convictions,' and 
his love of justice prompted him to take up the cause of abolition, 
and lie Avas known throughout tlie South as a "black abolition- 
ist." Ilis home in Oberlin later ])ecame a station in the t'iiiiious 
"underground railroad," and tlie shop over his kitclien was used 
for sheltering negro slaves on their way to Canada and freedom. 
At one time he Avas chosen by a Southern judge as guardian of 
five mulatto children. Family records do not sIioav the date of 
this period in his career, but tliere Avere three ^Miner children 
and tAVO LalNIar children, the latter being a branch of the family 
of AA'hich Senator LalMar of late fame belonged. These children 
Avere taken to Oberlin and their estates administered in a just 
and satisfactory manner, and all fiA^e in due time graduated from 
Oberlin college. His activity in tlie cause of abolition Avas cai'- 
ried on until the election of President Lincoln, of Avhom he Avas 
a staunch supporter. Just before his death his services Avere 
recognized by President Lincoln, avIio commissioned him ^Minister 
to Venezuela, but death came before he could assume the 
responsibility of this mission. In the early days of the settlement 
of JMonroe county he Avas one of the fcAV judicial officers in tiie 
community, holding for a short time the office of justice of the 

He AV'as married September 8, 1833, to INIarie Ann Bussell. 
Tavo children, Robert Arthur anci Mary A., Avere the fruits of this 
marriage. In 1837 his Avife died and a year later his marriage 
to Lucy Kellogg took place. The children by this marriage Avere 
Ruth K., Theodore AV., Julia King and Frederick F. About a 
year after the death of his second Avife he married Lois Ann 
Ingraham, October 27, 1849, a AvidoAv Avith tAvo children, a son 
and a daughter. The son died at an early age. The daughter. 
Lucy, lived a short time in Tomah, died in early Avomanhood, 
mourned by a large circle of friends. Robert E. Gillett died at 
Tomah, September 28, 1861. 

No history of Tomah Avould be complete Avithout reference, 
at least, to "Grandma Gillett," or "Aunt Lois," as she Avas 
knoAvn to the family, but universally knoAvn and called in the 
last years of her life "Grandma Gillett" by the people of Tomah. 
She possessed the true pioneer spirit and it Avas to her qualities 
of mind and heart that the social life of the neAv settlement OAved 
much. Her interests were Avith everybody, her charity kncAv no 
limit except that of the means to do Avith, and her religion Avas 


of a type which is so rare and sweet that it has left its imprint 
on all who kneAV her. She survived her husband many years 
and was known and loved by the children of Tomah for three 

Robert Arthur Gillett, son of the founder, was born in Elyria, 
0., July 6, 1834. As a mere boy he traveled on horseback and 
on foot as far as the Indiana line, going two or three times to 
Boston with his father, who was engaged in the business of 
drover. He lived in Ohio until about seventeen years of age, 
when he took his worldly goods, consisting of a team of horses, 
a wagon and a cow, boarded a steamboat at Cleveland and went 
west, arriving in Milwauke in due course of time, where he 
engaged in teaming. During the early period of the settlement 
of Tomah he owned and operated a sawmill at LaCrosse, and 
after the panic of 1857 wiped out his resources and his health 
demanded a change of climate, he again "went west," this time 
to the gold fields of Colorado, with a wagon train of emigrants 
composed of Wisconsin people, many of whom never returned to 
this state. He was located at Pike's Peak and vicinity for about 
eighteen months, returning home at the beginning of the civil 
war, being called back to his father's death bed. 

As has been stated previously, after reaching Milwaukee and 
being employed by Kellogg & Strong in teaming, he joined the 
surveying party which blazed the trail of the Milwaukee & 
LaCrosse Railroad. As the road building progressed he followed 
the railroad business and was the first station agent at Iron Ridge, 
at Horicon and at Tomah for a short time, where the family were 
located, living in the log house on his grandfather's farm. After 
the death of his father he became the administrator of the estate, 
and although his grandfather, Griswold Gillett, was still living, 
he became the virtual head of the familj^ In 1862 he married 
Sarah Caroline Turner and took up his residence at Tomah, acting 
as recruiting agent for the army. 

In the spring of 1864 he enlisted in the Forty-third Regiment, 
Wisconsin Volunteers, and was commissioned captain of Com- 
pany K of that regiment. His discharge came with the close of 
the war. His family consisted of five children, Charles, Matie, 
Theodore W., who died in 1872; Minnie, who died in 1902, and 
Sarah Lettie, who died in infancy in 1872. During the few years 
following the war he endeavored to unravel the tangled afi^airs 
at Tomah, but in 1866 he was obliged to abandon the task as too 
big for his limited capital. He was elected chief clerk of the 
AVisconsin asserablv in 1866, and after the close of the session of 


the legislature that year he reengaged in the transportation busi- 
ness and was contracting agent for the AVestern Transportation 
Company for nearly thirty years. During tliis time he also tilled 
many of the clerical positions at ]\Iadison during the winter 
months and Avas always active in state politics. 

In 1872 his wife died and a year later he married Serepta A. 
Atkinson, of LaCrosse. He was actively engaged in ])usiness in 
^Milwaukee up to 1905, when he again Avent west, this time to 
Los Angeles, Cal., but returned the same year. His second wife 
died in December, 1905, at Fox Lake, AVis. His last years were 
spent with his daughter, ]Matie AVarren, at Fox Lake, at whose 
home he passed aAvay December 28, 1907, after a most active and 
useful life. 

Resuming our narrative : After completing the trade Mr. Gil- 
lett employed AYilliam Spear, a civil engineer, of LaCrosse, who 
made the original plat of the village settlement on the south half 
of section four and a part of the north half of section nine, the 
plat being completed June 4, 1857, and the future city began to 
be a reality. 

The manner in w^hich this original plat was laid out reflected 
the tendencies and character of Mr. Gillett in a most gratifying 
manner, Superior avenue being made 100 feet wide and all other 
avenues running north and south seventy feet wide, and all cross 
streets sixty feet wide. His generosity was further evidenced by 
the fact that for a time after the plat was completed he offered 
to give free lots to any who would build buildings upon them. 
In the southeast corner of the village he set aside a ten-acre tract, 
known as the Gillett reserve. Here was to be the home of the 
founder of the village. This tract, however, was destined never 
to fulfill its original purpose, and in 1869, or early in 1870, was 
divided and sold to AYatson Earle and Judge George Graham. 
Directly north of this plat a piece of ground was set aside for 
a female seminary, a beautiful place, well wooded and sloping 
eastward to Council creek. This project was never carried out 
owing to the death of Islr. Gillett in 1861. His monument, how- 
ever, is the attractive Gillett park which, through the enterprise 
of later generations, has been made into a delightful spot. 

S. D. Hollister, who came to the village soon after the arrival 
of Mr. Gillett, owned the southeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of section four, and in August, 1858, platted what is 
known as " Hollister 's first addition'' to Tomah. The survey was 
made by C. C. ^Miller, a civil engineer, lately settled in the village, 
and this plat was added to and became a part of the village 


proper. This was followed the same year by "Railroad addi- 
tion," platted by Robert E. Gillett and McLean Stoughton, on 
August 7, 1858, being also surveyed by C. C. Miller. Then came 
"Hollister's second addition," which was platted August 19, 
1859, so that in the space of two years the little settlement began 
to take form and shape as a municipality. Buildings sprang up 
like mushrooms, people came in rapidly from the east to swell 
the population, and in 1858 Tomah was incorporated into a village 
having facilities for transportation by the opening of the Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul Railroad, became an important trading 

The first building of which there is any record built in the 
village proper was the cabin built by Cady Hollister and occu- 
pied by him and his wife and son, Solomon Hollister, which was 
erected on the hill where the high school building now stands. 
The cabin built by Robert E. Gillett in 1856, on what is now 
known as the Benjamin farm, was the second building erected 
and is still standing, being joreserved as one of the few land- 
marks still remaining to remind us of pioneer days. This cabin, 
according to Robert Howie, was originally started by two hunters 
whose names are unknown, but was afterwards enlarged and 
finished by Mr. Gillett. 

Robert Howie at the writing of this work is still living at the 
ripe old age of eighty-two years, and deserves more than passing 
mention in this book. Meeting Robert E. Gillett on his way to 
the future village they became acquainted, and Mr. Howie came 
with him and worked for him a great many years. Mr. Howie 
was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, August 6, 1830. When about 
twenty-six years of age he left his native country and landed in 
New York on the Fourth of July, 1856, and came directly to 
Wisconsin. ]Mr. Howie engaged for several years in farm and 
mill work, and among his early emploj^ments was that of carrying 
mail between Tomah and Sparta. This he did on foot through 
the wilderness, following the Indian trails, and it is related that 
he made the trip from Tomah to Sparta and back in one day, 
sometimes carrying as much as $2,000 in orders and cash in his 
mail sack. This trip he made twice a week. 

After leaving the employment of Mr. Gillett he assisted C. C. 
IMiller in surveying for several months, and then engaged in 
teaming from Sparta to Tomah and LaCrosse, hauling many of 
the early families and their goods to Tomah, and was well known 
throughout all that region. About 1858 Mr. Howie began to farm 
the land which he had purchased from Gillett and others, con- 


sisting of 100 aei'es in and around Toniali. lie first erected Ijarns 
for stock and then built his frame residence, which still stands 
upon the original site, having been enlarged and improved. In 
1871 hf was nian-icd to Agnes Alexander, a native of Scotland, 
and to tliem Avas born five children. During the course of his life 
he has had many hardships to undergo. One time his jaws were 
broken by Ihc kick of a horse; at another time he was run over 
by a Avagon load of hay. In the winter of 1857, Avhen the snow 
covered this territory to a depth of five feet on the level, he, in 
company with Mr. Gillett, befriended the Indians in many ways 
and Avon their love and friendship. 

As early as 1854 AV. AV. Jackson and AVebster Kenyon, Avith 
several others, settled in the toAvn of Adrian, at a point Avhich 
they afterAvards called Jacksonville. Tavo years afterAvards Gil- 
lett built a saAAmiill in the northern part of the village of Tomali, 
Avhich Avas run for him by Jackson and Kenyon. 

When the surA'cyors Avere coming through the route of the 
]\IilAvaukee and LaCrosse Raihvay a keen rivalry existed betAveen 
the village of Tomah and Jacksonville as to the route of the 
original line, ^luch pressure Avas brought to l)ear upon the 
surveying party, but Mr. Gillett in his engaging and logical Avay 
finally induced the surveyors to nuike the line Avhere it noAv 
stands, instead of sAvinging farther to the south and going 
through Jacksomilic ; in th.e meantime a plat had been made 
of Jacksonville and its inhabitants had full faith that the railroad 
Avould go through their community and there Avould be estab- 
lished a future city; they Avere doomed to disapjiointment, hoAV- 
ever, and Jacksonville dwindled to a mere settlement and later 
became only a farming community, and thus the dream of a 
municipality faded aAvay, the victim of circumstances. 

To attempt to folloAv out the arrival of the earlier settlers 
is a task for Avhich no record noAV serves, to name them all in 
the first fcAv years of pioneer days is noAv an impossible task; 
many familiar names, hoAvever, are remembered and are here 
given as Avell as can be done at this time; James Garnock and 
family came Avith Robert IloAvie in 1855. ]Mr. Garnock soon after 
opening a blacksmith shop and building a residence on Avhat is 
still the old (Janioek homestead; William IMunkett came from 
Walworth county the same y<'ar: AVilliani AlcLauren also came 
Avith Mr. IIoAvie and -lames (iarnock and settled in the town near 
tiu' village. 

The year 1856 saAV the coming of S. Jennings, O. W. Kellogg, 


Joseph D. Cady, who afterwards liought a lot on Superior Avenue 
and Imilt a house, Alden Cremer, Amasa Meloy, Harvey Bush, 
who built the third house or cabin in the vicinity, being situated 
somewhere near the present cemetery, C. C. Miller, the civil 
engineer, who built a log cabin about where Watson Earle's 
liouse now stands and afterwards secured the property on the 
ridge in later days known as the "Beers" place. In 1856 or 
1857 Dr. Walker and Dr. Goyer arrived, which was first on the 
ground is not known, but they came at about the same time and 
commenced the practice of medicine a few years later. Dr. 
Rouse Bennett located here and went into the army as a surgeon 
soon after the commencement of the civil war. The Bradley 
boys, Josiah, Charles and Henry, came in 1857. 

In 1858 James Rockwood and his four sons, Theodore, 
Delorama, Edgar and James N. moved into the village from 
Limerick Avhere they had located about two years before, there 
being at that time a saw mill operated there by Jackson and 
Kenyon. Mr. Rockwood secured the piece of property where the 
old Grant house stood and proceeded at once to erect a barn 
on the back end of it. AVhen the barn was finished he moved and 
started to keeping boarders. He at once, however, began the 
construction of a hotel building on the corner and at its com- 
pletion called it the "Rockwood House," vxhich he ran until 
1867 when he sold the property to a man named Smith from 
Leon or LaFayette ; it being right after the war he changed the 
name to the "Grant House," in honor of General Grant, and 
conducted a hotel for a number of years, when the property was 
sold to Mike Gondrezick. 

John Dodge came in 1858 and built a sliop having over it 
a public hall on the site where the old Dr. Vincent residence 
stands: afterwards this building was moved down to the St. Paul 
depot and enlarged, being converted into a hotel, which was 
known for many years as the "Dodge House." 

In every history there must necessarily be the "First Events" 
which are so often alluded to and concerning which at times there 
is nuich discussion ; the year 1856 saw the birth of the first 
white child in the little settlement, being a daughter who came 
to brighten the home of ]Mr. and Mrs. Amasa Meloy, March 6 ; she 
Avas named Hattie and grew up to womanhood in the village ; 
the first male child was Frank, the son of C. C. Miller, born in 
June of the same year. He now resides at Pasadena. Cal., where 
he runs a large hotel. 


The cause of education received a feel)le start at this time, 
school being held in a eorucrib for a brief period; afterwards 
conducted in a building built for the purpose. 

The year 1857 was indeed a red letter year for the village, 
for with it came many new families, including Aslier Ilaynes, 
Reuben SchafTer and many others; (\ AV. Kellogg, who was a 
Methodist clergyman, commenced religious services that year, 
holding church on the first Sunday in July in a new barn erected 
by Robert E. Gillett, which Gillett said he wanted to have "dedi- 
cated"; the first business building Avhicli Avas put up Avas a small 
store building erected by I!lder Kellogg on the corner now occu- 
pied by the Ziegler store ; Kellogg put in a small stock of groceries 
and drugs. Soon after that Asher Haynes built a store and 
dwelling combined a little further south in the same block and 
entered into the mercantile business. The premises w'ere after- 
wards occupied for a number of years by Dr. J. II. ]Mosele}' ; part 
of the building is still standing, though the place has been fre- 
quently remodeled during these modern times. 

A school house Avas built on the site where the home of 
Harvey M. Sowle now stands and school regularly commenced 
with an attendance of eight pupils under the direction of Emma 
Bush, daughter of Harvey Bush as teacher. The old school house 
stood on that place for a great many years, one of the landmarks, 
afterwards used for dwelling purposes until torn down by ^Mr. 
Sowle. Elder Kellogg also built the first frame house in the 
village in that year upon the knoll on a lot given to him by 
Mr. Gillett. This house is still standing, although greatly 
changed in appearance upon what the later generations called 
'* Kellogg 's Hill," and the editor has many pleasant recollections 
of coasting down this hill on bright moonlight Avinter nights. 

On November 13, 1856, a resolution AA^as passed by the County 
Board of Monroe County detaching from the toAvn of Adrian all 
of toAvnship seventeen range one Avest and constituting it a ncAv 
toAA'n to be knoAvn as the toAvn of Tomah. There Avas at this time 
only a temporary government in the so called village and this 
was the beginning of municipal government in the tOAvn and 
of course the village Avhich Avas then a part of it. This resolution 
provided that the first election should be held in the house of 
James Randall on the first Tuesday in April, 1857, for the election 
of toAvn ofificers; it seems, hoAvever, that Avhen the time came 
for the election it Avas not held at IMr. Randall's, but in the home 
of John Sexton, Avho, much to the disgust of the toAvn officers, 


charged $3.00 for the use of his house ; at that election John J. 
Stacy was chosen chairman, Benjamin IMeacl and C. A. Adams 
supervisors, Harvey Bush town clerk, Alden Cremer treasurer. 

The following year 1858 the village was incorporated, but the 
charter, however, was not granted by the legislature until several 
years later; 1858 saM^ the completion of the railroad from 
Milwaukee to LaCrosse, with exception of a small strip at Tunnel 
City ; the rails being laid from the east to the tunnel and starting 
on the west side of it, going to LaCrosse; the tunnel was not 
completed until about seven months later and during this interval 
the company was compelled to run a stage over the tunnel hill 
to transfer passengers from one side to the other ; the opening 
of this line to traffic caused a large increase in the population of 
the village. 

The population now demanding it a petition was gotten out 
and forwarded to the postmaster general asking for the estab- 
lishment of a post office and this was granted early in 1859 and 
the office established amidst the rejoicing of the inhabitants; it 
seems that in those days people did not cpiarrel about who should 
be appointed postmaster, Cady Hollister Avas appointed to that 
office which was rated fourth class, at which rating it continued 
until 1867 when it was made a monej' order office, and the records 
show that the first money order was purchased by a Mrs. 
Charles AV. King for the sum of $50.00; by 1860 manufacturing 
interests began to come and different lines of business to open 
up, until the time of the breaking out of the civil war when 
the little village did more than its share in sending to the front 
a large number of its best citizens. 

While there was no company recruited and organized at 
Tomali Dr. Foote, who had located there some years before, raised 
quite a number of men and took them to New Lisbon where they 
enlisted in Company H Tenth AVisconsin Volunteer Infantry of 
which company Dr. Foote was a lieutenant. A great many 
enlisted at Sparta, some at LaCrosse, some went to other parts 
of the state to enlist, so that the record of those who went from 
the village of Tomah into the great struggle is impossible to 
compile at this time. 

The implements of industry were in great part laid aside for 
those of war and while business was carried on in all lines in a 
desultory way, all watched the course of that great struggle, 
which appeared at times to have no end ; a reign of sadness 
existed most of the time, from which it slowlv recovered at the 


close of the war. AVitli the deelaration of peace and tlie return 
of the soldier lioys who survived, an era of ])rosperity l)egan and 
a numher of stores and dwellings were erected in lliis and the 
succeeding years and the people branched out in all kinds of 

During the war period there were some new arrivals, notably 
Harry Howard, who came in 1860 and bought a farm next to 
Robert Howie; Lewis S. Barnes, in IHfil, who innnediately went 
into business, became one of the substantial citizens and mer- 
chants for nearly a half century ; AVatson Earle came in 1868 and 
built the little feed store which existed for so numy years on the 
site of the fine block now owned l)y him on Superior avenue, at 
first he kept a meat market and then Avent into the feed business 
and later putting in groceries. A. D. Benjamin also came in that 
year in March, and his brother Tj. S. Beiijainiii in .June of 1863; 
Edwin Eaton arrived in 1865 and went into business; A. AV. 
Gibbs, who had oi'iginally settled at Ridgeville, moved to Tomah 
in 1864 and put up a livery stal)le, purchased considerable 
property and later platted Gibbs Addition; Sam Gunn also came 
in 1864 and went at first into the lumlier business; in 1866 Dr. 
J. F. Richards moved up from ^lilwavdvee and entered into the 
practice of medicine ; L. S. Griggs moved in from LaGrosse that 
year; James Tormey also arrived and at onee entered into 
business, some time later being joined by William Prettyman, and 
the firm of Tormey & Prettyman was a household word for 
years; we neglected to mention \ho advent of Col. J. P. Tracy 
who came in 1861 and erected a store l)uilding down at the lower 
end of Superior avenue, which was at first used as a sort of a 
hotel. Thomas McCaul moved here in 1867 and laid the founda- 
tion for the large real estate holdings he now enjoys. 

In 1866 the legislature granted a charter to the village and 
in 1867 the first village officers were elected; they were as fol- 
lows: President, D. C. Proctor; police justice, D. R. ]Meloy; 
village trustees, William Ruiikel, L. S. Barnc-;, John Dodge, H. L. 
Crandall, A. AV. Gibbs and Mr. Shepherd; village clerk, W. H. 
Wright; treasurer. J. 11. Clian-eton; street commissioner, Levi 
Benjamin. It appears the new administration started in 
with a wave of reform right away by j^assing an ordinance 
imposing a fine of $40.00 upon a i>erson eaught playing cards 
in a saloon, thus the cause of good government started at once. 

In 1867 all of the above otfieials were engaged in business 
and several other well known names call iliemselves to mind, 
.). .1. Kil)be, Avho kept a feed store; David Johns, who conducted 


a wagon factory and blacksmith shop; J. A. Wells, who estab- 
lished the Tomah Journal; George Runkel, who afterw^ards 
engaged in milling and established the first bank. 

In 1871 and 1872 Tomah in common with all new western 
towns felt the shock of the Jay Cooke failure and business 
received a setback from which it was many long years in recover- 
ing; in 1871, however, the building of the Wisconsin Valley 
Railroad from Tomah to Grand Rapids in AVood county did much 
to revive business and marks the beginning of a rapid growth 
in population ; many families moved in, as they knew that Tomah 
would be the division point of the new road and the increase in 
population of the village was nearly five hundred. 

One thing in which all Tomahites are interested is the old 
reliable ' ' Sherman House " ; at the close of the war Joseph 
McGinnis' father had a little building on the old Sherman House 
corner which was about 16x24 in which he had a shoe shop in 
front and lived in the back end ; it is impossible to supply exact 
dates, but along about the last year of the war Mr. Schultz, father 
of Adolph Schultz, bought the property of McGinnis and erected 
a large frame building upon it and commenced keeping boarders; 
he sold the property to H. G. Boyington after he had improved 
it by building what was called the north ^ring; in this wing 
upstairs was the only public hall and stage in town for a number 
of years; Boyington ran the hotel as the "Boyington House" 
for a great- many years and when the Opera House Block was 
built by Thomas ]\IcCaul, Mr. Boyington turned the public hall 
into sleeping rooms. Along in the early eighties the property 
was sold by ]\Ir. Boyington to R. F. Parshall who built on what 
is known as the east wing and rented the place to Frank Sherman, 
of Mauston, who conducted the hotel up to the time of his death 
for a long term of years as the "Sherman House" and finally 
purchased it ; under his management and that of his excellent 
wife and daughter, Mrs. Altenberg, the hostlery became famous 
for its excellent home-like cooking, cleanliness and home appear- 
ance and became a favorite resort for traveling men, a reputation 
which has been sustained to this day under Charles Hamilton, 
the present owner, who clerked for many years for ]Mr. Sherman. 
In 1907 the Sherman House property was sold to the Tomah 
Cash Mercantile Company and the buildiiigs were purchased by 
Charles Hamilton Avho moved them to the present location on 
the southeast corner of the same block and later added another 
story, putting in steam heat and improving the entire property 
so that it is today a modern little hotel in every particular. 


In 187ti the old Grant House, then owned by M. Goudreziek, 
was destroyed by fire. Tlie building had been raised up by Mr. 
Goudrezick, a basement with a barroom and offices put under 
it and the building greatly improved. It was destroyed with its 
contents December 17th of that year. 

But to go back to the chronological narrative. The period 
from 1872 to 1890 did not hold many noteworthy events, per- 
haps the most important of which was the mustering into the 
AVisconsin National Guard of Company K on May 28, 1884. 
Numerous business blocks and residences were built during the 
time, and in 1883 the city Avas incorporated by the granting of a 
charter by the legislature, which was known as chapter 134: of 
the laws of 1883, and the city of Tomali was a reality. 

Eighteen hundred ninety-three marked the Thayer bank fail- 
ure at Tomali and Sparta, which affected the financial interests 
of so many people of the county and wrought great hardsliip 
upon many, and adding to this the fact that it was panic year 
business in all lines suffered in consequence. 

Eighteen hundred ninety-four was quite a lively year in 
politics, especialh^ on the Republican side, for it was the time of 
the memorable convention in this senatorial district to nominate 
a candidate for state senate, the district comprising Jackson, 
Monroe and Vernon counties. It was in this celebrated contest 
that C. A. Goodyear, D. F. Jones and J. J. Gillivray were candi- 
dates, a deadlock causing several adjournments to diflf'erent 

In September of that year, after considerable agitation, a spe- 
cial election Avas held upon the question of the issuing of $15,000 
bonds for a water works system. The election resulted in a ma- 
jority of 303 for the proposition, and the following year the 
first water works system was installed. 

On September 23, 1894:, occurred the first disastrous fire in 
the city's history. It started about 9:20 in the evening, breaking 
out in the second story of the Joe Disper building, in block 25, 
in the business district on Superior avenue. A high wind blowing 
at the time soon spread the flames to adjoining buildings and the 
entire block of business buildings was consumed. A. AV. Rice's 
small frame building, used as a barber shop and dwelling, was 
partially wrecked in an attempt to check the flames. The fii'e 
department consisted of a chemical engine, which was totally 
inadequate to handle such a fire. The block on the opposite side 
of the street was threatened but by the heroic efforts of the fire- 
men and citizens it was saved. 


Stocks of goods were moved out into the streets and thieving- 
began more or less, and in order to aid the police force in guard- 
ing all of this property that night, the men of Company K volun- 
teered for that service and stood guard until morning, when 
arrangements were made by the several owners to care for their 
goods. Following is a list of the losses, and it will be noted how 
small the value of buildings is compared with the present time : 
Gondrezick building, $2,000; Grutsch building, $2,000; stock, 
$350; Disper building, $1,000; Johnson & Simpson, hardware, 
building and stock, $2,800; G. Eeel, building and stock, $4,000; 
Aller & Button, $1,600; Blome building and stock, $1,800; Barnes 
building and stock, $4,000 ; Rice building and stock, $1,300 ; Root 
stock, $200; Johnson & Bongers, stock, $2,000. Building opera- 
tions were at once begun and the year 1895 saw the block rebuilt 
with substantial brick business blocks and in better shape than 

From this time until 1898 business resumed its normal condi- 
tion; prosperity reigned, business in all lines was good. In that 
year the war cloud began to take form early. Trouble with Spain 
had been brew^ing for some time. The blowing up of the Maine 
in Havana harbor was the needed touch to fire the American 
spirit, and war was formally declared by congress. This meant 
troops and at once. After all the years that Company K had 
been in existence, after all the criticism that it, in common with 
other companies of the "Wisconsin National Guard, had received 
from some classes of citizens who, perhaps, might have been 
thoughtless in their statements, after all the years of being "tin 
soldiers" in the minds of some, the opportunity came at last for 
active service in the field, and how was it met by this little com- 
pany of home boys? It was necessary as the law then stood, the 
national guard being state troops, that the men volunteer in- 
dividually for service in this war. Early in April the company 
was assembled for this purpose and the proud fact was recorded 
that sixty-seven out of the entire sixty-eight officers and men 
volunteered to go to the front. 

On April 27, at 4 o'clock a. m.. Captain AVarren received tele- 
graphic orders to proceed to Milwaukee, where the regiment 
M'ould be mobilized together with the other two AVisconsin regi- 
ments. That morning the special train bearing the other com- 
panies on this line took Company K, equipped, eager and ready 
for the business in hand. That they met the issue, every officer 
and man, and came back with a record to stand for all time to 
their credit, is told in another chapter. 


The eominunity was shocked on June 20th at the shooting of 
AVilliain AVotzel l)y A. F. l^ynch. Tliis affair resulted in two long 
and expensive trials, which resultinl finally in Lynch being de- 
clared insane and sent to ]\Iadison. 

In June, Lieut. Frank L. French, of Company L, Tliird Wis- 
consin Volunteer Lifantry, was sent back to enlist recruits for 
the Second battalion, Companies B, K, L and M, and from the 
17th of June for a few days enlisted enough men to till up Com- 
pany K to war strength, they being promptly sent on to Chick- 
aiiiauga pai'lv', whci'c tlic regiment was then in camp. 

In August the first note of sadness came from the war with 
the deatli of Private Paul Curtius, of Company K, ol' tyi)]uud 
fever, at Cliarleston, S. C. His })0(ly was returned home and the 
funeral held on August ir)th, which was largely attendetl. 

Time dragged slowly on. News came from the boys; now they 
were at Charleston, then embarking to go to Cuba. Orders 
changed, they were on their way to Porto Rico, where they ar- 
rived in July. After that llie news from the front came only 
occasionally. ^Many anxious hearts at home Avaited, for they did 
not know wdiat. The campaign was soon over as far as hostilities 
were concerned, but danger, greater than ever, of fever in that 
tropical climate, still remained and wrought havoc in the ranks. 
At last, however, the latter part of October came the .joyful news 
that the "boys are coming home." Great preparations were at 
once undertaken, committees appointed, and a fitting celebration 
of tlieir return arranged for. On the morning of October 31st 
the special train l)earing the Second battalion steamed in the 
station at Tomah amidst the elieers of thousands assembled to 
greet the boys. They filed out of their coach, each to be greeted 
by Ids loved ones; then swung into line for their last march of 
the campaign, to their armoiy. l^ut they were no longer boys. 
Hardship and suffering had left their mark on every one. The 
boys of a few months before Avere men now with lines on tlu'ir 
faces, but — they were "home." After an informal lunch at the 
armory they dispersed to their families and friends. 

On Thanksgiving day, in November, a great banquet was ten- 
dered to llie company, an elaborate jirogram was carried out. 
The company, in common Avith the other companies of the regi- 
ment, were placed on furlough for sixty days, and finally mus- 
tered out of the service of the United States the following 

On Deceml)ei' 2?). 1898, the new Calholic cluirch was formally 


dedicated by Bishop Schwebaeh. This handsome structure, 
erected at a cost of many thousands of dollars, standing on an 
eminence, is one of the show places of Tomali. 

In May, 1899, the Third regiment was reorganized as a state 
organization, with Orlando Ilohvay as its colonel, and Company 
K was mustered into the service of the state in May by Col. 
George Graham, manj^ of the veterans of the Porto Rican cam- 
paign going into the company, and its commissioned officers were 
the same who had recently been mustered out. 

On February 12, 1901, a serious fire occurred in the store of 
the Tomah Cash IMercantile Company, which had succeeded C. A. 
Goodyear, in Avhicli there was a loss of about $2,000, mostly on 
the stock. 

''"Wash" Snow, as he was familiary called, a veteran engineer 
in the employ of the Chicago, JMihvaukee & St. Paul Company, 
and a long-time resident of Tomah, was killed June 25th at 
Portage. James P. Galiger, at one time county superintendent 
of schools, passed away on July 21st. 

At the school meeting in July the proposition came up to 
build a new high school building, the old building being over- 
crowded and it being very evident that a move of that kind was 
necessary. The meeting adjourned without taking any action 
until early in August. At the adjourned meeting, after consid- 
erable discussion, a resolution was passed appropriating $25,000 
for a new high school building, resulting in the erection of the 
present handsome and well-appointed structure. 

The assassination of President ]\IcKinley shocked the com- 
munity, as it did all others. On September 19th a memorial 
meeting was held at the armory in which addresses were made 
by Captain Butters, Rev. Johnathan Smith, Rev. Louis Wurst 
and others. At about this time the agitation was commenced 
for a sewerage system and for street paving by the Advancement 
Association, and went to the extent of consultation, and E. Sands, 
a civil engineer, as to the cost, etc. This matter came up later on 
for action and caused considerable heated discussion among the 
citizens as will be seen. 

On the night of November 31, 1902, the post office was broken 
into and robbed of stamps and cash to the amount of $1,400. The 
safe was blown open by the burglars and some of the fittings of 
the office damaged. The robbers made their escape. 

Tomah had for years numbered among her citizens many 
men who were almost experts with the shotgun. A shooting 


(•lul> or gim club had been in existence for a number of years, 
which had joined the AVisconsin League of Gun CIuIjs, and 
Toniah was successful in securing the fourth annual tournament 
of the organization, which was held Alay 25 and 26, 1903. At 
this meeting there were gun clubs from Appleton, Antigo, 
Columbus, AVcst Superior, ^Merrill, .Marshlicld, ]\lonroe, the Na- 
tional Gun Clul) and the South Side Gun Club, of ^lihvaukee, 
Palmyra, Khinelaiuler, Kacine, Sparta, Two Rivers, Viroqua, 
Waupaca, Wausau and INIarinette, in attendance. There were 
eighteen contests or events on the program. The big event, how- 
ever, was the one of twenty-five targets for the championsliip of 
the state. This was won by Charles D. Johnson, of Tomah, who 
made the remarkable record of twenty-five straight hits. 

During the month of May a unique school institute Avas held 
at the government Indian school, being an institute conducted 
somewhat on the lines of public school gatherings. The insti- 
tute Avas conducted by Superintendent Compton, of the Tomah 
Indian school, and was participated in l)y about fifty instructors 
and superintendents from five or more different states. The 
meeting Avas held May 6th and 7th, and Avas A-ery interesting. 
As a result of the agitation mentioned before regarding seAverage 
and paving, the first step Avas taken in September, 1903, Avhen 
macadam pavement Avas put on tAvo blocks of the business sec- 
tion of the city, a much-needed improvement, as before that \he 
street had been simply a clay road, requiring constant filling and 
Avorking, and in Avet Aveather Avas sometimes inches deep Avith 

Word was received that R. P. Hitchcock, a former resident, 
passed aAvay at St. Louis, Mo., on November 20tli. Mv. Hitchcock 
Avas one of the early merchants of Tomah, and for a great many 
years prominent in municipal affairs. He was appointed post- 
master by President Cleveland, serving one term. 

During November of this year tlie city authoriti(^s closed a 
deal by Avhich the city became the oaviht of the old "Whitfield'' 
property, for use as a city nmrket. A little later on. however, 
the dwelling upon it Avas, and is noAv. used for housing the ])ublic 
library, and the prciuiscs have not been used foi" market purposes. 
Here Avill undoubtedl.A' be the site of the ncAV "Buckley "" public 
library building. 

On ^lay 11, 1904, Company K inaugurated the custom of cele- 
brating the date when the company Avas mustered into the gov- 
ernment service in the S]->miis]i Avai-. A larg(> ]'>arade. headed 


])y the Third regiment baud, iiiehidiiig Company K, Spanish 
War Veterans and others, went to Gillet park, where appropriate 
exercises Avere had, followed by sports in the afternoon and a 
large ball in the evening. This custom has been continued since 
with the exception of one or two years. 

Alva Stewart Goodyear, formerly lieutenant and later cap- 
tain of Company K, died at Chicago, May 13, 1904. He was a 
graduate of the Tomah High School and a veteran of the Spanish- 
American war. His funeral was attended by a large delegation 
of his comrades and friends. An old pioneer in the person of 
Amos Greenfield passed away on May 16th. Mrs. C. A. Good- 
year, mother of Captain Goodyear, soon followed him and de- 
parted this life at Chicago, May 25, 1904. In December of this 
year this section was visited by a very severe blizzard, which 
resulted in considerable suffering, especially by live stock. It 
lasted for three days, December 28, 29 and 30, and will long be 
remembered by the inhabitants. Railroads were blocked, tele- 
graph and telephone communication cut off for some time, and 
business generally was demoralized. 

In January, 1905, on the 6th, Company K indulged in a jolli- 
fication in unveiling the "Pfister trophy," which the company 
had won during the past year by its excellent work in all 
departments. This trophy is given for the best all around com- 
pany in the state and is held for one year until won by some 
other or the same company upon its record. In February the 
Crescent Glee Club, of Sparta, Avith about thirty-five male voices, 
visited Tomah, gave a short program at the Indian school in the 
afternoon for the pupils and a concert at the armory in the 
evening, Avhich Avas greatly enjoyed by a large audience. 

February 23rd, the old Advancement Association having 
passed into history, the business men of the city met in a pre- 
liminary session to take steps to organize a new Advancement 
Association. This Avas brought to a succesful conclusion, the 
society organized and a formal opening of the rooms secured for 
it in the Lynch block took place on the evening of ]\Iarch 24th. 
This organization has been a great benefit to the city in many 
AA'ays, as it makes concerted action possible on propositions affect- 
ing the commercial interests especially. Its committees have 
been, and are, actiA^e in the interests of the city generally and 
through their efforts many municipal improvements have been 
furthered. Another block of macadam paving Avas put in dur- 
ing the spring of 1905 on Superior avenue, betAveen IMonoAva and 


Juneau slrei'ts. \Villi tlic coiiiplt'tit)!! ul' tliis the agilatiuii for 
sewerage and paving was renewed, and this marked the begin- 
ning of a long fight in the city council, which resulted in a dead- 
lock in September and nothing was accomplished that year. 

On January 23, 1906. Harvey Seymour, a conductor on the 
Vallo}' division of the Chicago, ^Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 
was instantly killed in the yards at Tomah. In February, on the 
16th, Oscar Zimmerman Camp No. 20, Spanish-American AVar 
Veterans, was organized with Capt. AV. AV. Warren as com- ' 

mandcr. The camp was named after a member of the company ' 

Avho died in Porto Rico during the campaign. The organization 
has been successfully maintained, as has a good membersliip. ' 

The spring of 1006 marked a hot campaign for municii^al 
officers. The long draAvn out fight on the former council regard- '' 
ing sewerage and paving resulted in a united action of the people 
who desired those improvements. Hon. Thomas McCaul, under 
whose administration of former years as mayor the first improve- 
ment was inaugurated, that of water works, was drafted as the 
candidate for mayor of the party in favor of improvements and ' 
a campaign began which was the most bitterly fought, perhaps, 
of any in the history of the city. It resulted in the election of 
Air. AlcCaul and enough members of the council to break the i 
deadlock which had existed before that, and prospects then began 
to look bright for paving. 

Tomah was now indeed a city with all the things that go to 
make up municipal life, so there must be a strike; and 
there was one, not a very l)ig one to be sure, but a num- 
ber of men employed in the bridge works of the Chicago, Alil- 
Avaukee and St. Paul company took it into their heads to walk 
out, which they did, claiming increased pay. The strike was of 
short duration, however, as men were too easy to get in this 
locality. The strikers went back to Avork and the industrial war 
was over. AiM 

Lieut. Irving Jones, first lieutenant of Company K during the 
Sj)auish war, was instantly killed at the tOAvn of Lake, near Alil- 
waukee. by the cars, on July 2, 1906. Air. Jones had formerly 
been employed in the bridge shops of the St. Paul company here 
as a painter. He served with distinction in the campaign in 
Porto Rico, and when the company reorganized became first lieu- 
tenant of tlie company, wliich position he lield for a sliort time 
until he moved away Avith his family. 

As Avas stated in this chapter, quite a number of the citizens 
of Tomah enlisted in Company 11. Tenth AVisconsin Infantry, 


during tlie rebellion, and on October 7th and 8tli a reunion of the 
Tenth AVisconsin was held at Tomah, participated in by a large 
number of the survivors of that regiment. The sessions were 
marked by much interest in the way of reminiscences. A banquet 
closed the meeting fittingly. 

The advance of years had began to tell upon the earlier citi- 
zens, and one by one they dropped away. January 6, 1907, Capt. 
Charles K. Erwin, so long identified with Tomah, died at Savanna, 
111., the funeral being held at Tomah on January 11th. Captain 
Erwin came to Tomah in 1868 after a brilliant record in the war 
of the rebellion. He went into the mercantile business, in which 
he continued until 1892. In 1881 he was elected state senator 
from this district, and served in that office until 1888. In 1889 
he was appointed postmaster at Tomah and at the expiration of 
his term of office was made superintendent of the new State Home 
for the Feeble Minded, which had just been built at Chippewa 
Falls, which position he held for a number of years. He was 
prominent in the councils of the head organization of the Wood- 
men of the AVorld, and was well known throughout the state in 
his time. He enlisted in the Forty-seventh Illinois on October 
22, 1862, and rose through the various grades to the rank of cap- 
tain. He Avas a member of the Loyal Legion and of Henry W. 
Cressy Post, G. A. R. 

An old land-mark went up in smoke the latter part of Janu- 
ary in the old freight depot. This building was the depot and 
freight house of the St. Paul road in early years. A new building 
was erected by the company farther west for freight purposes. 

At a meeting of the common council, February 19, 1907, plans 
were adopted for a sewerage system for the city and five and 
one-half miles was ordered laid. Tomah received a boom in the 
form of the railroad shops, which were located here and build- 
ings erected during 1907. The works were moved here from 
Milwaukee and brought a large number of families. This, in con- 
nection with the bridge works, which had been moved to the city 
in 1890, made a large plant employing several hundred men, with 
a pay roll of several thousand dollars per month, added greatly 
to the growth and prosperity of the city. Nineteen hundred and 
seven was a year of tornadoes. On July 5th the city barely es- 
caped the effects of the terrible cyclone which did so much damage 
in the town of Oakdale. This storm, which wrought so much 
damage and loss of life in the northeastern part of the county, 
passed within a short distance of the city, but fortunately, did no 
damage here. In August, on the 10th, however, the city did not 


escape so easily. A tornado struck the place witli mii'.-li force, 
tearing down 1li<' partially completed walls of tlic new Cash 
Store on the old Sherman House corner, wrecked the hay harn 
of Henry Meineckc on his fai-ni just west of the city limits, blew 
down telegraph and telephone lines and did much damage in a 
minor way to ])uildings in the city. 

John Little, an old-time resident, a veteran of tlic civil Avar, 
and one of the oldest engineers on the St. Paul road, died in Col- 
orado on October 20, 1907. ]\Ir. Little was an old and respected 
member of the community, a member of Henry W. Cressy Post, 
and for many years identified Avitli the growth and improvement 
of the city. He was a strong ^Mason and served in several 
capacities at dififerent times in that order. 

In January, 1908, Tomah people contributed liberally to the 
relief of the cyclone sufferers and $1,300 was raised by the Busi- 
ness I\Ien's Club and used for that purpose. The old fight on 
street paving came up in the council in February and was again 
held up in that body, and the Avar began once more. At a meeting 
on March 16th plans Avere adopted by the council for paving 
Superior avenue. At the spring election AV. J. Mc]\Iullen Avas 
elected mayor and the project Avas again halted after a fight 
betAveen the mayor and the council. The council meeting of July 
6th Avas a Avarm one indeed. Brick paA'ing Avas adopted, hoAvever, 
by a close vote, but at a later meeting in July the entire project 
received a body bloAv from Avhicli its advocates did not recover 
until about the middle of August. By that time the people had 
practically settled doAvn to Avhat they Avanted, and on August 
18th the paving ordinance Avas finally adopted. 

The remodeled and enlarged Catholic school building Avas 
dedicated by Bishop SchAvebach on Septem])er 17, 1910. On July 
22nd of this year AVilliam Feitiug, one of Tomah 's solid l)usiness 
men, passed aAvay at his home. He came to Tomah in 1868 and 
engaged in the tailoring Inisiness. In 1890 he built the present 
Feiting block on Superior avoinie. in Avhich the business has ever 
since been conducted, his sons. AVilliam and Frank, succeeding to 
the management. ]\lr. Feiting Avas a progressive husincss man, 
ahvays found on the right side of municipal questions, and highly 
respected by his business associates and the community generally. 

But the Avorst Avas to come, that is. some people might say so, 
and some say it Avas the best, for after a campaign on the tem- 
perance cpiestion Tomah Avcnt "di-y" at the spring election of 
1910 by a majority of five votes. This A'ote Avas so close that the 
gentlemen avIio Imd t In retofor(^ boon engaged in the "Avet goods" 


business determined to liave a contest upon the matter and ac- 
cordingly engaged attorneys and brought the matter into court. 
But after one or two hearings the contest was dismissed and 
Tomah M^as sure "dry," and it stayed dry, the law being rigidly 
enforced by the authorities. 

This condition existed for a year and in the meantime an 
election had been held on the amount of the license, which was 
increased to $800.00. The following spring another election was 
held on the license question at which license was carried by a fair 
majority and the city has remained "wet" up to this time. 

After all the agitation, turmoil and strife over the paving 
question the final completion of the brick paving of Superior ave- 
nue and the continuation of the macadam road from the head of 
Superior avenue out to the cemetery, was nevertheless a matter 
of great pride and rejoicing to the citizens generally, for nowhere 
in the country can be found a handsomer street ; outside of the 
business district the boulevarding of the center, with its closely 
clipped lawn and artistic setting of shrubbery makes a beauti- 
ful appearance in the summer months. With this has come the 
desire of the citizens in some section to improve the side avenues, 
and with the improvements in Gillett park it can truly be said 
that no prettier or well-kept 'city can be found anywhere in this 
great state. In addition to that there is pervading the atmos- 
phere of Tomah a sort of a progressive spirit which can best be 
described by saying that its people "hang together" when any- 
thing important is necessary. It is true that among themselves 
they have honestly differed upon questions of municipal policy, 
but let any matter of general interest to the city be proposed and 
they get into line quickly as one big community and tackle any 
question which may arise with true "Tomah spirit," and gener- 
ally carry out what is undertaken. This is a happy condition for 
any municipality and its benefits are more than demonstrated in 
this hustling little town. It has increased in population until it 
is now but a few hundred behind its sister city, the county seat ; 
its business interests are large and varied and the volume of busi- 
ness transacted in the course of a year compares with that of the 
county seat most favorably and, in fact, is greater than most 
cities of its size in the state. Surrounded nearly on all sides by 
a good farming country, it is the central market for a large region, 
affords excellent markets for stock and produce, and now has the 
benefit of transportation over l)oth the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul and the Chicago and Northwestern Eailways. Every- 
thing points to a healthy growth in the future, and could old 


Chief "Toiiiali"' come l<ack fi-oni llic 'Ihippy Hunting Grounds" 
and gaze upon his namesake he would surely feel a great thrill of 
pride that such a city bears his name, wrap his spirit blanket 
around his tall form, turn and stalk back into the Great Beyond 
Avith a smile of contentment on his nol)l(! countenance that for all 
time his name would be perpetuated. 

]\Iany old records of the city have become lost or been de- 
stroyed so that no detailed list of the men who have served their 
comnnmity in official positions can now be given. Suffice it to 
say tliat as a rule they haxc iiccn broad-minded and painstaking 
citizens who have served their fellow citizens well and faithfully. 
The population of Tomah at the census of 1910 was 3.419. 

The officers of 1912 are : AY. B. Cassels, mayor ; AYilliam Koop- 
man, citv clerk; E. A. Daherr, treasurer; Theodore Schmidt, 
assessor ; E. Bartels and A. E. Hollister. justices of the peace. 
Supervisors — H. B. Sowle, First ward ; A. Kress, Second ward ; 
H. Coome, Third ward. Aldermen — First Avard, F. F. Button, 
Daniel Crowlet ; Second ward, Emil Schmidt, E. J. Kelley ; Third 
ward, E. E. Griswold, James McClatchie ; city attorney, AY. B. 


Just as it should be. the cause of education was practically 
the first public institution started by the people who originally 
settled in the future village. A few weeks after the arrival of the 
early settlers and after their establishment, plans were made for 
opening a school of some kind. At first a corn crib was the only 
building available, Avhich was situated west of the cemetery of 

Miss Emma Bush, who had been attending school in ]\Iihvau- 
kee, being the daughter of Harvey Bush, a pioneer merchant, 
returned home and was ofit'ered the position as teacher. The first 
class consisted of the members of three families, JMrs. Lottie 
Wood, mother of Miss IMinnie AA^ood, who is now teaching in the 
city schools, and her sister and two children from a third family. 
The teacher and pupils soon found tliat it was not pleasant to hold 
school in a corn crib and during the next summer it was trans- 
ferred to a log house which stood near the site of the AVatsen 
Earle residence. The front part of the building was used as a 
storeroom, and it is related that one night two sacks of flour 
which were stored there were broken open by some pigs who had 
gotten into the building, and the next morning the school room 
was found to be literally dusted all over with flour. 

Ten children attended the first school, but when the railroad 
came through in 1858 the little village grew rapidly and arrange- 
ments were made for a larger building, which was soon erected 
on the corner where Harvey Sowle's residence now stands. This 
was the first building erected for school purposes in the village 
and it was used a great many years, and afterwards turned into 
a residence. • At one time the father of the editor of this work, 
Dr. J. F. Richards, lived in it with his family during a time of 
the building of his residence in that village, and it is to be pre- 
sumed that the editor received some of his early education by 
alisorption from the atmosphere surrounding this educational 

There still was luit one teacher, Init the increase in population 



required a corresponding increase in the teaching force. Soon 
school was held in various places in the village which could he 
procured for the purpose. One of these temporary class rooms 
was above a blacksmith shop located south of the residence 
owned by H. H. Sherwood. Another was in a store building sit- 
uated in the middle of the block north of the postoffice, and 
classes were also held in the building located near tlie freight 
depot, these locations being selected on account of the con- 
venience of the families living in the different parts of the village. 
During these early school years there was no regular course of 
study. A student was allowed to take as few or as many branches 
as he wished, and could drop a suliject or begin it a second time. 
Latin was introduced in the school in 1868 Avhen there was an 
instructor who was capable of teaching that language. At an- 
other time, when no other form of language was being taught, a 
class of French was organized by the wife of a principal. It 
seems that a teacher then taught the subject he knew the most 
about. All teachers were engaged for a term of three mouths 
instead of a year, as is the ease today, and the necessary changes 
were made at the end of the three-months' period. 

A new building was soon erected on the corner where tlie Cen- 
tral building now stands, and in 1870 the school was graded with 
the following departments: Primary, intermediate, grammar 
and high school. The course of study then embraced reading, 
writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, liistory, orthography 
and higher arithmetic. From time to time additions were made 
to this building as the number of pupils increased, and in this old 
wooden school house in 1880 were held the first graduating exer- 
cises when a class of three, one of whom was ]Miss Ida Miller, 
who has been employed for so inany years in the Tomah schools, 
received their diplomas. The principal at that time Avas T. B. 
Pray, Avho later became jn-esident of the Stevens Point Normal 
School. There were no graduating classes in the years 1881-1885- 

In 1884 in response to the necessity for better accommoda- 
tions the annual school meeting passed a resolution appropriating 
$16,000 for the purpose of erecting a high school buiUling. Con- 
tracts were let and with the removal of the old wooden structure 
a new brick building for high school purposes was erected, and 
is what is known as the Central building. The old school building 
was sold to the highest bidder, being Thomas ^IcCaiU. who cut 
it in two parts and converted it into dwelling houses. The tAvo 
portions are still standing today near the site where it formerly 





stood. In the summer of 1890-91 primary schools were estab- 
lished in the First and Third wards. 

Meanwhile the high school curriculum was extended and three 
courses of study offered, the English, Science, and the Classical. 
The additional fact that the school was placed upon the accred- 
ited list of the State University gave evidence of the progress that 
had been made. Under the superintendency of Mr. Clark, after- 
wards at River Falls Normal School, the first school library was 

Little interest was taken in the improvement of the school 
grounds until 1891, when Mr. Reigle was principal, and as the 
year went on new departments were added to the system, E. H. 
Cassels organizing the kindergarten, and C. H. Maxon, who pre- 
ceded Professor McNeal, introduced drawing in the grades, and 
it was during his incumbency that the present high school was 
built in the year 1902. Before this building was erected the high 
school was held on the second floor of the Central building, and 
for a short time the seventh and eighth grades were held in the 
old Catholic church, now known as the Auditorium. The old 
high school became so crowded that these two grades had to be 
conducted in this place until the new high school was finished. 
It was not long before the grounds were made beautiful by the 
walks, trees and terraces, and in 1909 shrubbery was planted 
which added much to the beauty of the grounds. 

Even with the new departments which had been added in the 
past and tlie improvements which had been made, others seemed 
necessary, and under Professor McNeal the first supervisor of 
music was engaged. Of course the contrast between the schools 
of 1856 and 1912 is great, but it is simply another illustration of 
the progress which is bound to come with the growth of settle- 
ment and civilization. From a corn crib to a magnificent high 
school building with the beautiful grounds is a long step, and 
from a course of study consisting of most anything to several 
courses from which a graduate of the high school may step into 
the university without examination is indeed good progress. The 
smallest graduating class was that of 1888, which consisted of but 
one member, and the classes of 1911 and 1912, each consisting of 
thirty-six members, have been the largest. 

In addition to other departments under Professor Bray there 
liave been introduced domestic science for girls and manual train- 
ing for boys, and the Tomah High School is now not only upon 
the list of the university, but stands high among educational 
institutions in this and other states, and its graduates are accepted 

;i66 HISTORY OF :\I()XKOE corxTv 

without examinations in a innnlx'i- ol' prominent educational 

The faculty of the years 1911-1912 are as Follows : F. M. Bi-ay. 
principal, science; Adeline Keifer, assistant principal, (lermaii 
and mathematics; Florence Ilargrave, Englisli : May Kice, his- 
tory; George Karnopp, mathematics and ]>o]itical economy; 
Emmett Hassett, science; ]\Iary O'Keefe, Latin: Belle Souku]), 
domestic science: Earl AV. Eversmeyer, manual training; Julia O. 
Ilarvey, music. 

Board of Education — "\V. B. Naylor, .Jr.. president; 11. B. 
Sowle, clerk; AV. L. Howes, treasurer. 

Alany of the prominent business and professional men of ihc 
village and city have served on the school hoard. The policy 
])ursued has uniformly been that of liberality, broad-mindedness 
and a desire to bring the schools to the highest standard possible, 
Avith a result that has been very gratifying and is a source of 
pride to every citizen of the city of Tomah. Back of it all has 
been the true "Tomah spirit,'' which marks the energy and per- 
sistence with which any public movement is aided by the good 
people of the city. 

Among the students have been maintained the usual societies 
of these modern days, especially debating clubs, and these had a 
place in the school scheme from very early times. Athletics 
have come in for a prominent part and the football. basel)all and 
track teams of the Tomah High School have at times reached 
high places in the scliool athletics of this part of the state. 

Perhaps the most prominent society is the Alumni Associa- 
1ion, which w'as organized in June, 1893, at a meeting held at the 
high sciiool rooms, and through tlie nineteen years of its existence 
has grown in membership with eacli succeeding year, luitil now 
its meeting is quite the social event of the year. At the outset 
the custom Avas inaugurated of liolding a bancjuet and business 
meeting on the night or evening after the graduating exercises 
and to receive into full membership the class just gradiuited. 
This custom has been continued through all the years with the 
result that its membership keeps pace Avith the graduates and is 
far better than holding its meeting at some other time of the year 
Avhen the gradiuiting class has scattered and never again are all 
together, perhaps, and consequently do not join tlie society, as is 
the case Avith other associations of the kind. At its banquets fine 
programs of toasts and addresses are ai-ranged, interspersed Avith 
musical numbers, folloAved by a business meeting, and usually a 
ball, and in connection Avitli tb(^ opportunity 1o rencAV "auld 


acquaintances"" it h;is ])ecome one of the principal events in the 
school year, the session of 1912 being nuusnally well attended 
as it was carried out as a sort of a "home coming," resulting in 
many coming from quite a distance. 

One pleasant event of this last session Avas the presentation 
to Miss Adeline Keifer of a diamond ring in remembrance of her 
twenty-five years of faithful labor as assistant principal of the 
high school ; a rare character whose uniform kindness and cour- 
tesy, coupled with thorough methods, has made her the friend 
and almost the companion of the successive classes who have 
graduated during this time ; a little woman richly endowed by 
nature to fill just such a position, and in it accomplish great good 
perhaps gi'eater than in any other sphere of life. Many of the 
alumni and alumna? have achieved prominence in the various 
walks of life. Among them may be mentioned Col. W. W. AVar- 
ren, now the head of a great banking house in Tomah and the 
father of a growing family, who achieved prominence not only 
in business, but in a military w^ay as captain of Company K dur- 
ing the Spanish war, and since as colonel and inspector of small 
arms practice of the national guard ; the Boltons, Herbert aiad 
Ed, who have taken prominent places in the educational world ; 
the Powers boys, AVill and Bert, prosperous merchants at Grand 
Rapids, Minn. ; Edwin Cassels, a prominent attorney, now prac- 
ticing his profession at Chicago, 111. ; the Thompsons, Alva and 
Charles, the former of Avhom served several terms as superin- 
tendent of schools of this county and is now the head of the in- 
dustrial school at Richland Center, where his l^rother Cluirles is 
also employed ; Alva Goodyear, now deceased, who made a fine 
war record; Jennie MeCaul-Hart, Mho has become a prominent 
club woman in the state ; Lulu Janes, whose fame as a musician 
and vocalist is now assured; John G. Graham and AVm. R. 
]\IcCaul, both prosperous attorneys, practicing at Tomah ; Ida 
IMiller, still engaged in teaching the young idea in the Tomah 
schools; Arthur AVinter and Ray Bell, both prominent physicians 
at Tomah ; George Robertson, who served as county superintend- 
ent of schools for two or three terms ; Claude Sowle, now the 
doughty captain of Company K ; and so the list might be multi- 
plied, for the Tomah High School has sent her share of good men 
and women into the Avorld to reflect credit upon the mother insti- 

Perhaps the uian who attained the most prominence from 
among the number was Earnest Buckley, whose untimely death 
brought sadness to his host of friends; he was born at Alillbury, 


]\Ias.s., September 3, 1872 ; liis boyhood days were spent in 
Tomah, graduating from the high si-hool in 1S!)() lie entered the 
university, graduating in 1895; he continued liis studies there, 
specializing in geology, and acquired great prominence in this 
work ; he was made director of the natural history survey of 
the state, and in 1898 his alma mater conferred upon him the 
degree of doctor of philosophy ; he was soon after called to 
the position of state geologist to the state of JMissouri, where 
lie niDNcd to Kollo; he Ix'came an eminent authority in geology 
and mineralogy and his services were in great demand in the 
practical ai)iilication. He was also honored l)y being chosen 
president of the American Mining Congress. In the fall of 1911 
he located in Chicago and op(>ned an office as consulting geo- 
logical engineer. 

In the prime of life and in the midst of a brilliant career he 
was suddenly stricken down. His heart had always been true 
to the little high school and to the little city of his boyhood, 
for after his death it was found tliat he had bequeathed a suffi- 
cient sum to be devoted to the purpose of building a library for 
the city of Tomah, which will be his monument for all time. 

His death occurred at his home in Chicago on Friday, 
January 19, 1911, his remains being brought to Tomah and 
interred in the family lot upon Avhii-h a handsome vault will 
be erected. 


Class of 1880— Mary Ida ]\Iiller, Ida Auten and Curtis 

Class of 1882 — Addie Leach, Bertha Irons, Randolph Richards, 
AVill Powers, Bert Powers, Addie Earle and La iMont Boorman. 

Class of 1883 — AV. AV. AVarren, AA". S. IMason, Luman AVariner. 
Charles Calkins, Tressa Alaxwell, Hannah Carnecl. Carrie Thomp- 
son, .Minnie Howard, Ruby Earle, Jessie Button, Georgia Jackson 
and Evelyn Barber. 

Class of 1884 — Fred Perry, Bert Stannanl, ]\Iary Perry, Bert 
Xaylor and .Jennie IMcCaul. 

No record of class of 1885. 

Class of 1886— Nellie Howard. IMae :\lather. Josie ]\Iiller, 
Harrison Barber, Perry Cowles and (trace Graham. 

No recorrt of class of 1887. 

Class of 1888— Edith Kenyon. 

Class of 1889— Herbert Bolton, Edwin Cassels, C. F. Moll, 
George A^arney and Anna AVilson. 


Class of 1890 — Earnest Buckley, Alva Thompson, Adolpli 
Wilson, Gertrude Janes, Carrie Perry, Melzina Smith, Una 
Richardson and Ethel Maynard. 

Class of 1891 — Edith Howard, Nellie Alverson, Libbie James, 
Will McCaul, Belle Button and Anna j\lonahan. 

Class of 1892 — Charles Thomson, Herbert Calkins, Grace 
McMillan, Jennie Voswinkel, Nina Lombard, Blanche Bennett, 
Clara Spaulding, Ella Wells, Ella Perry and Minnie Wood. 

Class of 1893 — Lottie Wood, Fred Thompson, Frank Saner, 
Dora Heintz, I\Iinnie Root, Bessie Jackson, Alva Goodyear, Hattie 
Nieholis, Herbert Johnson and Gray Graham. 

Class of 1894 — John Brennen, Jessie Hill, Otis Calkins, Ray 
Bell, Fred Barrows, Roy Bolton, Earnest AVyatt, Bernard Paley, 
Jennie Jennings, Albert Rich, Ella O'Leary, Ella Hastings, May 
Graham, Lulu Janes, Carrie Jones, Mamie Ebert, Laura Bolton, 
Minnie Wells, Clara McPherson and Eleanor Voswinkle. 

Class of 1895 — Louie Corrigan, Emma Earle, Ellen Gammons, 
Harriet Hall, Gertrude Reynolds, Arthur AYinter, Wallace Mc- 
Pherson, George Cassels and George Robertson. 

Class of 1896 — Wilda Hancock, Rufus Jackson, Lottie Jackson, 
Edith Root, Maud Bell, Herbert AA^right, Alfred Schultz, Eugene 
Hancock, Rose Barbour, Isabelle Bliven and Edward AA'ells. 

Class of 1897 — Orpha AYoodard, Gertrude Zimmerman, Susan 
Graham, May Scott, ]\lary Donovan, Alice Gunnison, Cora 
Schroeder, Simon Bailey, Rosco Jennings, Bert Cassels and W. J. 

Class of 1898 — John Larkin, Laura Spaulding, Grace Talbot, 
Grace Cristy, Euphemia ]\lcKane, Lula Palmer, ]\Iaud Boyington, 
Dora DroAvatzsky, Jessie Goodenough, I\Iay Smith, Alice 
Hanchett, Delia Polifka, Flora Earle, WiR Healy, AYill Falkner, 
Harry Spaulding and Claude Sowle. 

Class of 1899 — Grace Bolton, AVilliam J. Brennen, lone Gove, 
Edith Mosley, AVill Gooder, George Marcher, Lula Sowle, Ger- 
trude A. Smith, Pearl Gammons, Ellen Clay, Belle Newsome, 
AVilliam D. Smith, Clara Schedler and Lula Scott. 

Class of 1900— Hal Sowle. Catherine Treat, Fred Ebert, 
Marius Larsen, Edgar Secor, Charles Tarr, Joanna Donovan, 
Hattie Dewey, Mary Garnock, ]\Iyrtle Seibold, Kathleen Graham, 
Grace Cassels, Glen McClatchie, Edith Christie, Charlotte 
Reynolds, Lizzie Schenecker, Rosa Drowatzky, Mabel Stevens, 
Nellie Brennen, Rosa Baumgart, Anna Clay, Ella Jennings, 
Charles 'Brian and Bertha Drowatzky. 

Class of 1901— Ella Birr, Otto Uttech. Captain Aller, Nellie 


Edwards, Pearl Eaton, Frank King, Ethel Sowle, Lucetta Case, 
George Anderson, Gertie Smith, Gertrude Smith, Susan Wells, 
Anna Costello, Raljjh Ford, Oscar Schroeder and Rudolpli Andres. 

Class of 1902 — p]thel Abbott, Edwinna Bolton, Gertude Benja- 
min, Louis Baumgartcn, Harry Bell, Grace Dunning, Ilattie 
Hanchett, Louis Hancock, Edith Johnson, Fred Johnson, Grace 
Keeler, Ben Reynolds, Ruth Stevens. Edith Sowle, IMattie Sweet, 
John Tarr, Earnest Vandervort, Vera Wyatt and P>ed AValter. 

Class of 1903 — Tessie Brenncn, .I()sei)iiine Bongers, Delia 
Drew, Jessie Daniels, Ralph Goodenough, Grace Garnock, 
Florence Jay, Ella Johnson, Ed Spaulding, Lela Howard, ]\Iary 
Sizer, Kathryn Costello iitid Sue Moseley. 

Class of 1904 — Pier Aller, Bessie Brace, May Barrett, Agnes 
Brennen, AYalter Drew, Norma Fitch, John Louis Franz, 
William A. Gilson, Pearl Heineman, Allan Homermiller, Nina 
Homermiller, Pearl Henry, Francis Johnson, Don Keeler, Clara 
]\Iathews, Alva ]\Ic]Mullen, Rena Olson, Blondina Pingle, ]\Iinnie 
Pingle, Grace Randall, Leslie Spence, Theodore Smith, Gloria 
Tolles, Roy Washburn, George Wells and George Bell. 

Class of 1905— Dell AVilson, Anna Wolf, Myrtle Smith, Jennie 
Stanley, Leonard Stevens, Amy Randall, Laurence Larson, Josie 
Lingon])lod, Alex. Garnock, Gertrude Freemore, Nete Moseley, 
]\Iae i\Ioran, Herman j\Iast, Bernard Mast, Lillie Kuekuck and 
Percy Daniels. 

Class of 1906— Arthur Atkinson. J. E. Black. AVeina Briese- 
meister, Fred Bentzen, Lola Dickenson, Florence Eraser, Will 
Eraser, Hugh Johnson, ]Mal)el Keene. George Kuekuck, Charles 
Kupper, Hilmer Loehr, Coral Logan, Anna Nelson, Nora Peterson, 
Josephine Pragge, Inez Purdy, Tom Sheehey, Grace Schroeder, 
Lucy Sowle, Ray Spooner, Mina Spradling, Vila Stone, ]\Iinnie 
Thom, Lillian Yackel and Ella Young. 

Class of 1907 — Frank Andres, Nelly Barry, Marcena Black, 
Ada Birr, Herman Birr, Dorothy Bernie, Edith Beardsley, Laura 
Bosshard, Ella Drowatzky. Alpha Diemer, Archie Harris, Vernon 
Hilliker, Will Howes, Edna Tiarson, Bessie ]\Iedd, Jesse ]\Ieinecke, 
Gladys Olson, Earl Terry, Jessie L'win, Nena Dano, Ray Talbot, 
Mae Vandervort, Ella Warner and Ethel AVyatt. 

Class of 1908 — Charlotte Button, Louis Barnes, Irene Baker, 
Arthur Boehmer, Fay Burger, Lydia Cross, Constance Cross, 
EdAvard Franz, AVilliam (Jleis, AVill Ilonun'miller, Harold Holmes, 
Leland King, Leo Keley, Edward Kruger, Fraidv ]Moran, Rosa 
]\Ianaig('. Ruth ^Maxwell, Edith Steinke, John Sweet, Katherine 
Tibbilts and Hazel AVells. 




I— 1 



Class of 1909 — Glen Barber, Catherine Bethauser, Raymond 
Bolton, Carl Cady, Nellie Dauo, Timothy Donovan, Frank 
Drew, Jr., Hazel Elwell, Jessie Johnson, Florence Johnson, 
Harrison King, Edward Kupper, Rosa Kuekuck, Bessie Lamb, 
Mary Linehan, Selma Mathews, Cecil Mahr, Claude McConnell, 
Ray McMullen, Mae McWithy, Harry Moran, Rosa Otto, Edwin 
O'Leary, Anna Robertson, Elsie Ranthum, Jessie Reynolds, Edna 
Rezin, Vella Syverson and Benlah AA^arner. 

Class of 1910 — Byron Black, Ralph Baker, Eva Cornish, 
Laura Dravel, William Dravel, Margaret Flaharty, Robert Get- 
man, Nina Goerbing, Louis Hoag, Stella James, Bernice James, 
Irene Kuekuck, John Kitzki, Elizabeth Kitzki, John Kress, 
Joseph Kress, Lizzie Linehan, Margaret Moran, LaVerne 
McClatchie, Genevieve Oakes, Lydia Stelter, Margaret Smith, 
Hazel Webster, Russell Wells and Anna Wolf. 

Class of 1911— Mabel Dreps, May Prickett, Raymond Eber- 
hardt, Lois Smart, George Von Haden, Henry Greutzmacher, 
Grace Kuekuck, George Knick, Edna Reinhold, Edgar Staben, 
Rudolph Hopp, Alice Snodgrass, Arthur Janes, Anna Cramer, 
Amanda Reisenauer, Henry Retter, Deycie Rose, Arthur Verick, 
Elizabeth Blaschke, Minnie Wolf, Ada Sandley, Sadie Rodell, 
Archie Chapman, Jessie Chapman, Oscar Eirschelem, Steven 
Donovan, Earnest Yeager, Elmer Bell, Ruth Treat, Elizabeth 
Goerbing, Pearl Schwartz, Vere Johnson, Walter Detert, Steven 
Taylor, Roy Fitch and Alvin AVirth. 

Class of 1912— Gladys Forrest, Bessie Eberdt, Lillian Tib- 
betts, Gertrude Kippen, jMitchel Tuttle, Evelyn Alderman, Robert 
Graewin, Raymond Smith, Iva Medd, Mary Mast, Otto Birr, Lela 
Bongers, Leslie Bongers, Frieda Last, Perry Gilmore, Earle 
Sullivan, George Fuhrmau, Beatrice Regalia, Hazel Gilson, Una 
King, Mabel Maxwell, Mary Clay, Ruby Lamb, Neta AVilliams, 
James Finucain, Edward Mick, Katheryn Howes, Louie Barnes, 
Leila Janes, Sarah Libbey, Hugh Hilliker, Alfred Bongers, 
Marguerite Sherwood, Edwin Finnerty, Mary Simonson and 
James Moran. 


The First Baptist Church. AVas organized August 6, 1859, 
a meeting I'or the purpose being called at Staysa's liall, at which 
the Rev. L. C. Herrick was chosen moderator, and A. Kendall 
clerk proteur; eleven brethren and sisters of the Baptist Church 
enrolled themselves as members. 

The constituent mendjers were Brethren Simeon AVood, Jesse 
Boorman, Peter Cramer, Alden Cramer, H. J. Sherman, and 
sisters Mary Jane Wood, Lucinda C. Boorman, Lucinda Powers, 
Elizabeth Cramer, Polly G. Sinery and Atlante Cramer. 

The NcAv Hampshire Article of Faith and Church Convenant, 
as given in the "Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge" by J. 
Newton Brown, was endorsed and adopted by the church. Simeon 
Wood was elected deacon and Alden Cramer church clerk. A 
ministerial committee was appointed and also a committee to 
purchase lots for a meeting house. By invitation of the church 
soon after, members of neighboring Baptist churches, on October 
26th, 1859, met and an ecclesiastical council convened for public 
recognition services. Soon afterwards the Rev. L. C. Herrick 
Avas called to the pastorate of the church, measures were taken 
to build a church and about two years thereafter a meeting house 
was dedicated. This building was remodeled in 1874 and again 
in 1897. 

Tlie church property is now valued at about $4,000 and is free 
from debt. Since its organization in 1859 there have been 
received into membership 404 persons. At present there are 
ninety-seven resident members and forty-four non-resident. The 
following is a list of the ministers, Avhich we believe is complete, 
in the order of their pastorate: Rev. L. C. Herrick, Rev. E. D. 
Barbour, Rev. W. H. Card, Rev. I. II. Cameron, Rev. T. D. Growe, 
Rev. I. C. Weeden, Rev. B. II. Barber. Rev. Phillips. Rev. J. H. 
Bowker, Rev. R. S. Parshall, Rev. AV. H. Barner, Rev. AV. M. 
Robinson, Rev. Roberts, Rev. J. J. Gorham, Rev. B. P. Russell. 
Rev. Arthur AVinte, Rev. Hayden. Rev. Agar, Rev. G. Cressy. Rev. 
C. H. Smith, Rev. AA^ D. Bancroft, Rev. C. E. Henry, Rev. C. C. 
Colby and the present minister. Rev. H. AI. Spickler. 



St. Mary's Episcopal Church. Began with a Sunday school 
gathered and conducted by Mrs. C. K. Erwin and Mrs. John 
Little in McCaul's hall, in 1874. A congregation was formed and 
after several meetings was regularly organized in March, 1874, 
with the Rev. E. DeAVolfe, of St. John's church, Sparta, as priest 
in charge, and the following officers were appointed: John 
Bostwisk, w^arden ; L. Martin, clerk, and John Little, treasurer, 
the Rt. Rev. Edward R. Wells being then the bishop of the diocese 
of AVisconsin, the entire state being in one jurisdiction at that 
time ; the following clergy succeeded as priest in charge on the 
respective dates : Rev. J. B. Gedelupe, 1878 ; Rev. W. H. H. 
Ross, December, 1883; Rev. L. H. Shubert, October, 1884; Rev. 
F. K. Allen. 1886 ; Rev. C. P. Dorset, January, 1890 ; Rev. S. W. 
Moran in 1892; Rev. C. E. Roberts, 1894; Rev. B. T. Bensted, 
September, 1898; Rev. R. Rowley, October, 1899; Rev. A. F. 
Schepp, July, 1902; Rev. A. F. Ruge, April, 1904, and the Rev. 
James AV. Smith, February 1, 1907, w^ho is still in charge. The 
present officers are L. B. Squier, warden, AVilliam B. Naylor, 
treasurer, and Dr. C. L. Anderson, clerk, under Rt. Rev. William 
Walter AVebb, bishop of the diocese. 

The church was built and opened September 23, 1879, being 
then situated on Kilbourn avenue, in the north end of town ; it 
was consecrated in October. 1881, and in July, 1892, it was moved 
to the corner of Kilbourn avenue and Monowau street, its pres- 
ent location ; it was rebuilt and enlarged with a chancel. The 
church also owns a rectory situated just north and across the 
street from the church. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. This organization was undoubt- 
edly the pioneer church in Tomah, and it is to be regretted that 
a complete record does not seem to be available. In 1857 Rev. 
C. W. Kellogg preached the first sermon ever delivered in Tomah. 
This was on the tirst Sunday in July of that year, the meeting 
being held in a new barn erected by Robert E. Gillett. This 
gave an impetus to the movement to organize a church, which 
was accomplished this same year, and during the next year a 
neat church building was erected, meetings prior to this being 
held wherever most convenient. The congregation now owns a 
fine church building situated on the site of the old one, being a 
commanding position on a slight ridge. The building is well 
equipped and the congregation large. The church is in a pros- 
perous condition. Among its ministers have been many men of 
prominence in the Methodist Church, among them Rev. Chas. E. 
Butters, who left his church and went into the Spanish-American 
war from Tomah, enlisting as a private. The Rev. Haskell, the 


present pastor, is a man of broad mind, a thorougli student, a 
man of strong executive ability and an impressive speaker. 

The Congregational Church. Tlie history of tliis organization 
connucnced with the coming of the Rev. ]\Ir. AVells in 1858. At 
first, as is the case with ;ill pioneer movements, meetings were 
held at private houses unlil the little organization grew strong 
enough to erect a church building. This was accomplished in 
1859, when a frame church was built, the congregation regularly 
organized as the "First Congregational Church of Tomah." The 
meeting for the church organization was held in Staysa's hall 
pursuant to notice which had been regularly given by Rev. \V. F. 
Avery, the pastor of the Congregational cliurch at Sparta, and 
Rev. F. M. Gams. At that meeting the following trustees were 
elected: AVilliam F. ShaAV. Daniel Braman. Robert E. Gillett, Jolui 
Dodge, Henry AV. Cressy, John Howard and S. D. Powers. 

In 1861 the Rev, AY ells, on account of ill health, was com- 
pelled to resign the pastorate of the church at Tomah, as he was 
also in charge of the church at New Lisbon, at which latter place 
he made his home. From that time on the pulpit has been occu- 
pied by many ministers, a list of whom it is impossible to give at 
present. As ministers are called to the service in the Congre- 
gational church by the congregation, the ministers served various 

The church building has of late years been remodeled and 
considerably enlarged and is well equipped for church purposes. 
The congregation also owns a parsonage situated next to the 
church, w^hich is modern and a fine home for the resident pastor. 
At present the Rev. J, AY. Smith is the pastor, having occupied 
the pulpit for a number of years; a strong man in the church and 
one who has made his good influence felt in the community. 

The Catholic Church. The first organization of the Catholic 
Church of Tomah Avas in the year 1867, the first priest being the 
Rev. AI. AI. Alarks. Avho attended from LaCrosse. During the 
year a church building was erected at a cost of $2,500, being su- 
perintended by the Rev. John Casey, Avho attended from Alaus- 
ton. The first resident priest was Father J. T. Durward, who 
took charge in 1870 and remained many long years the priest at 
Tomah. A man of broad education and liberal views he endeared 
himself to people generally and Avas highly esteemed by the 
citizens of Tomah. 

The Tomah church has been again fortunate in the services of 
Rev. Louis AYurst. its present priest, who has been a resident 


for many years. His great executive ability has shown itself in 
the management of its financial affairs, for under his charge has 
been erected a fine brick church, equipped with a town clock, a 
fine residence for the priest and St. Mary's school "has been 
greatly enlarged and improved. The new Catholic church, 
erected on a commanding knoll, Avas formally dedicated on De- 
cember 29. 1899. The remodeled St. Mary's school was dedicated 
by Bishop Schwebach, of LaCrosse, on September 17, 1910. The 
congregation is prosperous and the church property is now one 
of the finest in buildings and equipment to be found in any city 
of the size of Tomah. 

The German Methodist Church was organized in 1866 and a 
church building erected in 1870. A parsonage was subsequently 
added to the church property, the church itself remodeled. The 
congregation, though small, is earnest and prosperous and much 
good is accomplished by its members. 


Tomah Lodge, No. 132, F. & A. M., w^as organized and dis- 
pensation granted April 19, 1861. The charter members were 
C. W. Kellogg, Noah Maltbie, A. B. Smith, J. P. Thompson, John 
Dodge, Enoch Baker and S. D. Powers. 

The first officers installed were C. W. Kellogg, AV. M. ; Noah 
Maltbie, S. AV. ; A. B. Smith, J. AV. ; J. P. Thompson, secretary ; 
John Dodge, treasurer, and Enoch Baker, tyler. The first meet- 
ings were held in the upper story of an old blacksmith shop sit- 
uated on the back end of the lot now^ occupied by AA'arren's bank. 
Afterwards it held its meetings in different halls until 1884 when, 
by an agreement with. H. S. Beardsley the lodge became the 
owner of the upper floor of the brick building so long used as 
the postoffice and now owned by Harvey M. Sowle. This was the 
home of the lodge for many years until an opportunity came to 
get more commodious quarters. The lodge purchased the upper 
floor of the building situated in the block just north of the old 
Sherman House, being erected by M. H. Moore, and now^ has flne 
lodge and reception rooms, a commodious dining room and 
kitchen well equipped. The Blue Lodge, Royal Arch Alasons 
and Order of the Eastern Star occupy the rooms. 

Tomah Chapter, No. 63, R. A. M. Dispensation was granted 
for the organization of this chapter of Royal Arch Alasons on 
January 27, 1887, and the charter was issued February 22, 1888. 
The chapter has a fine set of robes for the work and is steadily 


growing ill inciiibcrshii). At present F. S. Narrows, Jr., is high 
priest; Peter Johnson, king; John G. Graham, scribe, and C. H. 
AViekluiHl. secretary. 

There is a strong lodge of tlie Order of the Eastern Star, 
which, as has been stated, occupies tlie lodge rooms of the Ala- 
sonic Temple. 

Tomah Lodge, No. 178, I. 0. 0. F., Avas organized under dis- 
pensation grant cd ]\larcli 15, 1870, the charter being issued by the 
Grand Lodge January 19, 1870. The charter members were: 
Thomas McCaiil. L. S. Benjamin, O. T. SoAvle, A. G. Schultz, 
K. Kinmore, Charles Organ, Charles S. Hubbard, George B. Rob- 
inson. .J. P. Tracy and IL A. 8oAvle. 

The first olKicers elected under the dispensation were Thomas 
McCaul, noble grand; IT. A. Sowle, vice grand; 0. T. Sowle, re- 
cording secretary ; G. B. Rolunsoii. permanent secretary ; J. P. 
Tracy, treasurer. The lodge held its meeting at first in the ^Ma- 
sonic Hall until ]881, when their OAvn comniodious lodge rooms 
were built. The lodge home is situated right in the heart of the 
business district on Superior avenue, has a large lodge hall with 
ample ante-rooms, a large dining room and finely equipped 
kitchen, all well furnished and modern in every way. The pres- 
ent officers are C. F. Fick, noble grand; J. N. King, vice grand; 
H. C. Bongers, secretary. There is also a lodge of Rebeccas, which 
occupy the same lodge rooms. 

Tomah Camp, No. 554, M. W. A., was organized ]\Iarch 21, 
1888, with forty charter monibers, among whom were many of 
the prominent business lucii of Tomah ; F. S. Barrows, Ernest 
Bartels, J. J. King, R. P. Hitchcock, H. H. Sherwood, C. K. Erwin, 
0. J. Eaton, C. E. Quigg, G. R. Vincent, J. H. Mosely, George B. 
Anderson, L. AV. Earle, Peter Johnson, Thomas McCaul, Robert 
Schroeder, W. C. Hommermiller, AY. H. Schultz, Fred Meinecke 
and others. I. N. Palmer was its first and only clerk, making 
an enviable record of twenty-four years' faithful service since 
the first organization of the camp, truly a testimonial of 
the strongest character of the confidence and esteem with Avhich 
he is held by his brother AYoodmen. The camp now has its quar- 
ters in the Odd Fellows Hall, where it meets tAvice a month; there 
are now about ISO members, the camp is in good condition 
financially and in every other way. 

There is a strong lodge of Knights of Pythias at Tomah, the 
official records of which were not available for the purpose of 
this work. 


This unique society is one the like of which should exist in 
every city and village and the example of which has been made 
by this little organization in the city of Toinah as to what can 
be accomplished in doing good to your fellow creatures through 
the broad exercise of diplomatic charity is one which any com- 
munity, no matter where situated, can well take heed. The 
society was organized September 8, 1886, as an auxiliary of a 
Universalist church, which church had planned to establish in 
Tomah, but the plans were not carried through and the society 
soon afterwards became a non-sectarian charitable organization. 

The following ladies were the original members or joined soon 
after the organization of the society: Mrs. George H. Warren, 
Mrs. J. H. Warren, Mrs. W. N. Alverson, Mrs. C. A. Goodyear, 
Mrs. W. W. Alverson, Mrs. E. M. Hamilton, ^Mrs. H. H. Ackuer, 
Mrs. C. Stannard, Mrs. Julia Eaton, Mrs. Electa Wilkins, Mrs. 
D. P. Rockwood, ]Mrs. A. Soule, Mrs. H. L. Crandall, Miss Jessie 
Campbell, Mrs. George Graham, Mrs. C. F. Richardson, Mrs. 
George Thomas, :\Irs. H. Doxtader, :\Irs. W. Earle, Mrs. N. R. 
Richardson, Mrs. R. Toombs, Mrs. B. Irons, ]\Irs. E. W. Beebe, 
Mrs. L. Richards, Mrs. Addison Cady, Mrs. C. Llerrill, Mrs. IT. W. 
Calkins, Mrs. G. R. Vincent, Mrs. L. Cady. 

The iirst officers of the association were : I\Irs. A. Cady, presi- 
dent ; Mrs. E. Hamilton, vice president ; Mrs. Adenzy Irons, secre- 
tary, and Mrs. George Warren, treasurer. 

The object of this society is to relieve the needy, which the 
members have tried to manage in such a delicate and diplomatic 
way that their beneficiaries may not be pauperized, but helped in 
the time of misfortune and whenever possible aided and encour- 
aged to help themselves. The committees appointed for the sev- 
eral wards in the city inquire into every case brought to their 
notice and such assistance as seems advisable is rendered. The 
society has had the hearty co-operation of the public and so has 
been enabled to do much work that it otherwise could not have 
done, especially at the Christmas season, when it is the object of 



llie orgaiiizaliuii lo grt ii liox of clothing, toys aud other tilings 
to each needy child Avho otherwise might have none of the sea- 
son's good cheer: and many are the little hearts who have been 
made glad throngh the t honghtfulness and kindness of the Help- 
ing Hand Society. 

In 1898 when the war' cloud w;is dark and threatening and the 
boys of the local military company were innking preparations to 
go to the front, the Helping Hand Societ\ formed a nucleus 
around which gathered those who wished to hel{) in pre|)aring 
bandages and small conveniences that "our hoys" could carry 
with them, and when the company Avas at Charleston, S. C. the 
nuMubers gathered and sent a 1)0X of bedding and many other 
useful articles and money with which, to purchase medicine and 
other necessities. When the society was first organized it met 
at the various homes of its members, but in 1887 it purchased 
what Avas known as the Central Hall or the old skating rink, 
selling it a little later and securing a ]^ortiou of the armory build- 
ing as soon as it was completed, in Avhich the society holds a 
financial interest and have a long lease of rooms on the ujiper 
floor consisting of a living room, kitchen and dining room for 
their use ; and under the arrangements Avith the Armory Asso- 
ciation the society has the use of the entire building for the cost 
of opening and lighting it for any entertainments Avhich they may 
Avish to give for the i)urpose of raising money to go into its 

The present membership of the society consists of the folloAv- 
ing ladies: Mrs. G. A. Altenberg, jMrs. AV. D. Bosshard, ]Mrs. 
AVilliam Cassels, ^Mrs. J. Hancock, ]Mrs. Thomas ]\IcCaul. ]\Irs. 
J. J. King, Urs. C. Quigg, INIrs. F. K. Talbot, Mrs. F. S. BarroAvs. 
Mrs. E. Crocker, JMrs. "William Ilomermiller, ]\Irs. D. P. Rock- 
Avood, Mrs. Treat, ^Nlrs. A. N. Cross, Mrs. B. Irons, :\Irs. C. ]\Iax- 
Avell, Mrs. J. B. McMullin, ]\Irs. C. T. Sipple, Mrs. E. Terry, Mrs. 
Burlin, Mrs. Alice Eaton. IMrs E. Polifka, Mrs. H. H. Shater- 
Avood, ]\Irs. G. H. Warren, and the folloAving honorary members: 
Mrs. L. Burdick, I\lrs. TI. Boxtader. :\Irs. D. E. :\liller. :\lrs. A. 
Cady, Mrs. Sherman. 

The present officers are: ]\Irs. Eaton. ])resident ; ]\[rs. Talbot. 
vice president; Mrs. Cassels, treasurer, and ]\lrs. King, secretary. 


Like the beginning of most institutions of this character, the 
Tomah Library was instituted through the efiforts of a few citi- 
zens, who believed that such an institution was necessary. Mrs. 
S. D. Palmer called to her assistance several ladies of the city 
and in the summer of 1881 organized what was known as the 
Tomah Library Association ; these ladies gave an entertainment, 
the proceeds of which were used to purchase the first books of the 
library, and these w^ere afterwards supplemented by the gifts of 
various citizens. The books were at first kept in the photograph 
gallery of the late E. N. Palmer, Avhere they remained for about 
a year. Later the citizens gave to the Library Association the 
use of a room in the city hall, where it was housed and where 
it remained for a great many years. 

Soon after the library moved into the city building the city 
appropriated $100 per annum for the purchase of books, and at 
about this time rules and regulations were drawn by Judge 
George Graham and an annual fee of $1 w^as charged for the use 
of the books, which fund was used for the purchase of books. 

The first librarians were Mrs. S. D. Palmer, !Mrs. John Boor- 
man, ]Mrs. Ida Vincent and INIrs. Rockw^ood, all of whom served 
faithfully and long without any remuneration, the latter up to 
July, 1902. Some years prior to this it was turned over to the 
city and became a municipal institution and. was controlled by a 
board of trustees, three in number, appointed by the mayor and 
confirmed by the common council, and became known as the 
V Tomah City Library." 

In July. 1902, a change of librarians brought about the 
reorganization of the institution under the state law% and on 
December 18, 1902. the board of trustees met in the council cham- 
ber of the city hall in response to the call of ]\Irs. F. S. Barrows ; 
three additional members, bringing the board to the legal num- 
ber, having been appointed by the Hon. W. E. Nuzum, then mayor 
of the city, it was found necessary to adopt by-laws bringing the 
library into harmony with the state laws governing public 

The members present at this meeting were ]\Irs. F. S. Bar- 

379 , I 


rows, ]\Irs. P>nnk Fietin^, ]\[rs. John King, Rev. Father AVurst, 
Dr. A. R. Bell. :\Irs. ('. 11. Maxon. :\Ir. A. S. Goodyear and by 
invitation ]\liss Cornelia ]\Iarvin, of the State Library Commis- 
sion, Avho presented a set of by-laws, whieh, with minor changes, 
were adopted. The election of olficers was then declared in order 
following: Rev. Father AViirst, president; I\Irs. F. S. Barrows, 
vice president, and Mrs. John Fieting, secretary. The action of 
the former board as to the appointment of Caroline AY. B. Vos- 
winkel as librarian was confirmed and the purchase of supplies 
necessary to inaugurate to the new system of changing books, 
cataloging, etc., was authorized. All the books were called in and 
the library closed to the public during the reorganization whii-h 
occupied a period of about two weeks. 

The librarian was assisted in the work of reorganization which 
was under the supervision of Miss Marvin, of the State Library 
Commission, and by j\Iiss Reilly, of Madison. After the com- 
pletion of the reorganization the library was thrown open to the 
public on January 2, 1903, Avitli 793 books on the shelves, with 
a registry of 105. The library continued to be housed in the 
council cliamber of the city hall until December, 1903. when 
through the efforts of the mayor, Hon. AY. E. Nuzum, the "Whit- 
field" property on Superior avenue was purchased and the library 
moved into its present quarters. The growth since 1902 has been 
steady, the days and hours of opening having been gradually 
extended from twice a Aveek to daily opening; this last com- 
mencing November, 1911. The actual number of its borrowers 
is fully one-third, if not more of the population of the city. At 
the last annual report dated June 30, 1911, the number of vol- 
umes in the library was 3,733 and is now approximately 4,000 
volumes, and circulation for the year June 30, 1910, to July 1. 
1911. was 19,688. 

The liln-ary is supported by the city and receives an ajipro- 
priation l)eginning with the current year of $1,200, apportioned 
approximately as follows: One-third for books and periodicals, 
one-third for the librarian's salary, and one-third for current 
expenses. The city of Tomah Avill in a short time liave a fine 
new library building, undoubtedly located on the site of the pres- 
ent occupancy, a gift from the estate of Dr. Ernest R. Buckley, a 
former resident of Tomah and a graduate of the Tomah High 
School, who acquired considerable prominence as an expert geolo- 
gist and having in mind, undoubtedly, the v\-elfare of his home 
town, made provision in his will for the building of a library 
building to be presented to the city of Tomah. 



By Ella D. Goodyear. 

It was in 1907 that the members of three exclusive clubs in 
Tomah came together one day for a joint session of mutual 

The leaven of social service had faintly begun to work in the 
minds and hearts of a few, so when the suggestion to form a 
civic club with an inilimited membership came it found a few 
enthusiastic sponsors, and the club became a reality at that time. 
Members of the study clubs, who had part in organizing became 
charter members of the civic club. Mrs. F. S. Barrows was the 
first president, with ]\Irs. AV. W. "Warren as secretary. 

It took the entire year to organize, make definite, workable 
plans and make the club popular, for it had to be popular in order 
to get into its ranks indifferent women and prejudiced ones. 
Some were opposed to club work, using the old argument that 
it took too much time away from their home duties. But the five 
years' existence has proven the fallacy of this argument, because 
all the club work carried on has been in the interest of the home 
and now the most intelligent women in the community belong. 
The club has been fortunate from the beginning in having the 
business men's club rooms for meetings. It has added 50 per cent 
to the interest in the club. 

Standing committees have carried on from the beginning a 
definite line of work, and taking each in turn I will try to show 
those plans, and some of the results accomplished. For three 
successive years the art committee has held in the club rooms 
an art exhibit, charging a low rate of admission. School children 
have been admitted ahvays at a nominal price, and have been 
encouraged to come. The Copley, Turner, and Elson prints have 
been exhibited, and from these the committee has made wise 
selections for the walls of the school rooms. These pictures were 
given by the club. One year ]\Irs. John B. Sherwood, of Chicago, 
exhibited colored prints and American oil paintings in the high 
school, giving special talks to children. She also gave a fine 



stereoptieon lecture on Italian art to a mixed audience in the 
evening. Tliis visit from ]Mrs. Sherwood, a recognized art lover 
and critic, was a great inspiration to the community at large. 
As a result of five years' work, this committee, the personnel of 
which changes every year, has not only given the city oppor- 
tunities in art, but each school room in the city has at least a 
copy of one fine picture on its walls. 

The educational committee has done thorough and conscien- 
tious Avork in many lines. A^'isiting committees of club members 
regularly visit the schools and tliis has brought teachers and 
parents into closer touch; occasionally school receptions are held 
in the different buildings for parents and teachers. 

Tomah has always had to its credit a broad-minded school 
board. Suggestions for repairs and decorations in school rooms, 
improvements in sanitary conditions or increase in library facili- 
ties from this committee have always met with a ready response 
from the board. In the central building a beautiful rest room 
has been fitted up. Teachers, pupils and the school board cooper- 
ated with the club to accomplish this. At present the same com- 
bination is working for play ground equipment for the large and 
spacious grounds surrounding this same building. Under the 
direction of this committee also, the club annually gives a recep- 
tion to the teachers, which is always a pleasant and social affair. 

Perhaps the largest task undertaken by the committee was 
the agitation for music, manual training, and domestic science 
in the schools. But after the patrons of the school became assured 
of the benefits to be derived from these branches, the matter was 
easily and quickly settled at the annual school meeting of 1911, 
and as a result the Tomah high schools are among the most up- 
to-date in the state. The music committee furnishes a piano for 
the club rooms the year around. By this means every meeting 
has a good program of music. School children under the leader- 
ship of the music teacher often entertain, and many high school 
students of talent have been brought before the public in this 
way, and also have given niurii pleasure to others. 

The library committee has always been in accoi'd with the 
library board and librarian. Their active work has been con- 
fined to substantial gifts heretofore. One year the committee 
held a double program, calling it Library Day. The afternoon 
program Avas given up to a review of the past and an analysis of 
the present by the librarian. The past was reviewed by some of 
the founders of the library, who gave a most interesting account 


of the beginning and early struggle of what is today an excellent 
free public library. The evening was devoted to the possibilities 
of the future for a library, Avitli an address by Miss Stearns of the 
State Library Commission. 

The civics committee started out Avith the definite plan of 
making Tomah more clean and more beautiful. AVith this pur- 
pose in view, and with the financial support of the C. A. Good- 
year Lumber Company, they engaged Mrs. McCrea, a professional 
landscape gardener of Chicago, to come to Tomah to plant trees 
and shrubs in all private yards of owners interested. The only 
expense to the owners to be the cost of the shrubs. Public school 
grounds, the library lot, and many unsightly places were cleaned 
up and beautified under the inspiration of Mrs. McCrea. Prizes 
to the amount of $100 were offered at the end of the season for 
those private places showing the most improvement. Since that 
time an annual Municipal Cleaning Day has been appointed by 
the mayor. On one cleaning day the citizens of one neighbor- 
hood secured the use of Barrows Grove, a natural beauty spot in 
the southeast corner ol the city, as a picnic ground for the pub- 
lic. They cleaned it up, and made picnic benches and tables 
and hung swings. Recently the civics committee has assisted the 
schools on Arbor Day by arranging for the planting of trees. 

The Junior Civic League is a protege of the civics committee 
organized in the schools. The children buy league buttons to 
wear and sign a pledge to keep the city clean and to protect the 
birds and animals. Penny packages of flowers and vegetables 
are sold to the children in the spring. In September a flower 
and vegetable show is held, prizes being given for the best. 

The Humane Society was organized under the direction of 
the civics committee, but entirely independent to the club. A 
campaign against bill boards, agitation for a saner Fourth, rest 
rooms for county fair week, are some of the proposed reforms 
now in committee. The club as a whole has raised money for a 
large fountain for dogs and horses, costing $400. And the latest 
effort has been a Tomah cook book, gotten up primarily as a 
means of earning money, and has been successful from every 

The ways and means committee has always had an important 
part to play in the club, for without it no work could have been 
accomplished. They have given card parties, dances, a ball game 
between the professional and the business men of the city, and 
in many ways raised the necessary funds. The social commit- 


tee lias done effective service by promoting sociality, providing 
entertainment for members and their friends. They arrange for 
the annual banquet each year, and one year gave a complimentary 
banquet to the Business ]\Ien's Club. 

And last, but not least, must be mentioned the program and 
press committee, "who keep the wheels oiled. They -work early 
and late, but behind the scenes. Neither club members nor the 
public realize the faithful attention these committees must give 
to details. Many entertaining programs are given throughout 
the year, and many instructive ones. Men and women of note in 
the state have been guests of the club and spoken before it. 
Social center work, boy problems, domestic science, peace and 
conversation, are among the subjects which have been discussed. 
And not less helpful have been the interesting talks given by 
Tomah's own citizens on live topics of the day. At the close of 
five years' existence, the club is a prosperous and active agent in 
the plans for progress in the city of Tomah. 

OFFICERS, 1911-1912. 

President, ]Mrs. AV. R. ]\lcCaul; first vice president. ]Mrs. AV. AV. 
AYarren ; second vice president, Mrs. H. J. Skinner ; third A"ice 
president, Mrs. E. K. Tuttlo ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. A. L. 
Burt; recording secretary, Mrs. A. A. Fix; treasurer, Mrs. AYallace 

Active Membership List : Airs. 0. L. Anderson, Airs. R. 
Andres, Airs. Robert Babb, Airs. F. S. Barrows, Airs. Earnest 
Bartels, Airs. ^Y. R. Bartels, Airs. L. N. Burt, Airs. Addison Cady, 
Airs. T. B. Corrigan, Airs. Frank Drew, Airs. Alice Eaton, Airs. 
Fred Eldridge, Airs. Alois Fix. Airs. AYill Gleis, Airs. AI. Gondre- 
zick, Airs. A. S. Goodyear, Airs. George Graham, Airs. Clarence 
Hanover, Airs. F. AI. Hart. Airs. E. E. Hatch, Airs. C. C. Hazen, 
Airs. Anna Homermiller, Airs. AV. C. Homermiller, Airs. II. B. 
Johnson, Airs. Carrie King, Airs. E. F. Koon, Airs. AYilliam Lee, 
Airs. AI. B. Lee, Airs. E. Lockwood, Airs. AA'. E. Barnhart. Airs. 
L. AY. Earle. Airs. Thomas AlcCaul, Airs. AY. R. AlcCaul. Airs. 
Charles AIcFadden, Airs. L. AIcKain, Airs. C. J. Alaxwell, Airs. E. 
Aleloy, Airs. AI. Aloran, Airs. James O'Leary. AFrs. Sarah Palmer, 
Airs. A. B. Pennewell, Airs. C. E.' Quigg. Airs. AYilliam Roddell, 
Airs. Edward Schwerer, Airs. Elizabeth Seymour, Airs. C. T. Sipple, 
Airs. J. Simonson. Airs. II. J. Skinner, Airs. I. G. Stutsman, Airs. 
Charles Taft, Airs. AVallace Taft, Airs. F. K. Tuttle, Airs. F. K. 
Talbot, Airs. Emma J, Treat, Airs. George Uebele, Aliss C. AY. C. 


Voswinkle, Mrs. AY. W. Warren, Mrs. Waltman, Mrs. Charles 
Weiss, Mrs. C. H. Wiklimd, Mrs. A. Withers, Mrs. W. B. Naylor, 
Mrs. George Warren, Mrs. C. J. Wells, Mrs. A, E. Winter, Mrs. 
A. C. Stone, Mrs. Charles Hanehett. 


Goodyear Lumber Company. The original firm of D. A. & 
C. A. Goodyear was organized in 1876, its first plant being a 
portable mill located at Mather Station, on the Valley division 
of the Chicago, :\Iihvaukee & St. Paul Railroad. In 1879 C. A. 
Goodyear became a resident of Tomah, and in 1883 the lumber 
yards of the company were located here, followed by the location 
of their large planing mill the next season, at the site where it 
now stands. In connection Avith the planing mill they put in an 
electric light plant and furnished light for the city and private 
residences and business houses for many years, until this part 
of the business was sold a few years ago to a stock company. 

Tlie company operated mills at different points on the Valley 
division when the building of the Goodyear railway in the heart 
of a large tract of timber resulted in the construction of their 
large mill at the station of Goodyear. After this pine was 
exhausted the company, having purchased a large tract of land 
in the northern part of the state with several hundred millions 
of good pine upon it, the big saw mill was moved to Tomah and 
arrangements made with the railway company to haul logs to 
the mill on the Valley division, which situation obtains today; a 
train a day of logs is delivered at the mill. 

This saw mill has within the past few years been thoroughly 
overhauled and improved ; is now operated by electricity and is 
considered a model of its kind and one of the best equipped saw 
mills to be found anywhere. 

The Bridge Works. In 1890 the Chicago, :\Iilwaukee & St. 
Paul Company decided to locate its bridge building department 
at Tomah ; this only came about after quite a contest between 
several towns along the main line of the road, as most of the cities 
from AVatertown to LaCrosse, including both places, made offers 
of bonuses in various forms. The common council of the city 
of Tomah tendered the company ten acres of land lying north of 
the new depot, which oft'er was accepted, and it was mainly due 



to the fact that Tomah was centrally located that induced the 
company to locate here and refuse more advantageous offers from 
other places. 

It consists of a large office building and a factory building 
60 by 350 feet, equipped with machinery for wood working; a 
large yard for the storing of lumber, timber, piles, concrete mix- 
ing apparatus and general supplies ; there is also a paint shop 
in connection. At this plant not only are wooden culverts and 
bridges constructed, but depots, store houses and other build- 
ings are manufactured ready to set up ; it employs a large force 
of men and operates the year around. 

The Frog Shops, as they are familiarly called, were located 
here, by the St. Paul company, and the buildings erected for the 
plant in 1907 ; the shops are most modern, being equipped wnth 
electrical machinery and manufacture frogs for the tracks and 
other iron work ; it is operated by a large power plant in a sepa- 
rate building containing powerful engines and huge dynamos, 
used for both power and lighting. This is a busy place and 
employs about from 100 to 150 men. 

Sash and Door Factory, operated by Crosset brothers, started 
a number of years ago in a very modest way, is now a large plant 
employing quite a force of men ; the company does an extensive 
business in contract work, from building frames and interior 
finish, to erecting of entire buildings. The plant has a fine equip- 
ment of machinery and is operated by steam. 

Tomah Electric Light and Telephone Company now owns and 
controls the telephone plant and connecting lines and also the 
electric lighting plant ; the telephone company is equipped with 
its own office building with modern switch boards, and owns a 
large mileage of line having connection with long-distance serv- 
ice. The electric light plant is the only one in the city furnish- 
ing street lights as well as for business places and residences; a 
well managed, up-to-date institution. 

Farmers' Creamery was organized in August, 1902, and 
located its plant in the city building, a brick building with a most 
modern eciuipment ; this institution has been successfully con- 
ducted and does a large volume of business each year running 
close to $150,000. 

Soda Water Factory has been conducted for many j^ears by 
M. Gondrezick at the same location known as the old "Grant 
House" corner. Mr. Gondrezick owns the building there located 
and uses the entire basement for his factory. 


A Flour and Feed Mill is operated by AT. H. Schultz & Co. 
in the same block in wliiei the Sherman House is located, and 
enjoys a large clientage aniong the farmers. 

A number of. years ago a brick manufacturing plant was 
operated by Thomas ]\IcCaul near the city; good clay for the 
manufacture of red brick being found upon the property acquired 
by him Avest of town; it was operated for a few years, but for 
some reason was abandoned and tlie land used for farming 

Another Wood-Working" Plant is operated by the Tomah 
IManufacturiug Company, Avhich does general contracting in the 
building line ; has been operated for about eight or nine years. 


The early history of the baiikiiig interests in Tomah is not in 
the form of corporate existence; and up to the time of the change 
in the banking laws, were private banks owned by partnerships ; 
no public record is available and no record at all can be found. 
In the early seventies Runkel & Freeman entered into the bank- 
ing business in a w^hite brick building in the block just south 
of Gillett pg.rk ; what the capital invested was or the volume of 
business transacted is not noAv known. The Bank of Tomah suc- 
ceeded this and was established by Thayer & Kingman, of Sparta, 
in 1879, and was also a private bank. These gentlemen were at 
the time conducting the Monroe County Bank at Sparta also. 

But in 1893, Mr. Kingman having withdrawn from the busi- 
ness some years before, under the management of Mr. Thayer, 
both these institutions failed and went into the hands of an 
assignee, "W. G. Williams, who wound up the affairs of both 

AVith this exception the banks in Tomah have been conducted 
on sound financial principles, conservatively managed and have 
retained the confidence of the people in the city and surround- 
ing country. 

At this time Tomah is well favored with banks, having four 
banking houses, each, of course, organized under the laws of the 
state. The combined capital of these institutions is $90,200, and 
the combined assets foot up to the sum of $1,118,527.02, aggre- 
gated from the reports of June, 1912. 

Warren's Bank was organized in 1888 as a private banking 
house under the name of J. H. Warren & Son. Its officers were : 
J. H. Warren, president ; G. H. Warren, vice president, and AV. W. 
Warren, cashier ; the composition of this firm was unique in that 
it represented three generations of the Warrens, and at the time 
of the organization of the firm their ages were, respectively, 
eighty-six years, fifty-three years and twenty-three years. 

As a private bank it had from the start the confidence of the 
public, and wliile still conducted as such its deposits ran up to 



over $270,000, -which is a remarkabh^ testimonial of confidenee 
in an institution without capital. This bank passed through 
three panics witliout closing its doors, and in. the panic of 1893 
was the only bank in the county that kept its doors open and 
did business at the old stand. 

In 1903, under the laws then passed, it was organized as a 
state bank with a capital of $25,000; at that time John H. "War- 
ren had passed away and George H. \Varren became president, 
W. W. AVarren remaining cashier; the bank having been con- 
ducted under the same management for over twenty-three years 
up to the death of George II. AVarren. AV. AY. AA^arren has suc- 
ceeded to the position of his father and is now president and 
manager; J. P. Reinhard, formerly of the ]\Ionroe County Bank 
at Sparta, cashier. Norma Fitch, bookkeeper. 

That under tlie management of Colonel AYarren the same con- 
servative methods are used and that the confidence of the public 
is still the same is evidenced by the deposits which in June. 1912, 
were $509,146.18. and this together with its capital stock, sur- 
plus of $5,000 and undivided profits, brings up the grand total 
to $541,743.55. 

The bank occupies its own l)uilding, built in 1888, in which 
business was first opened up. 

Bank of Tomah. After the failure of the Thayer bank in 
1893, the opportunity to establish a bank business in Tomali 
appeared good to Frenk Drew, formerly of Portage, later of 
Dakota, where he had been engaged in tlie 1)anking business Avith 
his brother. He came to Tomah late in the year 1893 and pro- 
ceeded to interest some of the business men of the community 
in the organizing of a banking corporation under 'ihe name of 
the Bank of Tomah. 

A Ijanking corporation was organized witli Frank Drew, AYat- 
son Earle and Charles A. Goodyear and AVilliam Feiting as its 
incorporators and principal stockholders. The business name of 
"Bank of Tomah,"' together with the building in whieh tluit 
institution had been housed, were purchased of the assignee. 
AY. 0. AVilliams, and its existence as a bank began Alardi 1. 1894, 
with a capital of $25,000. 

In Septem])(M*, 190;^, an amendment was made to the articles 
of incorporation so that the capital was made $15,200. 

C. A. Goodyear was its first president, with Frank Drew as 
cashier. Later ^Ir. AYatson Earle succeeded to the presidency. 
The bank has been successfully conducted under the manage- 
ment of ]\Ir. Drew since its organization ; has the confidence of 


the public and has a large clientage of depositors among the busi- 
ness men and farmers of the surrounding territory. 

Its deposits in June, 1912, -were $216,936.84, which, together 
with its capital, surplus and undivided profits, makes a grand 
total of $237,842.32. 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank. This institution has not been 
organized long enough to have much of a history, as its authority 
to do business dates from February 25, 1911. It was incorporated 
by Thomas E. Anderson, George P. Stevens and William J. Bren- 
nan ; erected a handsome banking house on Superior avenue, 
starting business with a surplus fund of $10,000 in addition to its 

Thomas E. Anderson is president and William J. Brennan is 
cashier. Under their management, in little over a year, the insti- 
tution has grown remarkably. In June, 1912, its deposits w^ere 
$220,661.33, and taken together with its capital, surplus fund 
and undivided profits, makes a grand total of $256,243.76. 

The State Bank. This bank also is of so recent an organiza- 
tion as to preclude any historical sketch, for its history is yet to 
be made outside of the fact of its organization and commence- 
ment of business. Its organizers, believing the field for another 
bank at Tomali still a good one, notwithstanding the fact that 
there Avere three other banking institutions, incorporated under 
the state law with a capital of $25,000 ; J. P. Rice, C. B. Drowatzky 
and G. C. Pingel were its incorporators; the present officers are, 
J. P. Rice, president ; G. C. Pingel, vice president ; C. B. Dro- 
watzky, cashier ; H. B. Vaudell, F. 0. Drowatzky and A. 'Leary, 

The bank opened business under circumstances which seem 
to insure a good growth in business. During its short existence 
its deposits have reached in June, 1912, $57,074.14, and, taken 
together with surplus fund and undivided profits, makes a total 
of $82,692.39 at that time. 


Perhaps one of the most interesting educational institutions 
in the county is the Indian Industrial Boarding School located at 
Toniali; this is one of the several schools owned and conducted 
by the United States Government for the education of Indian 

AVhen in 1890 the subject Avas agitated of establishing an 
Int^iian school in the central portion of Wisconsin, a strong com- 
petition began between several cities of the state to secure the 
school; Tomah, Sparta, Eau Claire, La Crosse, Black River Falls 
and several other cities entered the contest and all sorts of 
inducements were offered to the government authorities. The 
city of Tomah offered to i)urchase a farm of 200 acres located 
tM'O miles north of the city limits for the farm and the 
buildings; the citizens were successful in securing its location; 
originally the sum of $25,000 was appropriated for the initial 
expenses of building the plant ; the original buildings consisted 
of a large brick building and boiler house containing heating 
plant and laundry. Since that time six brick and ten frame 
buildings have been added and the farm has been increased by 
the Government to 340 acres. This farm is under the man- 
agement of an expert farmer aid a competent dairy man is 
also employed, who has at this time under his charge fifty 
Holstein dairy cattle. ]\Iuch valual)l(' instruction is given to 
the Indian l)oys l)y the manager of these two industries and 
at the same time considerable experimental work has been done 
and is now being done on the farm under the direction of the 
Agricultural Department of the State University. All of this fur- 
nishes instruction of the finest kind for the benefit of the Indian 
boy pupils, who are thus receiving a practical education in farm- 
ing and dairying and in other agricultural pursuits. In addition 
to that boys are taught carpenter work ; there is a complete 
course in domestic science and art for the girls which is main- 
tained in a well equipped l)uilding provided for that purpose. 

The Government ]>ays all the expenses of the pupils, including 



transportation to and from school ; they are kept for a term of 
three years and literary instruction is given during nine months 
of the year, the pupils being carried through the eight grades of 
the common school branches being the state school course for 
AVisconsin. Pupils are received from any of the middle western 
states and most of them come from Wisconsin, some coming from 
IMinnesota and Michigan. 

The school is maintained under the semi-military discipline 
and the boys wear a neat blue uniform trimmed with red, and 
the girls are dressed in becoming dresses; they are taught the 
habits of cleanliness and all of the pupils live at the school iu 
large dormitories which are cared for by the pupils principally. 
Some of the girls, in fact most of them, show a great talent for 
needle work and turn out beautiful pieces of embroidery and 
other fancy work as well as neatly executed plain seMdng. The 
boys go into athletics quite freely under the instruction of their 
teachers and for a number of years a football team has held ujj 
the honor of the little Indians in various, contests with high 
school and other teams throughout this part of the state ; every 
summer a baseball team has been supported consisting entirely 
of pupils of the school and under the instruction of an expert 
ball player who formerly graduated from the Carlyle School, and 
is a ball team which is no mean antagonist and plays games with 
different clubs in this part of the state. 

For a number of years a brass band has been a part of the 
equipment of the school and the young Indian boys take to music 
very readily; the Tomah Indian School Band has quite a reputa- 
tion in this part of the state ; the entire band is composed of th(! 
Indian youths of various ages under the instruction of an Indian 
leader, a man by the name of "Look Around"; he is an excellent 
slide trombone player and a very fine musician. Many of th(^ 
graduates of the school have taken responsible positions and have 
made homes for themselves and great benefit is derived from this 
institution ; it is hoped that many good citizens may bo made from 
the Indian children in the future as has been done in the past. 

The present superintendent, L. ]\I. Comptoji, has been in charge 
of the school for the last fourteen years and his fine executive 
ability, together with a disposition which seems to be suited to 
over-mastering difficulties, has built up an institution which is 
second to none of its kind anywhere in the country; Mr. Comp- 
ton is considered a vlauable citizen of Monroe county as well, as 
he is public spirited and has given a good deal in the interests 
of the community at Tomah. He recently was appointed a gov- 


ernmeut Indian agent for this section of the state and it is his 
duty to look after the tribal Indians and to conduct the govern- 
ment annuity payments, a duty which he performs to the satis- 
faction of the Indian department. A good residence is provided 
on the farm for the superintendent and also for the farmer, and 
together with fine outbuildings makes a plant which is not only 
valuable, but conducted in all lines in the highest of development 
and is visited by many people from different parts of the country. 
The attendance at the present time is 250 scholars. 


Chapter 337, laws of 1885, made it the duty of the board of 
supervision, by and with the consent of the governor, to select 
a suitable site and erect thereon buildings for a state school or 
temporary home for dependent and neglected children — such 
institution to be known as the "State Public School." Soon 
after the enactment of this law the board advertised for proposals 
for furnishing a site for this institution, and received responses 
from Stevens' Point, Waupaca, Green Bay, Oshkosh, Fond du Lac, 
Ripon, New Lisbon, Sparta and La Crosse. Subsequently the 
board visited all these places, inspecting the sites proposed and 
canvassed the advantages of each locality, and, finally, with the 
approval of the governor, selected Sparta as the locality for the 
school, accepting an offer of a tract of land embracing 164.8 
acres as the site. This land lies in one regular body on the 
northeast of the city, being partly within its limits, having the 
La Crosse river for its eastern boundary and one of the city 
streets as its western line. The location is in all respects a health- 
ful one, possesses many attractions in itself, and commands a view 
of one of the finest landscapes in the state. 

During the year 1886 three cottages were erected and equipped 
in accordance with the provisions of the law, two of them of 
solid brick, two stories and an attic in height, with stone base- 
ment, and capable of accommodating 100 pupils. The third cot- 
tage, a frame structure, veneered with brick, two stories and an 
attic above a stone basement, was devoted at first to the uses of 
the superintendent and his family, but subsequently to the accom- 
modation of the young children, of Avhom it affords room for 
thirty. The institution was opened for the reception of pupils on 
the 13th of November, 1886, with Robert T. Roberts as superin- 
tendent. It soon became apparent, from the rapidity with which 
committments were made, that more room must be provided 
before the full benefits of the institution could be realized. 
Accordingly the legislature of 1887 made provisions for the erec- 
tion of a central building, two cottages and such other structures 



as it should (Icciii iiocpssary. The board of supervision, during 
that year, had erected the buildings named, and in addition 
tliereto a boiler and engine liouse and laundry and a l)arn. The 
central building is of briek, three stories in height upon a stone 
basement, and furnishes room for the superintendent and his 
family and employes, a general kitehen and large dining room, an 
assembly room and offices. The cottages are of brick, two stories 
and an attic in height, with a stone basement, and furnish accom- 
modations for sixty pupils each. A school house, two stories 
in height, containing three class rooms and necessary halls on 
each tioor, and furnishing accommodations for about 250 pupils, 
was erected in 3889, as were also a cold storage building, ice 
house and additional farm buildings, and a dAvelliug house on 
adjoining land purchased was reconstructed into a comfortable 

In August, 1891, the board of control elected F. L. Sanborn, 
of Ashland, to be superintendent in place of ]\Ir. Roberts, whose 
term had expired. July 7, 1892, fire, believed to be the work of 
an incendiary ward, destroyed the roof and upper story of the 
main building. The building was promptly reconstructed at a 
cost of .^4,814. 96. The primary object of the institution is to fur- 
nish a temporary home for dependent and neglected children 
until suitable homes can be found for them in good families. 
AVhile they remain in the institution they are instructed in the 
elementary branches of an English education. 

July ], 1895, lion. S. S. Landt was elected to the superiu- 
tendency, which position he held for four years. Under his 
administration a general hospital Avas constructed at a cost of 
$3,300; also an addition to the laundry building for storage pur- 
poses at a cost of $1,000. M. T. Park succeeded Mr. Landt on 
July I, 1899, and continued in office nine years. •During his 
administration the following buildings Avere erected: Horse barn 
for driving teams, at a cost of $2,250; two playhouses or pavilions, 
costing $300 each ; new coal shed with capacity for storing 600 
tons of coal, at a cost of $4,000; shed for farm machinery, at a 
cost of $300; two additions were built on Cottage "D," increasing 
the capacity from fifteen to thirty 1)abies, at a cost of $6,000. 

C. M. Bright succeeded ^Ir. Park as superintendent on July 1, 
1908, and continued in office three years. Two niMv cottages Avere 
constructed at a cost of about $22,000; alst) other improvements 
of remodeling and new ])lumbing in the cottages, school liouse and 
kitchen, at an expense of $1,000. 

J. F. Brown, superintendent of School for the Blind at Janes- 


ville, was transferred to the State Public School, succeeding C. M. 
Bright as superintendent on August 1, 1911. LTp to the present 
time 3,711 children have been committed, the majority having 
been placed in homes on indenture contracts, where they remain 
until they become eighteen years of age. The average population 
of the institution is now (May 29, 1912) 140. 




Eighteen miles south of Sparta, on an elevation 700 feet 
above the county seat of Monroe county, overlooking one of the 
prettiest districts of farm lands in western Wisconsin, stands the 
village of Cashton. The land Avhere the village is located is on 
section thirty, township fifteen, north of range three Avest, in the 
town of Jefferson, and was formerly OAvned l)y Andrew Nelson 
and Hans Larson, the latter of whom is still living near the 

On September 28, 1879, AVilliam Byer came to the place from 
Sparta and bought the first lot sold where the ]\Iitchell building 
stands at present, on the corner of Front and Broadway 
streets, and on this lot Mr. Byer started to erect a small ])uiid- 
ing. Two or three days later Peter E. Nelson arrived on the 
scene and thus the Village of Cashton made its start. There was 
no place to board, and ]Mr. Nelson had his food sent up to him 
from Virequa for about three weeks. During the fall ot! 1870 
nine business places and two dwelling houses were built ; the 
business buildings Avere AVilliam Byer, shoeshop and boarding 
house ; H. D. Tate, merchandise ; W. H. H. Cash and AV. Surdam, 
merchandise ; Lee and Holderson, grain warehouse ; Coats & Com- 
pany and P. Sederson, grain warehouses ; Lars Peterson, black- 
smith shop ; John J. Krain, a saloon ; Newbury & AVagner, lum- 
ber office and the depot of the Chicago, Alilwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway Company. Air. Byer boarded a large number of the 
earliest citizens, as there were no married ukmi in the village 
for some time except himself, AI. Daniels, Avho was the depot 
agent, and Lars Peterson. His beds Avere made of tAvo by fours 
and boards nailed together and filled Avith straAv, and the board- 
ers Avere obliged to sleep three in a bed. 

Early in the spring of 3880 a ncAv start in 1)ui]ding Avas made 
by Utziner & Dahl. Avho built a hold and saloon : Hansen & Bates, 
hardware store; Air. Tony, a grocery store; and Dr. J. B. Grow- 
bridge. the first jihysician. arriA'ed and occupied the si^cond story 



of the Bates store as his office, and iu the spring erected a small 
building and opened a drug store. In the fall of 1880 Mr. Erank 
Dule, Sr., moved from Newry and erected the building now 
OAvned by his estate and the Odd Eellows jointly, and the same 
fall C. & J. Cremer erected a saloon on the north corner of what 
is now the Heilmann property. James Lord, who was running a 
small store at Hazen's corner, moved to the village and went 
into business there. George Hargrade also built a wagon shop 
the same year, and Louis Perkins a blacksmith shop and a 

One thing that troubled the people of Cashton very much 
during the first years of the existence of the village was the water 
supply. For a long time the only water works in the village 
were four barrels which were set in a small building near the 
depot, and Mr. P. R. Mitby was engaged to haul water from the 
railroad tank and from Jersey's spring, and the people went to 
him for their water. A little later Mr. Cash made a contract with 
someone to drill a well to furnish water for the village, and 
agreed to give a public square on the west side for a park if the 
well was completed, but it failed to materialize and so Cashton 
is still without her park, although there is now a sufficient water 

In June, 1881, the citizens met for the purpose of devising a 
way to provide sufficient water for the village, and propositions 
were made and accepted for a well which was drilled by John 
Miuroth, in the street, near Broadway, then a part of the town 
of Jefferson, permission having been given by said town to have 
the well drilled. A water association was organized and its offi- 
cers were : President, M. Daniels ; vice president, J. Dahl ; sec- 
retary, John King ; treasurer, John Konper ; trustees, J. W. Wag- 
ner, G. V. Hargrave and P. E. Nelson. On May 31, 1892, the 
water association voted to turn over its property to the village 
of Cashton, which was incorporated June, 1892. An election 
having been previously held to determine the question, which 
result was a vote of fifty-five for and ten against it. 

The village for some time after the railroad was built was 
called "Hazen's Corners," but by the persistent efforts of Mr. 
Cash, who owned and controlled a large portion of the village 
property and who built the railroad for the company, it was 
christened ''Cashton." 

On May. 23, 1892, the first election was held, there being 
sixty-two votes cast ; the following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, P. E. Nelson ; trustees, John Cremer, Martin Jackson, A. 


Roessler, Frank Delle, A. A. Du ]\[ez and L. A. Lane ; clerk, E. E. 
Gaines; treasurer, C. II. Campbell; police justice, A. Heizer; jus- 
tice of the peace, L. B. Perkins; marshal, C. ^l. Culver; con- 
stable, "William Schrier. The village in the last ten or twelve 
years has made rapid strides in improvements, putting in quite a 
little macadam streets and enjoying water works and an elec- 
tric light plant. 

A bank was organized at Cashton by "Watson Earle, John C. 
Ford, L. "W. Earle, Peter Nelson and some others, which con- 
ducted a good business as a private bank for a number of years, 
but in order to conform to the state law, it was incorporated in 
1903; it subsequently built the handsome building in which it 
has its home. The bank has been well managed under the direc- 
tion of L. M. Earle, its cashier, and enjoys the confidence of the 
community, and serves a large clientage of depositors. 

The population is today about 568, and the present officers 
of the village are : E. 0. Dosch, president ; P. J. Hegge, clerk ; 
L. M. Earle, treasurer ; J. H. "Wilgrubs, assessor ; John Cremer, 
supervisor; Emet Peterson and H. S. Evert, justices of the peace. 
On "Wednesday, October 5, 3904. the village had a grand jubilee 
celebration of a quarter of century of its existence and an elabo- 
rate program carried out which was much enjoyed by the thou- 
sands of people who came to participate. There is a high school 
and graded schools, conducted by a corps of competent teachers, 
giving fine educational facilities to the children of the village ; 
the high scliool being taken advantage of by many pupils from 
surrounding towns. 

The Congregational Church, of Cashton, is the only church 
in the village. It was organized September 22, 1892. Practically 
all the citizens subscribed liberally for the erection of a house 
of worship. The amount subscribed and $500.00 from the Con- 
gregational Church Building Society, of New York, constituted 
the "Building Fund." The building was soon completed and 
regular church work started. ^Ir. A. A. Du ]\Iez has been Sun- 
day school superintendent from the first. ^Irs. Rena (Johnson) 
Barth has been the faithful organist. 

The pastors who have served the church are the following: 
Rev. John AVillan, Rev. Henry S. Evert. Rev. Lewis B. Nobis, 
Rev. James Rowe, Rev. Christian S. Johnson, ^\r. Richard G. 
Ileddon and Rev. Henry S. Evert, the present pastor. The 
church has been thoroughly remodeled and recarpeted and 
rewired for best electric liglits. tlius making it a modern struc- 


ture. The parsonage and cliiu'ch are together valued at about 
$3,600 to $4,000. 


The history of the village of Kendall begins with the assurance 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Eailroad in 1870 and its com- 
pletion in 1872. It was the civilizer of this then wild region. 

The man from whom the place took its name was a railroad 
contractor and never was a resident. He bought a considerable 
portion of the land on which the village is built while helping 
put the railroad through. In the early fifties, however, a rail- 
road survey was made up the valley, and this, with the promise 
of a grist mill at Glendale, was the inducement held out to pros- 
pective settlers and purchasers of land by Jason AVeaver, of Ohio, 
who had preempted most of the available government land. 

For twenty years before the railroad was built the pioneers 
of Clifton and Glendale townships did their milling and mer- 
chandising at ]\Iauston, Wonew^oc, AVilton, Sparta, New Lisbon 
and Elroy. The pioneers often carried in from these places on 
their backs the bare necessaries of life, or when they could they 
used ox teams, it was not until about 1861 that horses began to 
be used. Because of the unusual advantages, for this rough 
country, presented by the location occupied by the village for 
yards, tracks and switching purposes, a larger tract other than 
the right of way was secured by the railroad company. A four- 
teen stall round house was built, and this was the center of a 
busy crew